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1.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135051

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) harbor genetic variants modulating gene transcription. Fine mapping of regulatory variants at these loci is a daunting task due to the juxtaposition of causal and linked variants at a locus as well as the likelihood of interactions among multiple variants. This problem is exacerbated in genes with multiple cis-acting eQTL, where superimposed effects of adjacent loci further distort the association signals. RESULTS: We developed a novel algorithm, TreeMap, that identifies putative causal variants in cis-eQTL accounting for multisite effects and genetic linkage at a locus. Guided by the hierarchical structure of linkage disequilibrium, TreeMap performs an organized search for individual and multiple causal variants. Via extensive simulations, we show that TreeMap detects co-regulating variants more accurately than current methods. Furthermore, its high computational efficiency enables genome-wide analysis of long-range eQTL. We applied TreeMap to GTEx data of brain hippocampus samples and transverse colon samples to search for eQTL in gene bodies and in 4 Mbps gene-flanking regions, discovering numerous distal eQTL. Furthermore, we found concordant distal eQTL that were present in both brain and colon samples, implying long-range regulation of gene expression. AVAILABILITY: TreeMap is available as an R package enabled for parallel processing at https://github.com/liliulab/treemap. CONTACT: liliu@asu.edu, s.kumar@temple.edu, greg.gibson@biology.gatech.edu. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

2.
Annu Rev Genet ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867542

RESUMO

Canalization refers to the evolution of populations such that the number of individuals who deviate from the optimum trait, or experience disease, is minimized. In the presence of rapid cultural, environmental, or genetic change, the reverse process of decanalization may contribute to observed increases in disease prevalence. This review starts by defining relevant concepts, drawing distinctions between the canalization of populations and robustness of individuals. It then considers evidence pertaining to three continuous traits and six domains of disease. In each case, existing genetic evidence for genotype-by-environment interactions is insufficient to support a strong inference of decanalization, but we argue that the advent of genome-wide polygenic risk assessment now makes an empirical evaluation of the role of canalization in preventing disease possible. Finally, the contributions of both rare and common variants to congenital abnormality and adult onset disease are considered in light of a new kerplunk model of genetic effects. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genetics, Volume 54 is November 23, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15263, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943704

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc (IVD) disease (IDD) is a complex, multifactorial disease. While various aspects of IDD progression have been reported, the underlying molecular pathways and transcriptional networks that govern the maintenance of healthy nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) have not been fully elucidated. We defined the transcriptome map of healthy human IVD by performing single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) in primary AF and NP cells isolated from non-degenerated lumbar disc. Our systematic and comprehensive analyses revealed distinct genetic architecture of human NP and AF compartments and identified 2,196 differentially expressed genes. Gene enrichment analysis showed that SFRP1, BIRC5, CYTL1, ESM1 and CCNB2 genes were highly expressed in the AF cells; whereas, COL2A1, DSC3, COL9A3, COL11A1, and ANGPTL7 were mostly expressed in the NP cells. Further, functional annotation clustering analysis revealed the enrichment of receptor signaling pathways genes in AF cells, while NP cells showed high expression of genes related to the protein synthesis machinery. Subsequent interaction network analysis revealed a structured network of extracellular matrix genes in NP compartments. Our regulatory network analysis identified FOXM1 and KDM4E as signature transcription factor of AF and NP respectively, which might be involved in the regulation of core genes of AF and NP transcriptome.

4.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ileal strictures are the major indication for resective surgery in Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to define ileal gene programs present at diagnosis linked with future stricturing behavior during five year follow-up, and to identify potential small molecules to reverse these gene signatures. METHODS: Antimicrobial serologies and pre-treatment ileal gene expression were assessed in a representative subset of 249 CD patients within the RISK multicenter pediatric CD inception cohort study, including 113 that are unique to this report. These data were used to define genes associated with stricturing behavior and for model testing to predict stricturing behavior. A bioinformatics approach to define small molecules which may reverse the stricturing gene signature was applied. RESULTS: 19 of the 249 patients developed isolated B2 stricturing behavior during follow-up, while 218 remained B1 inflammatory. Using deeper RNA sequencing than in our prior report, we have now defined an inflammatory gene signature including an oncostatin M co-expression signature, tightly associated with extra-cellular matrix (ECM) gene expression in those who developed stricturing complications. We further computationally prioritize small molecules targeting macrophage and fibroblast activation and angiogenesis which may reverse the stricturing gene signature. A model containing ASCA and CBir1 serologies and a refined eight ECM gene set was significantly associated with stricturing development by year five after diagnosis (AUC (95th CI) = 0.82 (0.7-0.94)). CONCLUSION: An ileal gene program for macrophage and fibroblast activation is linked to stricturing complications in treatment naïve pediatric CD, and may inform novel small molecule therapeutic approaches.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(5)2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375333

