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1.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 20(1): 172-180, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820417

RESUMO

Research has identified the neural response to errors (the error-related negativity; ERN) as a marker of current anxiety, as well as risk for future anxiety. Previous work found that traditional cognitive behavioral therapy approaches do not impact the ERN. However, none of these approaches directly target the psychological constructs linked to an increased ERN (e.g., error sensitivity). In the current study, we examine the extent to which a brief, computerized intervention ("Treating the ERN"; i.e., TERN) might impact the ERN by reducing error sensitivity. Results suggest that TERN reduced the ERN and that the impact of the intervention was larger amongst individuals with an increased baseline ERN. This study is an important first step in the development of a novel intervention approach that directly targets error sensitivity, and thereby the ERN.

2.
Psychiatry Res ; 267: 400-408, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960937

RESUMO

Low distress tolerance, the perceived or actual inability to tolerate negative emotional states, is a transdiagnostic risk marker associated with greater PTSD symptoms and poorer treatment outcomes. However, the role of distress tolerance in PTSD symptom trajectories has not yet been explored. This study examined the mediating role of distress tolerance in PTSD symptom change among outpatients participating in a trial of computerized interventions for anxiety-related and mood-related risk factors. It was hypothesized that pre- to post-intervention change in distress tolerance would predict PTSD symptoms at three- and six-month follow-up, and mediate the effect of condition on PTSD symptoms above and beyond the effects of a competing mediator, anxiety sensitivity. Although condition differences in distress tolerance change were non-significant, distress tolerance change predicted month-three PTSD symptoms and mediated the direct effect of condition on month-three PTSD symptoms. After accounting for the direct effect of condition on month-six PTSD symptoms, distress tolerance change did not predict month-six PTSD symptoms. Findings suggest distress tolerance does play a longitudinal role in PTSD symptom change, and distress tolerance interventions may benefit certain samples who may otherwise not be able to immediately access, or remain in PTSD treatments.


Assuntos
Negociação/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negociação/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
3.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 62(13): 4142-4157, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463141

RESUMO

Aggressive intrusive thoughts (AITs) are unwanted and repetitive thoughts, impulses, or desires that enter into consciousness involuntarily. The current study compared the frequency of and distress from AITs in a sample of inmates jailed for violent crimes ( n = 78) versus college students ( n = 103; that is, participant status). The relationship between psychopathic traits and AITs was also explored. Results indicated that, although there were no differences between students and inmates, AIT frequency was positively associated with Primary Psychopathy. However, there was no significant interaction between participant status (i.e., inmate vs. student) and psychopathy. Finally, there were no significant main or interactions effects in the model predicting AIT distress. These findings demonstrate that AIT frequency is a normative cognitive experience that occurs in both nonviolent and violent individuals, and provides further evidence for an association between psychopathic traits and unwanted aggressive cognition.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Prisões , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Affect Disord ; 227: 512-516, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature indicates that exposure to interpersonal trauma contributes to the onset or exacerbation of hoarding symptoms. However, little research has explored psychosocial factors that may help to explain the relationship between interpersonal trauma and hoarding symptoms. One outcome of trauma exposure that may be associated with hoarding symptoms is aggression, defined as the tendency to experience and express hostility and anger, and to engage in aggressive behavior. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between hoarding and aggression, as well as the mediating role of aggression in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal trauma and hoarding symptoms. METHODS: Community participants (n = 258) completed a battery of questionnaires assessing trauma exposure, hoarding symptoms, aggression, and negative affect. RESULTS: Results revealed that when accounting for negative affect, hoarding symptoms were associated with greater aggression, and the relationship between exposure to interpersonal trauma and hoarding symptoms was mediated by aggression. Specificity analyses indicated that depression symptoms and emotion dysregulation did not mediate the relationship between interpersonal trauma exposure and hoarding, providing further support for the importance of aggression. LIMITATIONS: Findings should be interpreted in light of limitations, including the use of cross-sectional and self-report data, and a general community sample. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest that interpersonal processes, such as aggression toward others, may be associated with increased hoarding symptoms.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/psicologia , Colecionismo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Ira , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Addict Res Theory ; 25(1): 17-23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104521

RESUMO

Insomnia symptoms are associated with smoking, and may interfere with smoking cessation. Specifically, studies have shown that smoking-related sleep problems are associated with long-term smoking relapse, and longer sleep duration is associated with successful smoking cessation. However, it is currently unclear whether pre- or post-quit insomnia symptoms are associated with smoking cessation outcomes. As such, the current study aimed to extend previous findings by using a measure of insomnia symptoms as a predictor of smoking cessation failure by month 3 following smoking cessation treatment. Additionally, we examined whether post-quit insomnia symptoms predicted cessation outcomes. Results indicated that pre-, but not post-quit insomnia, predicted smoking cessation failure by 3 months post-cessation, after covarying for depressive symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, alcohol use disorder severity, treatment condition, and number of cigarettes per day. These findings add to the literature on insomnia symptoms as a risk factor for difficulties with smoking cessation, and suggest it may be a worthy clinical target for smoking populations who are interested in quitting smoking.

