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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 578-586, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An evolving strategy in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involves withdrawal of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), or aspirin, while maintaining P2Y12 inhibition. However, the pharmacodynamic effects of this approach on blood thrombogenicity and platelet reactivity remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the antithrombotic potency of ticagrelor alone versus ticagrelor plus ASA among high-risk patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. METHODS: This was a mechanistic substudy within the TWILIGHT (Ticagrelor With Aspirin or Alone in High-Risk Patients After Coronary Intervention) trial, which randomized patients undergoing PCI to ticagrelor plus placebo versus ticagrelor plus ASA following 3 months of dual antiplatelet therapy. Substudy participants were enrolled after randomization, at which time ex vivo assays to quantify thrombus size under dynamic flow conditions and platelet reactivity were performed. Pharmacodynamic assessments were repeated 1 to 6 months thereafter. The primary endpoint was thrombus size at the post-randomization visit with platelet reactivity following stimuli to arachidonic acid, collagen, adenosine diphosphate, and thrombin as secondary endpoints. Results were analyzed using analysis of covariance. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were enrolled, among whom 42 underwent perfusion assays at baseline and follow-up with a median time between studies of 1.5 months. The adjusted mean difference in post-randomization thrombus area was similar between groups: -218.2 µm2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -575.9 to 139.9 µm2; p = 0.22). Markers sensitive to cyclo-oxygenase-1 blockade, including platelet reactivity in response to arachidonic acid (mean difference: 10.9 U; 95% CI: 1.9 to 19.9 U) and collagen (mean difference: 9.8 U; 95% CI: 0.8 to 18.8 U) stimuli were higher among patients receiving placebo, whereas levels of platelet reactivity were similar with adenosine diphosphate and thrombin. CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk patients receiving drug-eluting stents, the antithrombotic potency of ticagrelor monotherapy is similar to that of ticagrelor plus ASA with respect to ex vivo blood thrombogenicity, whereas markers sensitive to cyclo-oxygenase-1 blockade are increased in the absence of ASA. (Platelet Substudy of the TWILIGHT Trial; NCT04001374).

2.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(5): 661-669, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898965

RESUMO

An elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with an increased risk of ischemic events among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, but the association between WBC count and bleeding in ACS patients is not well established. The aim of this analysis was to assess and compare the association between WBC count and the occurrence of short- and long-term bleeding and ischemic events. This was a post hoc analysis of the ATLAS ACS2-TIMI 51 trial. A subset of patients had a WBC count measurement at baseline (n = 14,231, 91.6%). Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to determine if there is an association between WBC count at baseline and a composite outcome of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeds at 30 days and 1 year. Variables with a p <0.2 in the univariate analysis were included as potential parameters in the backward selection process A similar multivariable model was constructed to assess the association between WBC count and a composite ischemic endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. An increased risk of bleeding per a 1 × 109/L increase in WBC at baseline was observed at 30 days (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.08 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.17, p = 0.019) but not at 1 year (Adjusted HR 1.02 95% CI 0.97 to 1.08, p = 0.409). Additionally, an increased risk of ischemia per a 1 × 109/L increase in WBC at baseline was observed at 30 days (Adjusted HR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.12, p = 0.002) and at 1 year (Adjusted HR 1.05 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08, p = 0.001 at 1 year). In conclusion, a higher WBC count at baseline was associated with an increased risk of the composite bleeding endpoint by 30 days but not at 1 year. The association between WBC count and the risk of the composite ischemic endpoint was significant at 30 days and 1 year.

3.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 49(1): 1-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535314