RESUMO

The majority of genetic variants affecting complex traits map to regulatory regions of genes, and typically lie in credible intervals of 100 or more SNPs. Fine mapping of the causal variant(s) at a locus depends on assays that are able to discriminate the effects of polymorphisms or mutations on gene expression. Here, we evaluated a moderate-throughput CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis approach, based on replicated measurement of transcript abundance in single-cell clones, by deleting candidate regulatory SNPs, affecting four genes known to be affected by large-effect expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) in leukocytes, and using Fluidigm qRT-PCR to monitor gene expression in HL60 pro-myeloid human cells. We concluded that there were multiple constraints that rendered the approach generally infeasible for fine mapping. These included the non-targetability of many regulatory SNPs, clonal variability of single-cell derivatives, and expense. Power calculations based on the measured variance attributable to major sources of experimental error indicated that typical eQTL explaining 10% of the variation in expression of a gene would usually require at least eight biological replicates of each clone. Scanning across credible intervals with this approach is not recommended.

6.
Hum Reprod ; 35(2): 377-393, 2020 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103259

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are genetic effects on endometrial gene expression tissue specific and/or associated with reproductive traits and diseases? SUMMARY ANSWER: Analyses of RNA-sequence data and individual genotype data from the endometrium identified novel and disease associated, genetic mechanisms regulating gene expression in the endometrium and showed evidence that these mechanisms are shared across biologically similar tissues. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The endometrium is a complex tissue vital for female reproduction and is a hypothesized source of cells initiating endometriosis. Understanding genetic regulation specific to, and shared between, tissue types can aid the identification of genes involved in complex genetic diseases. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: RNA-sequence and genotype data from 206 individuals was analysed and results were compared with large publicly available datasets. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: RNA-sequencing and genotype data from 206 endometrial samples was used to identify the influence of genetic variants on gene expression, via expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and to compare these endometrial eQTLs with those in other tissues. To investigate the association between endometrial gene expression regulation and reproductive traits and diseases, we conducted a tissue enrichment analysis, transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) and summary data-based Mendelian randomisation (SMR) analyses. Transcriptomic data was used to test differential gene expression between women with and without endometriosis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A tissue enrichment analysis with endometriosis genome-wide association study summary statistics showed that genes surrounding endometriosis risk loci were significantly enriched in reproductive tissues. A total of 444 sentinel cis-eQTLs (P < 2.57 × 10-9) and 30 trans-eQTLs (P < 4.65 × 10-13) were detected, including 327 novel cis-eQTLs in endometrium. A large proportion (85%) of endometrial eQTLs are present in other tissues. Genetic effects on endometrial gene expression were highly correlated with the genetic effects on reproductive (e.g. uterus, ovary) and digestive tissues (e.g. salivary gland, stomach), supporting a shared genetic regulation of gene expression in biologically similar tissues. The TWAS analysis indicated that gene expression at 39 loci is associated with endometriosis, including five known endometriosis risk loci. SMR analyses identified potential target genes pleiotropically or causally associated with reproductive traits and diseases including endometriosis. However, without taking account of genetic variants, a direct comparison between women with and without endometriosis showed no significant difference in endometrial gene expression. LARGE SCALE DATA: The eQTL dataset generated in this study is available at http://reproductivegenomics.com.au/shiny/endo_eqtl_rna/. Additional datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the article and the supplementary information files, or are available on reasonable request. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Data are derived from fresh tissue samples and expression levels are an average of expression from different cell types within the endometrium. Subtle cell-specifc expression changes may not be detected and differences in cell composition between samples and across the menstrual cycle will contribute to sample variability. Power to detect tissue specific eQTLs and differences between women with and without endometriosis was limited by the sample size in this study. The statistical approaches used in this study identify the likely gene targets for specific genetic risk factors, but not the functional mechanism by which changes in gene expression may influence disease risk. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results identify novel genetic variants that regulate gene expression in endometrium and the majority of these are shared across tissues. This allows analysis with large publicly available datasets to identify targets for female reproductive traits and diseases. Much larger studies will be required to identify genetic regulation of gene expression that will be specific to endometrium. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) under project grants GNT1026033, GNT1049472, GNT1046880, GNT1050208, GNT1105321, GNT1083405 and GNT1107258. G.W.M is supported by a NHMRC Fellowship (GNT1078399). J.Y is supported by an ARC Fellowship (FT180100186). There are no competing interests.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 435, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974348