6.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 20(2): 201-225, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28181040

RESUMO

Pediatric anxiety disorders are common, disabling, and chronic conditions. Efforts over the past two decades have focused on developing and testing effective treatments. Short-term efficacy of both Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been established. Data are emerging on the long-term (i.e., 2 years or longer) effectiveness of these treatments, but this literature has yet to be adequately synthesized. This study presents a systematic and critical qualitative review of published long-term follow-up (LTFU) studies of youth treated for an anxiety disorder. A comprehensive search of several databases identified 21 published reports (representing 15 LTFU cohorts of treated youth) meeting specified inclusion criteria. LTFU assessments occurred a mean of 5.85 years after initial treatment (range 2-19 years). Diagnostic rates at LTFU and predictors (e.g., demographic, baseline child clinical variables, treatment type) of outcomes at LTFU were also examined. A discussion of the limitations of this literature is provided to qualify interpretations of findings and to inform future studies. Findings can aid clinicians and families in making treatment decisions and setting reasonable expectations for the long-term prognosis after treatment for anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Seguimentos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos
7.
J Affect Disord ; 212: 48-55, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28142083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or a fear of anxiety-related sensations, has become one of the most well researched risk factors for the development of psychopathology and comprises three subfactors: physical, cognitive, and social concerns. Fortunately, research has demonstrated brief protocols can successfully reduce AS, and in turn improve psychopathological symptoms. Computerized AS reduction protocols have combined psychoeducation with interoceptive exposure (IE), but they have not been dismantled to evaluate the effects of psychoeducation alone. METHOD: The current study sought to determine the efficacy of a brief single-session psychoeducation intervention for AS, compared to a control intervention, in a sample of at-risk individuals (N=54) with elevated AS cognitive concerns. RESULTS: Individuals in the active condition displayed greater reductions in self-reported AS (ß=.198, 95% CI [.065, .331]) and less fear reactivity (ß=.278, 95% CI [.069, .487]) to the induction of AS cognitive-relevant sensations through a behavioral challenge compared to those in the control condition. Further, fear reactivity to the challenge was mediated by reductions in self-reported AS cognitive concerns. LIMITATIONS: Study limitations include use of an at-risk nonclinical student sample, lack of a long-term follow-up assessment, and inability to discern whether AS reductions due to CAST psychoeducation prevent future, or improve current, psychological symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that psychoeducation alone can produce significant AS reduction.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Instrução por Computador , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
8.
Compr Psychiatry ; 72: 34-40, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27710835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in the literature. However, no research to date has investigated the relationship between IU and PTSS within a clinical trauma-exposed sample, which is an important next step in the literature and crucial for the generalizability of these findings. Therefore, the current study hypothesized that IU would be related to increased PTSS within a clinical sample of trauma-exposed individuals. Further, we hypothesized that IU would be related to elevated PTSS after accounting for anxiety sensitivity (AS) and negative affect (NA), two known correlates of PTSS. Finally, we examined the relations between IU and the PTSS clusters (i.e., avoidance, emotional numbing, hyperarousal, and re-experiencing) while covarying for AS and NA. METHODS: Participants included community adults (n=126) presenting at an outpatient clinic. All participants had previously experienced a traumatic event as defined by the DSM-5 PTSD Criterion A. METHODS: Results revealed that IU was significantly associated with increased PTSS above and beyond AS and NA. Further, results indicated that IU was significantly related to the avoidance, hyperarousal, and emotional numbing PTSS clusters, even after covarying for AS and NA. IU was not significantly associated with the PTSS re-experiencing cluster once AS and NA were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: Our results expand upon the extant literature by demonstrating that IU is associated with PTSS above and beyond AS and NA within a clinical trauma-exposed sample. These findings are discussed in terms of promising directions for future research and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Behav Res Ther ; 63: 9-16, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25237830

RESUMO

Individuals with Hoarding Disorder (HD)-a dangerous problem and public health concern-are often ambivalent about treatment. Furthermore, family members of those with HD report high levels of distress and often attempt to intervene unsuccessfully. The current study reports outcome data from a pilot study of a new training package-designed exclusively for empowering family members to address a loved one's treatment ambivalence-called Family-As-Motivators (FAM) training. Nine family members of a loved one with HD initiated 14 sessions of FAM Training and were measured at pre-, mid-, and post-training on a comprehensive outcome battery. Results over the course of training suggested that family members improved in the use of certain coping strategies and in the application of motivational interviewing techniques. They also exhibited increased hopefulness, reported a reduced negative impact of HD on the family, rated a reduction in family accommodation of HD behaviors, and displayed boosts in HD and motivational interviewing knowledge. According to participants who completed the program, FAM Training was rated as highly acceptable. Although only preliminary, the current pilot study suggests that FAM Training is palatable for participants and shows promise for improving the lives of family members of those with HD.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/terapia , Entrevista Motivacional , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Transtorno de Acumulação/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
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