RESUMO

Traditional statistical models allow population based inferences and comparisons. Machine learning (ML) explores datasets to develop algorithms that do not assume linear relationships between variables and outcomes and that may account for higher order interactions to make individualized outcome predictions. To evaluate the performance of machine learning models compared to traditional risk stratification methods for the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that are treated with antithrombotic therapy. Data on 24,178 ACS patients were pooled from four randomized controlled trials. The super learner ensemble algorithm selected weights for 23 machine learning models and was compared to traditional models. The efficacy endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The safety endpoint was a composite of TIMI major and minor bleeding or bleeding requiring medical attention. For the MACE outcome, the super learner model produced a higher c-statistic (0.734) than logistic regression (0.714), the TIMI risk score (0.489), and a new cardiovascular risk score developed in the dataset (0.644). For the bleeding outcome, the super learner demonstrated a similar c-statistic as the logistic regression model (0.670 vs. 0.671). The machine learning risk estimates were highly calibrated with observed efficacy and bleeding outcomes (Hosmer-Lemeshow p value = 0.692 and 0.970, respectively). The super learner algorithm was highly calibrated on both efficacy and safety outcomes and produced the highest c-statistic for prediction of MACE compared to traditional risk stratification methods. This analysis demonstrates a contemporary application of machine learning to guide patient-level antithrombotic therapy treatment decisions.Clinical Trial Registration ATLAS ACS-2 TIMI 46: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00402597. Unique Identifier: NCT00402597. ATLAS ACS-2 TIMI 51: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00809965. Unique Identifier: NCT00809965. GEMINI ACS-1: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02293395. Unique Identifier: NCT02293395. PIONEER-AF PCI: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01830543. Unique Identifier: NCT01830543.

4.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 49(2): 214-219, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493287

RESUMO

Acutely ill medical patients with cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in the presence of cancer, but its safety is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of extended prophylaxis with betrixaban in cancer patients enrolled in the APEX trial. APEX was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing oral betrixaban 80 mg qd administered for 35-42 days with subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg qd administered for 10 ± 4 days. Patients with acute medical illness and a history of cancer or active cancer were eligible for inclusion. Primary efficacy outcome was VTE (composite of symptomatic VTE and asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis); primary safety outcome was major bleeding. Of 7513 patients enrolled in the APEX trial, 959 patients (12.8%), 499 randomized to betrixaban and 460 to enoxaparin, had cancer. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 5.7% of cancer patients treated with betrixaban and in 6.2% treated with enoxaparin (p = 0.95). No significant interaction according to the presence or absence of cancer was observed (p = 0.36). Major bleeding events occurred in 0.8% of patients in the betrixaban group and in 0% in the enoxaparin group (p = 0.13), with no significant interaction (p = 0.07). The composite of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeds was similar between the two groups (2.9% and 2.0%, respectively, RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.63-3.27). Betrixaban was similarly effective in the reduction of VTE among subjects with and without cancer. The incidence of major bleeding was similarly low.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(4): 485-490, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870492