RESUMO

Population health research is increasingly focused on the genetic determinants of healthy ageing, but there is no public resource of whole genome sequences and phenotype data from healthy elderly individuals. Here we describe the first release of the Medical Genome Reference Bank (MGRB), comprising whole genome sequence and phenotype of 2570 elderly Australians depleted for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and dementia. We analyse the MGRB for single-nucleotide, indel and structural variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. MGRB individuals have fewer disease-associated common and rare germline variants, relative to both cancer cases and the gnomAD and UK Biobank cohorts, consistent with risk depletion. Age-related somatic changes are correlated with grip strength in men, suggesting blood-derived whole genomes may also provide a biologic measure of age-related functional deterioration. The MGRB provides a broadly applicable reference cohort for clinical genetics and genomic association studies, and for understanding the genetics of healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(6): 5241-5255, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840817

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a public health dilemma as it is associated with low back and neck pain, a frequent reason for patients to visit the physician. During IDD, nucleus pulposus (NP), the central compartment of intervertebral disc (IVD) undergo degeneration. Stem cells have been adopted as a promising biological source to regenerate the IVD and restore its function. Here, we describe a simple, two-step differentiation strategy using a cocktail of four factors (LDN, AGN, FGF, and CHIR) for efficient derivation of notochordal cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We employed a CRISPR/Cas9 based genome-editing approach to knock-in the mCherry reporter vector upstream of the 3' untranslated region of the Noto gene in H9-hESCs and monitored notochordal cell differentiation. Our data show that treatment of H9-hESCs with the above-mentioned four factors for 6 days successfully resulted in notochordal cells. These cells were characterized by morphology, immunostaining, and gene and protein expression analyses for established notochordal cell markers including FoxA2, SHH, and Brachyury. Additionally, pan-genomic high-throughput single cell RNA-sequencing revealed an efficient and robust notochordal differentiation. We further identified a key regulatory network consisting of eight candidate genes encoding transcription factors including PAX6, GDF3, FOXD3, TDGF1, and SOX5, which are considered as potential drivers of notochordal differentiation. This is the first single cell transcriptomic analysis of notochordal cells derived from hESCs. The ability to efficiently obtain notochordal cells from pluripotent stem cells provides an additional tool to develop new cell-based therapies for the treatment of IDD.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3009, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285442

RESUMO

Quantitative genetics theory predicts that X-chromosome dosage compensation (DC) will have a detectable effect on the amount of genetic and therefore phenotypic trait variances at associated loci in males and females. Here, we systematically examine the role of DC in humans in 20 complex traits in a sample of more than 450,000 individuals from the UK Biobank and 1600 gene expression traits from a sample of 2000 individuals as well as across-tissue gene expression from the GTEx resource. We find approximately twice as much X-linked genetic variation across the UK Biobank traits in males (mean h2SNP = 0.63%) compared to females (mean h2SNP = 0.30%), confirming the predicted DC effect. Our DC estimates for complex traits and gene expression are consistent with a small proportion of genes escaping X-inactivation in a trait- and tissue-dependent manner. Finally, we highlight examples of biologically relevant X-linked heterogeneity between the sexes that bias DC estimates if unaccounted for.


Assuntos
Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 258-266, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230719

RESUMO

The transcriptome-wide association studies (TWASs) that test for association between the study trait and the imputed gene expression levels from cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) genotypes have successfully enhanced the discovery of genetic risk loci for complex traits. By using the gene expression imputation models fitted from reference datasets that have both genetic and transcriptomic data, TWASs facilitate gene-based tests with GWAS data while accounting for the reference transcriptomic data. The existing TWAS tools like PrediXcan and FUSION use parametric imputation models that have limitations for modeling the complex genetic architecture of transcriptomic data. Therefore, to improve on this, we employ a nonparametric Bayesian method that was originally proposed for genetic prediction of complex traits, which assumes a data-driven nonparametric prior for cis-eQTL effect sizes. The nonparametric Bayesian method is flexible and general because it includes both of the parametric imputation models used by PrediXcan and FUSION as special cases. Our simulation studies showed that the nonparametric Bayesian model improved both imputation R2 for transcriptomic data and the TWAS power over PrediXcan when ≥1% cis-SNPs co-regulate gene expression and gene expression heritability ≤0.2. In real applications, the nonparametric Bayesian method fitted transcriptomic imputation models for 57.8% more genes over PrediXcan, thus improving the power of follow-up TWASs. We implement both parametric PrediXcan and nonparametric Bayesian methods in a convenient software tool "TIGAR" (Transcriptome-Integrated Genetic Association Resource), which imputes transcriptomic data and performs subsequent TWASs using individual-level or summary-level GWAS data.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Demência/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Software
13.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 41: 177-187, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154251

RESUMO

In the absence of traditional DNA evidence, detection of sexual contact during intercourse is an important need for forensic analysis that might be addressed by studies of the pubic microbiome. Since 16S sequencing of various other body parts has shown that the microbiome may be individualizing, we reasoned that transfer of the assailant's microbiome to a victim might be detectable. Microbiome profiles were generated from pubic hairs and swabs taken from the pubic mound region of 12 couples and 19 singles, and evaluated for similarity over an average of four collection times with varying degrees of self-reported sexual activity. A model constructed using a Random Forest classifier was able to predict samples belonging to the same individual collected up to 6 months apart, demonstrating the stability of the pubic mound microbiome over this time frame. Couples were found to be significantly more similar to one another than to unrelated members of the opposite sex, in proportion to shared sexual activity. Further analyses using the Deblur method to assign operational taxonomic units (OTUs) establish that at least 10% of the victim's pubic microbiome must be derived from the attacker in order to detect transfer, but that single transfer events will not generally be discovered. Nevertheless, Bayesian SourceTracker software is shown to have potential to establish that sexual contact occurred when the assailant is known, or to exonerate suspects as contributors to a mixed microbiome. Our results establish limited potential of the pubic hair/pubic area microbiome as a tool for forensic associations.


Assuntos
Genitália , Cabelo/microbiologia , Microbiota , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Toxicol Sci ; 169(1): 280-292, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059573

RESUMO

Alcohol use prior to and during pregnancy remains a significant societal problem and can lead to developmental fetal abnormalities including compromised myocardia function and increased risk for heart disease later in life. Alcohol-induced cardiac toxicity has traditionally been studied in animal-based models. These models have limitations due to physiological differences from human cardiomyocytes (CMs) and are also not suitable for high-throughput screening. We hypothesized that human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs (hiPSC-CMs) could serve as a useful tool to study alcohol-induced cardiac defects and/or toxicity. In this study, hiPSC-CMs were treated with ethanol at doses corresponding to the clinically relevant levels of alcohol intoxication. hiPSC-CMs exposed to ethanol showed a dose-dependent increase in cellular damage and decrease in cell viability, corresponding to increased production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, ethanol exposure also generated dose-dependent increased irregular Ca2+ transients and contractility in hiPSC-CMs. RNA-seq analysis showed significant alteration in genes belonging to the potassium voltage-gated channel family or solute carrier family, partially explaining the irregular Ca2+ transients and contractility in ethanol-treated hiPSC-CMs. RNA-seq also showed significant upregulation in the expression of genes associated with collagen and extracellular matrix modeling, and downregulation of genes involved in cardiovascular system development and actin filament-based process. These results suggest that hiPSC-CMs can be a novel and physiologically relevant system for the study of alcohol-induced cardiac toxicity.


Assuntos
Etanol/toxicidade , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
15.
Genetics ; 212(3): 905-918, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123039

RESUMO

Expression QTL (eQTL) detection has emerged as an important tool for unraveling the relationship between genetic risk factors and disease or clinical phenotypes. Most studies are predicated on the assumption that only a single causal variant explains the association signal in each interval. This greatly simplifies the statistical modeling, but is liable to biases in scenarios where multiple local causal-variants are responsible. Here, our primary goal was to address the prevalence of secondary cis-eQTL signals regulating peripheral blood gene expression locally, utilizing two large human cohort studies, each >2500 samples with accompanying whole genome genotypes. The CAGE (Consortium for the Architecture of Gene Expression) dataset is a compendium of Illumina microarray studies, and the Framingham Heart Study is a two-generation Affymetrix dataset. We also describe Bayesian colocalization analysis of the extent of sharing of cis-eQTL detected in both studies as well as with the BIOS RNAseq dataset. Stepwise conditional modeling demonstrates that multiple eQTL signals are present for ∼40% of over 3500 eGenes in both microarray datasets, and that the number of loci with additional signals reduces by approximately two-thirds with each conditioning step. Although <20% of the peak signals across platforms fine map to the same credible interval, the colocalization analysis finds that as many as 50-60% of the primary eQTL are actually shared. Subsequently, colocalization of eQTL signals with GWAS hits detected 1349 genes whose expression in peripheral blood is associated with 591 human phenotype traits or diseases, including enrichment for genes with regulatory functions. At least 10%, and possibly as many as 40%, of eQTL-trait colocalized signals are due to nonprimary cis-eQTL peaks, but just one-quarter of these colocalization signals replicated across the gene expression datasets. Our results are provided as a web-based resource for visualization of multi-site regulation of gene expression and its association with human complex traits and disease states.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Algoritmos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial
16.
JCI Insight ; 4(9)2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045577