RESUMO

Following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, microvascular perfusion is often impaired secondary to thrombotic embolization. Intracoronary (IC) fibrinolytic administration may reduce thrombotic burden and distal embolization. The ICE-T-TIMI-49 study evaluated the feasibility and safety of low-dose IC tenecteplase (TNK) during PPCI. The study randomized 40 PPCI patients to a volume matched bolus of IC TNK (4 mg) (n = 20) or IC saline placebo (n = 20) before and following PPCI. The primary end point was percent diameter stenosis of the culprit lesion following first bolus. The primary end point did not differ between IC placebo (median 100%, interquartile range [IQR] 83.0,100.0) and IC TNK (median 100% stenosis, IQR 91.0,100.0; p = 0.522). However, the proportion of patients with reduction in thrombus following first bolus tended to be greater with IC TNK (placebo: 12.5% vs IC TNK: 40.0%, p = 0.133). Following PPCI, the corrected Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (cTFC) was lower (faster) with placebo (16.0 frames [IQR 12.0,24.0] vs 24.0 frames [22.0,32.0], p = 0.045) due to a trend towards greater frequency of hyperemia (cTFC <14), a marker of distal embolization (50.0% vs 8.3%, p = 0.056). There was no difference in TIMI major bleeds and no intracranial hemorrhage. In conclusion, treatment with low-dose IC TNK appears safe and well tolerated during PPCI. Although IC TNK administration did not improve percent stenosis, a trend towards reduced thrombus burden was demonstrated with less hyperemia (a marker of distal embolization). Our findings provide support for a large randomized study.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(24): 3013-3022, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains disputed whether women are at excess risk of adverse outcomes versus men after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) or whether differences are explained by discordant risk factors. OBJECTIVES: A sex-specific analysis of cardiovascular outcomes after NSTEACS across trials conducted by the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group was performed to determine the impact of sex on cardiovascular outcomes in this dataset. METHODS: Ten TIMI trials were identified that enrolled >2,500 patients with NSTEACS within 30 days of hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of sex with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) after adjusting for relevant risk factors in individual trials; point estimates were then combined by using random effects models. Individual components of the composite outcome and all-cause mortality were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among 68,730 patients with NSTEACS, 19,827 (29%) were women. Women were older and more frequently had hypertension, diabetes, prior heart failure, and renal impairment than men. Before considering relevant confounders, women were at similar risk of MACE compared with men (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99 to 1.09; p = 0.16) but at higher risk of all-cause death (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.24; p = 0.03). After adjustment for baseline differences, risks of MACE (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.98; p < 0.01) and all-cause death (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.90; p < 0.0001) were lower among women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, women enrolled in clinical trials were at lower risk of MACE than men after NSTEACS. Women, however, remain undertreated with many evidence-based therapies.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(11): e008160, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among stented patients with atrial fibrillation, double therapy with a novel oral anticoagulant plus single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) reduces bleeding or cardiovascular rehospitalizations compared with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) based triple therapy regimen. A recent study demonstrated that apixaban based double therapy reduced bleeding compared with VKA based double therapy. However, it remains unknown whether rivaroxaban based double therapy is superior to a VKA based double therapy. METHODS: Patient with stented atrial fibrillation (n=2124) were randomized to 3 groups: rivaroxaban 15 mg od plus a P2Y12 inhibitor (Group 1, n=709); rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT; Group 2, n=709); and warfarin plus DAPT (Group 3, n=706). Before randomization, subjects were stratified according to a prespecified duration of DAPT (1, 6, or 12 months). After the prespecified DAPT duration, subjects in Group 2 were switched to rivaroxaban 15 mg plus low dose aspirin, and those in Group 3 were switched to VKA plus low dose aspirin. The Wei, Lin, and Weissfeld time to multiple events method was used to compare the occurrence of all bleeding and cardiovascular rehospitalizations among subjects on a novel oral anticoagulant versus VKA based double therapy. RESULTS: A total of 906 subjects were prespecified to a 1 or 6 months DAPT duration and received at least one dose of study drug. Twenty subjects (3.3%) assigned to novel oral anticoagulant+SAPT, and 15 (5.1%) subjects assigned to VKA+SAPT experienced multiple rehospitalizations. In total, 124 (20.3%) events occurred among subjects on novel oral anticoagulant+SAPT compared with 87 (29.6%) among subjects on VKA+SAPT (hazard ratio=0.65 [95% CI, 0.45-0.93], P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Among stented patients with atrial fibrillation, rivaroxaban plus SAPT was superior to warfarin plus SAPT in lowering total bleeding and cardiovascular rehospitalization. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01830543.

8.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707829

RESUMO

Background: Some trials have found patients from the United States of America (USA) derive less benefit than patients enrolled outside the USA. This prespecified subgroup analysis of Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl - Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) was conducted to determine the degree of benefit of icosapent ethyl in the USA. Methods: REDUCE-IT randomized 8,179 statin-treated patients with qualifying triglycerides ≥135 and <500 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol >40 and ≤100 mg/dL and a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes to icosapent ethyl 4 grams/day or placebo. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina. The key secondary endpoint was cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. A prespecified hierarchy examined individual and composite endpoints. Results: A total of 3,146 USA patients (38.5% of the trial) were randomized and followed for a median of 4.9 years; 32.3% were women, 9.7% Hispanic. The primary endpoint occurred in 24.7% of placebo versus 18.2% of icosapent ethyl patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.80, p=0.000001]; the key secondary endpoint occurred in 16.6% versus 12.1% (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.83, p=0.00008). All prespecified hierarchy endpoints were meaningfully and significantly reduced, including cardiovascular death (6.7% to 4.7%, HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49-0.90, p=0.007), myocardial infarction (8.8% to 6.7%, HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, p=0.01), stroke (4.1% to 2.6%, HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93, p=0.02), and all-cause mortality (9.8% to 7.2%, HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.90, p=0.004); for all-cause mortality for the USA versus non-USA patients, pinteraction=0.02. Safety and tolerability findings were consistent with the full study cohort. Conclusions: While the non-USA subgroup showed significant reductions in the primary and key secondary endpoints, the USA subgroup demonstrated particularly robust risk reductions across a variety of composite and individual endpoints, including all-cause mortality. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01492361.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the optimal antithrombotic therapies for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not been powered to evaluate ischemic outcomes. We compared double therapy with oral anticoagulation (OAC) and a P2Y12 inhibitor to triple therapy with an OAC + dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with AF requiring PCI. METHODS: Using PRISMA guidelines, we searched for RCTs including patients with AF as an indication for OAC and undergoing PCI or medical management of acute coronary syndrome. The results were pooled using fixed-effects and random-effects models to estimate the overall effect of double therapy versus triple therapy on ischemic and bleeding outcomes. RESULTS: We identified four RCTs, comprising 10,238 patients (5,498 double therapy, 4,740 triple therapy). Trial-reported major adverse cardiovascular events were similar between double therapy and triple therapy (fixed effect model OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.94-1.26). However, stent thrombosis (61/5,496 double therapy vs. 33/4738 triple therapy; fixed effect model OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.02-2.40; number needed to treat with triple therapy = 242) favored triple therapy. Bleeding outcomes were less frequent with double therapy (746/5470 vs. 950/4710; fixed effect model OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.53-0.65; number needed to harm with triple therapy = 16), but with significant heterogeneity (Q = 8.33, p = .04; I2 = 64%), as were intracranial hemorrhages (19/5470 vs. 30/4710; fixed effect model OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Double therapy in patients with AF requiring OAC following PCI or Acute coronary syndrome has a significantly better safety profile than triple therapy but may be associated with a modest increased risk of stent thrombosis.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(16): 2047-2055, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased pre-hospital delay during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events contributes to worse outcome. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an implanted cardiac monitor with real-time alarms for abnormal ST-segment shifts to reduce pre-hospital delay during ACS events. METHODS: In the ALERTS (AngeLmed Early Recognition and Treatment of STEMI) pivotal study, subjects at high risk for recurrent ACS events (n = 907) were randomized to control (Alarms OFF) or treatment groups for 6 months, after which alarms were activated in all subjects (Alarms ON). Emergency department (ED) visits with standard-of-care cardiac test results were independently adjudicated as true- or false-positive ACS events. Alarm-to-door (A2D) and symptom-to-door (S2D) times were calculated for true-positive ACS ED visits triggered by 3 possible prompts: alarm only, alarms + symptoms, or symptoms only. RESULTS: The Alarms ON group showed reduced delays, with 55% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46% to 63%) of ED visits for ACS events <2 h compared with 10% (95% CI: 2% to 27%) in the Alarms OFF group (p < 0.0001). Results were similar when restricted to myocardial infarction (MI) events. Median pre-hospital delay for MI was 12.7 h for Alarms OFF and 1.6 h in Alarms ON subjects (p < 0.0089). Median A2D delay was 1.4 h for asymptomatic MI. Median S2D delay for symptoms-only MI (no alarm) in Alarms ON was 4.3 h. CONCLUSIONS: Intracardiac monitoring with real-time alarms for ST-segment shift that exceeds a subject's self-normative ischemia threshold level significantly reduced the proportion of pre-hospital delays >2 h for ACS events, including asymptomatic MI, compared with symptoms-only ED visits in Alarms OFF. (AngeLmed for Early Recognition and Treatment of STEMI [ALERTS]; NCT00781118).