RESUMO

Human antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) triggered by immunization are globally recognized as CD19loCD38hiCD27hi. Yet, different vaccines give rise to antibody responses of different longevity, suggesting ASC populations are heterogeneous. We define circulating-ASC heterogeneity in vaccine responses using multicolor flow cytometry, morphology, VH repertoire, and RNA transcriptome analysis. We also tested differential survival using a human cell-free system that mimics the bone marrow (BM) microniche. In peripheral blood, we identified 3 CD19+ and 2 CD19- ASC subsets. All subsets contributed to the vaccine-specific responses and were characterized by in vivo proliferation and activation. The VH repertoire demonstrated strong oligoclonality with extensive interconnectivity among the 5 subsets and switched memory B cells. Transcriptome analysis showed separation of CD19+ and CD19- subsets that included pathways such as cell cycle, hypoxia, TNF-α, and unfolded protein response. They also demonstrated similar long-term in vitro survival after 48 days. In summary, vaccine-induced ASCs with different surface markers (CD19 and CD138) are derived from shared proliferative precursors yet express distinctive transcriptomes. Equal survival indicates that all ASC compartments are endowed with long-lived potential. Accordingly, in vivo survival of peripheral long-lived plasma cells may be determined in part by their homing and residence in the BM microniche.

17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(6): e002403, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and despite advanced surgical treatments, many patients progress to heart failure. Currently, transplantation is the only effective cure and is limited by donor availability and organ rejection. Recently, cell therapy has emerged as a novel method for treating pediatric heart failure with several ongoing clinical trials. However, efficacy of stem cell therapy is variable, and choosing stem cells with the highest reparative effects has been a challenge. METHODS: We previously demonstrated the age-dependent reparative effects of human c-kit+ progenitor cells (hCPCs) in a rat model of juvenile heart failure. Using a small subset of patient samples, computational modeling analysis showed that regression models could be made linking sequencing data to phenotypic outcomes. In the current study, we used a similar quantitative model to determine whether predictions can be made in a larger population of patients and validated the model using neonatal hCPCs. We performed RNA sequencing from c-kit+ progenitor cells isolated from 32 patients, including 8 neonatal samples. We tested 2 functional parameters of our model, cellular proliferation and chemotactic potential of conditioned media. RESULTS: Interestingly, the observed proliferation and migration responses in each of the selected neonatal hCPC lines matched their predicted counterparts. We then performed canonical pathway analysis to determine potential mechanistic signals that regulated hCPC performance and identified several immune response genes that correlated with performance. ELISA analysis confirmed the presence of selected cytokines in good performing hCPCs and provided many more signals to further validate. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that cell behavior may be predicted using large datasets like RNA sequencing and that we may be able to identify patients whose c-kit+ progenitor cells exceed or underperform expectations. With systems biology approaches, interventions can be tailored to improve cell therapy or mimic the qualities of reparative cells.

18.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(1): 98-103, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990900

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: UDP N-acetylglucosamine2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine-kinase (GNE) gene mutations can cause mostly autosomal-recessive myopathy with juvenile-onset known as hereditary inclusion-body myopathy (HIBM). METHODS: We describe a family of a patient showing an unusual HIBM with both vacuolar myopathy and myositis without quadriceps-sparing, hindering diagnosis. We show how genetic testing with functional assays, clinical transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) in particular, helped facilitate both the diagnosis and a better understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship. RESULTS: We identified a novel 7.08 kb pathogenic deletion upstream of GNE using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and a common Val727Met variant. Using RNA-seq, we found only monoallelic (Val727Met-allele) expression, leading to ~50% GNE reduction in muscle. Importantly, α-dystroglycan is hypoglycosylated in the patient muscle, suggesting HIBM could be a "dystroglycanopathy." CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows the importance of considering aCGH for GNE-myopathies, and the potential of RNA-seq for faster, definitive molecular diagnosis of unusual myopathies. Muscle Nerve, 2019.