12.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 2032-2042, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monotherapy with a P2Y12 inhibitor after a minimum period of dual antiplatelet therapy is an emerging approach to reduce the risk of bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: In a double-blind trial, we examined the effect of ticagrelor alone as compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin with regard to clinically relevant bleeding among patients who were at high risk for bleeding or an ischemic event and had undergone PCI. After 3 months of treatment with ticagrelor plus aspirin, patients who had not had a major bleeding event or ischemic event continued to take ticagrelor and were randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo for 1 year. The primary end point was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. We also evaluated the composite end point of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, using a noninferiority hypothesis with an absolute margin of 1.6 percentage points. RESULTS: We enrolled 9006 patients, and 7119 underwent randomization after 3 months. Between randomization and 1 year, the incidence of the primary end point was 4.0% among patients randomly assigned to receive ticagrelor plus placebo and 7.1% among patients assigned to receive ticagrelor plus aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.68; P<0.001). The difference in risk between the groups was similar for BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding (incidence, 1.0% among patients receiving ticagrelor plus placebo and 2.0% among patients receiving ticagrelor plus aspirin; hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.74). The incidence of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke was 3.9% in both groups (difference, -0.06 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.97 to 0.84; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.25; P<0.001 for noninferiority). CONCLUSIONS: Among high-risk patients who underwent PCI and completed 3 months of dual antiplatelet therapy, ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with a lower incidence of clinically relevant bleeding than ticagrelor plus aspirin, with no higher risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. (Funded by AstraZeneca; TWILIGHT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02270242.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited research has detailed the outcomes of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with independent core laboratory and event adjudication. This study examined procedural, clinical, and patient-reported health status outcomes among patients undergoing CTO PCI with specific focus on outcomes for those treated with zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES). METHODS: Among 500 consecutive patients undergoing attempted CTO PCI, procedural and in-hospital clinical outcomes were examined in addition to the 1-year composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization (major adverse cardiac events, MACE). In a pre-specified cohort of 250 patients, health status measures were ascertained at baseline and 1 year. A powered secondary endpoint was 1-year MACE among patients treated with ZES compared with a performance goal. RESULTS: Demographic, lesion, and procedural characteristics for the overall population included prior bypass surgery, 29.8%; diabetes, 35.2%; occlusion length >20 mm, 71.3%; J-CTO score, 2.5 ± 1.1; and primary retrograde strategy, 30.8%. Overall guidewire crossing was 90.9%; clinical success following guidewire crossing, 94.3%; and 1-year MACE rate, 12.1%. One-year health status significantly improved from baseline with successful CTO-PCI (angina frequency, 72.7 ± 26.5 at baseline to 96.0 ± 10.8, p < .0001). Compared with a performance goal derived from prior CTO DES trials (1-year hierarchal MACE, 25.2%), treatment with ZES was associated with significantly lower MACE (18.2%, one-sided upper CI, 23.6%, p = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Favorable procedural success, health status improvements and late-term clinical outcomes inform the relative risks and benefits of CTO PCI when performed in a clinically indicated, complex patient population representative of those treated in clinical practice.

14.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455868

RESUMO

Myocardial ischaemia resulting from obstructive coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the gold-standard treatment in many patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease or left main disease. Despite substantial improvements in the outcome of patients undergoing CABG surgery in the past decade, graft patency remains the 'Achilles' heel' of this procedure. Whereas the use of the left internal mammary artery as a conduit is associated with the highest 10-year patency rate (>90%), saphenous vein grafts - the most commonly used conduit in CABG surgery - fail in 40-50% of treated patients by 10 years after surgery. Vein graft disease (VGD) and failure result from complex pathophysiological processes that can lead to complete occlusion of the graft, affecting long-term clinical outcomes. Optimal harvesting techniques, intraoperative preservation strategies and intraoperative patency control have important roles in the prevention of VGD. In addition, several studies published in the past decade have reported similar mid-term patency rates between vein grafts and arterial grafts when veins are used as a composite graft based on the internal mammary artery. In this Review, we present the latest evidence on the utilization of saphenous vein grafts for CABG surgery and provide an overview of the current practices for the prevention of VGD and vein graft failure.

15.
Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 1704-1711, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on geographical variations in dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) cessation and the impact on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are limited. We sought to evaluate geographical patterns of DAPT cessation and associated outcomes in patients undergoing PCI in the United States versus Europe. METHODS: Analyzing data from the PARIS registry, we studied 3,660 U.S. patients (72.9%) and 1,358 European patients (27.1%) that underwent PCI with stent implantation. DAPT cessation was classified as physician-recommended discontinuation, interruption (< 14 days), or disruption due to bleeding or noncompliance. The primary endpoint was 2-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as a composite of cardiac death, stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization. RESULTS: Cardiovascular risk factors were more common in the United States, whereas procedural complexity was greater in Europe. The incidence of 2-year DAPT discontinuation was significantly lower in U.S. versus European patients (30.7% vs. 65.6%; p < 0.001); however, rates of interruption (13.7% vs. 1.5%, p < 0.001) and disruption (17.7% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001) were higher. DAPT discontinuation was associated with lower adjusted risk, whereas DAPT disruption was associated with greater risk for 2-year MACE, without interaction by region. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and DAPT cessation, 2-year MACE risk was not statistically different between regions (10.3% for Europe vs. 11.9% for U.S., adjusted hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.01, p = 0.065). CONCLUSION: DAPT cessation patterns, along with clinical and angiographic risk, vary substantially between PCI patients in the U.S. versus Europe. Despite such differences, cardiovascular risk associated with DAPT cessation remains uniform.

16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(12): 2089-2098, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended-duration thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) without increasing major bleeding rates in acutely ill medical patients as compared to standard duration enoxaparin. We aimed to assess the risk-benefit of betrixaban in patients aged ≥ 80 years enrolled in the APEX trial. METHODS: APEX was a randomized, double-blind trial in which patients hospitalized for acute medical illnesses received enoxaparin 40 mg qd for 10 ± 4 days or oral betrixaban 80 mg qd for 35 to 42 days. The primary efficacy outcome was VTE, the principal safety outcome was major bleeding. Net clinical benefit (NCB) was defined by the occurrence of VTE or major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 7513 patients enrolled in the APEX trial, 2781 (37%) were aged ≥ 80 years. In this subgroup, VTE or major bleeding occurred in 7.0% of betrixaban patients and in 8.4% of enoxaparin patients, for a relative risk in the NCB of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.10). The relative risk reduction obtained with betrixaban was similar between those aged ≥ 80 years and patients younger than 80 years (5.0% and 6.7%, respectively, NCB 0.75, 0.58-0.96, P = .024), with no significant interaction across age groups (P = .33). CONCLUSIONS: Event rates were higher in medically ill patients aged ≥ 80 years enrolled in the APEX study than in patients younger than 80 years. The predefined NCB was reduced with extended betrixaban therapy in both groups with no signs of age-related interactions. However, the primary efficacy endpoint was not achieved with betrixaban for patients 80 years of age or older.

17.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(7): e007342, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, cangrelor reduced the primary composite end point of death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis at 48 hours. This study aimed to explore the impact of event adjudication and the prognostic importance of MI reported by a clinical events committee (CEC) or site investigators (SIs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial of patients undergoing elective or nonelective percutaneous coronary intervention were analyzed. A CEC systematically identified and adjudicated MI using predefined criteria, a computer algorithm to identify suspected events, and semilogarithmic plots to review biomarker changes. Thirty-day death was modeled using baseline characteristics. Of 10 942 patients, 462 (4.2%) patients had at least 1 MI by 48 hours identified by the CEC (207 [3.8%] cangrelor; 255 [4.7%] clopidogrel; odds ratio [OR] 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97; P=0.022), and 143 patients had at least 1 MI by 48 hours reported by the SI (60 [1.1%] cangrelor; 83 [1.5%] clopidogrel; OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-1.01; P=0.053). Of the 462 MIs identified by the CEC, 92 (20%) were reported by SI, and 370 (80%) were not. Of the 143 MI reported by the SI, 51 (36%) were not confirmed by CEC. All categories were associated with an increased adjusted risk for 30-day death (CEC: OR, 5.35; 95% CI, 2.56-11.2; P<0.001; SI: 9.08 [4.01-20.5]; P<0.001; CEC and SI: 10.9 [3.23-36.6]; P<0.001; CEC but not SI: 4.69 [1.94-11.3]; P<0.001; SI but not CEC: 15.4 [5.26-44.9]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, CEC procedures identified 3 times as many MIs as the SI reported. Compared with clopidogrel, cangrelor significantly reduced MIs identified by the CEC with a qualitatively similar relative risk reduction in MIs reported by the SI. MIs identified by CEC or reported by SI were independently associated with worse 30-day death. Central adjudication identified additional, prognostically important events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01156571.