Assuntos
Miopatias Distais/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Miopatias Distais/diagnóstico , Miopatias Distais/metabolismo , Miopatias Distais/patologia , Distroglicanas/metabolismo , Família , Deleção de Genes , Glicosilação , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Músculo Quadríceps/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet ; 393(10182): 1708-1720, 2019 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of evidence-based outcomes data leads to uncertainty in developing treatment regimens in children who are newly diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. We hypothesised that pretreatment clinical, transcriptomic, and microbial factors predict disease course. METHODS: In this inception cohort study, we recruited paediatric patients aged 4-17 years with newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis from 29 centres in the USA and Canada. Patients initially received standardised mesalazine or corticosteroids, with pre-established criteria for escalation to immunomodulators (ie, thiopurines) or anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy. We used RNA sequencing to define rectal gene expression before treatment, and 16S sequencing to characterise rectal and faecal microbiota. The primary outcome was week 52 corticosteroid-free remission with no therapy beyond mesalazine. We assessed factors associated with the primary outcome using logistic regression models of the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01536535. FINDINGS: Between July 10, 2012, and April 21, 2015, of 467 patients recruited, 428 started medical therapy, of whom 400 (93%) were evaluable at 52 weeks and 386 (90%) completed the study period with no protocol violations. 150 (38%) of 400 participants achieved week 52 corticosteroid-free remission, of whom 147 (98%) were taking mesalazine and three (2%) were taking no medication. 74 (19%) of 400 were escalated to immunomodulators alone, 123 (31%) anti-TNFα therapy, and 25 (6%) colectomy. Low baseline clinical severity, high baseline haemoglobin, and week 4 clinical remission were associated with achieving week 52 corticosteroid-free remission (n=386, logistic model area under the curve [AUC] 0·70, 95% CI 0·65-0·75; specificity 77%, 95% CI 71-82). Baseline severity and remission by week 4 were validated in an independent cohort of 274 paediatric patients with newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis. After adjusting for clinical predictors, an antimicrobial peptide gene signature (odds ratio [OR] 0·57, 95% CI 0·39-0·81; p=0·002) and abundance of Ruminococcaceae (OR 1·43, 1·02-2·00; p=0·04), and Sutterella (OR 0·81, 0·65-1·00; p=0·05) were independently associated with week 52 corticosteroid-free remission. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the utility of initial clinical activity and treatment response by 4 weeks to predict week 52 corticosteroid-free remission with mesalazine alone in children who are newly diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. The development of personalised clinical and biological signatures holds the promise of informing ulcerative colitis therapeutic decisions. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Stem Cells ; 37(8): 1075-1082, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033095

RESUMO

Defining the immune physiology of culture-adapted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from distinct tissue compartments informs their potential utility as pharmaceuticals. Here, we have investigated the comparative immune plasticity of MSCs and hepatic stellate cells (HeSCs) isolated from human and murine bone marrow (BM) and liver, respectively. Although both BM-MSCs and HeSCs share mesenchymal phenotype and overall molecular genetic responses to inflammatory cues, HeSCs differ from BM-MSCs in a meaningful manner. We show that culture-adapted HeSCs express substantially higher levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), matrix metalloproteinase-1, and chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) than BM-MSCs. Both human BM-MSCs and HeSCs inhibit T-cell proliferation by a shared indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-dependent mechanism. However, HeSCs are distinct from BM-MSCs by their significant differential expression of HGF, CCL2, IL-8, CCL11, and GMCSF when cocultured with and/or without activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We have investigated MSCs and HeSCs derived from murine systems to describe interspecies comparability. Murine BM-MSCs inhibit T-cell proliferation through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) but not IDO. However, murine HeSCs inhibit T-cell proliferation through a mechanism distinct from either IDO or iNOS. Altogether, these results suggest that although culture-adapted BM-MSCs and HeSCs display a similar phenotype, their secretome and immune plasticity are in part distinct likely mirroring their tissular origins. In addition, the discordance in immune biology between mouse and human sourced HeSC and BM-MSCs speaks to the importance of comparative biology when interrogating rodent systems for human translational insights. Stem Cells 2019;37:1075-1082.

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