18.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 39, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171787

RESUMO

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the most acute manifestation of coronary artery disease and is associated with great morbidity and mortality. A complete thrombotic occlusion developing from an atherosclerotic plaque in an epicardial coronary vessel is the cause of STEMI in the majority of cases. Early diagnosis and immediate reperfusion are the most effective ways to limit myocardial ischaemia and infarct size and thereby reduce the risk of post-STEMI complications and heart failure. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with STEMI; if PCI cannot be performed within 120 minutes of STEMI diagnosis, fibrinolysis therapy should be administered to dissolve the occluding thrombus. The initiation of networks to provide around-the-clock cardiac catheterization availability and the generation of standard operating procedures within hospital systems have helped to reduce the time to reperfusion therapy. Together with new advances in antithrombotic therapy and preventive measures, these developments have resulted in a decrease in mortality from STEMI. However, a substantial amount of patients still experience recurrent cardiovascular events after STEMI. New insights have been gained regarding the pathophysiology of STEMI and feed into the development of new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215979

RESUMO

Importance: The antithrombotic treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease, in particular with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), poses a significant treatment dilemma in clinical practice. Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of different antithrombotic regimens using a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in this population. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials comparing antithrombotic regimens. Study Selection: Four randomized studies were included (n = 10 026; WOEST, PIONEER AF-PCI, RE-DUAL PCI, and AUGUSTUS). Data Extraction and Synthesis: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used in this systematic review and network meta-analysis between 4 regimens using a Bayesian random-effects model. A pre hoc statistical analysis plan was written, and the review protocol was registered at PROSPERO. Data were analyzed between November 2018 and February 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding; secondary safety outcomes were combined TIMI major and minor bleeding, trial-defined primary bleeding events, intracranial hemorrhage, and hospitalization. The primary efficacy outcome was trial-defined major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE); secondary efficacy outcomes were individual components of MACE. Results: The overall prevalence of ACS varied from 28% to 61%. The mean age ranged from 70 to 72 years; 20% to 29% of the trial population were women; and most patients were at high risk for thromboembolic and bleeding events. Compared with a regimen of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) plus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT; P2Y12 inhibitor plus aspirin), the odds ratios (ORs) for TIMI major bleeding were 0.58 (95% CI, 0.31-1.08) for VKA plus P2Y12 inhibitor, 0.49 (95% CI, 0.30-0.82) for non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC) plus P2Y12 inhibitor, and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.38-1.23) for NOAC plus DAPT. Compared with VKA plus DAPT, the ORs for MACE were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.60-1.46) for VKA plus P2Y12 inhibitor, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.71-1.47) for NOAC plus P2Y12 inhibitor, and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.60-1.45) for NOAC plus DAPT. Conclusions and Relevance: A regimen of NOACs plus P2Y12 inhibitor was associated with less bleeding compared with VKAs plus DAPT. Strategies omitting aspirin caused less bleeding, including intracranial bleeding, without significant difference in MACE, compared with strategies including aspirin. Our results support the use of NOAC plus P2Y12 inhibitor as the preferred regimen post-percutaneous coronary intervention for these high-risk patients with AF. A regimen of VKA plus DAPT should generally be avoided.

20.
TH Open ; 3(2): e103-e108, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249989

RESUMO

Background Among medically ill patients treated with thromboprophylaxis, betrixaban was not associated with an increase in major bleeding compared with enoxaparin, but an increase in clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding was observed. The aim of this analysis is to describe the severity and clinical consequences of major and CRNM bleeding in the APEX trial. Methods The APEX trial randomized 7,513 hospitalized acutely ill medical patients to receive either enoxaparin for 6 to 14 days or betrixaban for 35 to 42 days. Subjects receiving a concomitant strong p-glycoprotein inhibitor or with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min were administered a reduced dose of study drug. Results A total of 25 (0.7%) and 21 (0.6%) major bleeds occurred in the betrixaban and enoxaparin arms, respectively ( p = NS) and a total of 91 (2.5%) and 38 (1.0%) CRNM bleeds occurred in the betrixaban and enoxaparin arm ( p < 0.001), respectively. Most major bleeds were considered moderate or severe and most CRNM bleeds were considered mild and moderate ( p = NS). One fatal major bleed occurred in each treatment arm. Rates of major or CRNM bleeds resulting in new or prolonged hospitalization (major: 44.0 vs. 28.6%; CRNM: 12.1 vs. 21.1%) or study treatment interruption or cessation (major: 72.0 vs. 71.4%; CRNM: 71.3 vs. 68.4%) were similar between treatment arms ( p = NS). Conclusions In the APEX trial, CRNM bleeds were mild or moderate in nature and had less of a clinical impact than major bleeds. The severity and clinical sequela of bleeds in the betrixaban arm were comparable to those in the enoxaparin arm. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov .; Unique identifier: NCT01583218.

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