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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(22): 12403-12411, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452480

RESUMO

The anions pertechnetate, TcO4-, and perrhenate, ReO4-, exhibit very similar chemical and physical properties. Revealing and understanding disparities between them enhances fundamental understanding of both. Electrospray ionization generated the gas-phase proton bound dimer (TcO4-)(H+)(ReO4-). Collision induced dissociation of the dimer yielded predominantly HTcO4 and ReO4-, which according to Cooks' kinetic method indicates that the proton affinity (PA) of TcO4- is greater than that of ReO4-. Density functional theory computations agree with the experimental observation, providing PA[TcO4-] = 300.1 kcal mol-1 and PA[ReO4-] = 297.2 kcal mol-1. Attempts to rationalize these relative PAs based on elementary molecular parameters such as atomic charges indicate that the entirety of bond formation and concomitant bond disruption needs to be considered to understand the energies associated with such protonation processes. Although in both the gas and solution phases, TcO4- is a stronger base than ReO4-, it is noted that the significance of even such qualitative accordance is tempered by the very different natures of the underlying phenomena.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207621

RESUMO

Bis-triazinyl pyridines (BTPs) exhibit solution selectivity for trivalent americium over lanthanides (Ln), the origins of which remain uncertain. Here, electrospray ionization was used to generate gas-phase complexes [ML3]3+, where M = La, Lu, or Am and L is EtBTP 2,6-bis(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-pyridine. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [ML3]3+ in the presence of H2O yielded a protonated ligand [L(H)]+ and hydroxide [ML2(OH)]2+ or hydrate [ML(L-H)(H2O)]2+, where (L-H)- is a deprotonated ligand. Although solution affinities indicate stronger binding of BTPs toward Am3+ versus Ln3+, the observed CID process is contrastingly more facile for M = Am versus Ln. To understand the disparity, density functional theory was employed to compute potential energy surfaces for two possible CID processes, for M = La and Am. In accordance with the CID results, both the rate determining transition state barrier and the net energy are lower for [AmL3]3+ versus [LaL3]3+ and for both product isomers, [ML2(OH)]2+ and [ML(L-H)(H2O)]2+. More facile removal of a ligand from [AmL3]3+ by CID does not necessarily contradict stronger Am3+-L binding, as inferred from solution behavior. In particular, the formation of new bonds in the products can distort kinetics and thermodynamics expected for simple bond cleavage reactions. In addition to correctly predicting the seemingly anomalous CID behavior, the computational results indicate greater participation of Am 5f versus La 4f orbitals in metal-ligand bonding.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212691

RESUMO

The isolated gas-phase actinide dioxide dications, AnO22+, were evaluated by DFT and coupled cluster CCSD(T) calculations for 12 actinides, An = U-Lr. CASSCF calculations were used to define the orbitals for the CCSD(T) calculations. The characteristic linear [O═An═O]2+ hexavalent actinyl(VI) was found to be the lowest energy structure for An = U, Np, and Pu, which also form stable actinyl(VI) species in solution and possibly for Am when spin-orbit effects are included. For Am, there is a divalent [AnII(O2)]2+ structure where the dioxygen is an end-on physisorbed η1-3O2 2 kcal/mol above the actinyl when spin-orbit effects are included which lower the energy of the actinyl structure. For An = Cm, Bk, and Lr, the lowest energy structure is trivalent [AnIII(O2-)]2+ where the dioxygen is a side-on superoxide, η2-O2-. For Cm, the actinyl is close in energy to the ground state when spin-orbit effects are included. For An = Cf, Es, Fm, Md, and No, the lowest energy structure is divalent [AnII(O2)]2+ where the dioxygen is an end-on physisorbed η1-3O2. The relative energies suggest that curyl(VI) and berkelyl(VI), like well-known americyl(VI), might be stabilized by coordinating ligands in condensed phases. The results further indicate that for californyl and beyond, the actinyl(VI) moieties will probably be elusive even using strong donor ligands. The prevalence of low oxidation states (OSs) An(II) and An(III) for transplutonium actinides reflects stabilization of the 5f orbitals and validates established trends, including the remarkably high stability of divalent No. Bond distances and other parameters suggest maximum bond covalency around plutonyl(VI), with a particularly substantial decrease in bond strength between americyl(VI) and curyl(VI).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150379

RESUMO

Despite that two-dimensional transition metal carbides and carbonitrides (MXenes) are burgeoning candidates for remediation of environmental pollutants, the construction of robust functionalized MXene nanosheets with a high affinity for target heavy metal ions and radionuclides remains a challenge. Here we report the successful placement of amidoxime chelating groups on Ti3C2Tx MXene surface by diazonium salt grafting. The introduction of amidoxime functional groups significantly enhances the selectivity of Ti3C2Tx nanosheets for uranyl ions and also greatly improves their stability in aqueous solution, enabling efficient, rapid, and recyclable uranium extraction from aqueous solutions containing competitive metal ions. Benefiting from the excellent conductivity of MXenes, the amidoxime functionalized Ti3C2Tx nanosheets show outstanding electrochemical performance such that when loaded on carbon cloth the application of an electric field increases the uranium adsorption capacity from 294 to 626 mg/g, outperforming all organic electrochemical sorption materials reported previously. The present work provides an effective strategy to functionalize MXene nanosheets with fundamental implications for the design of MXene-based selective electrosorption electrode materials.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109047

RESUMO

Although metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been reported as important porous materials for the potential utility in metal ion separation, coordinating the functionality, structure, and component of MOFs remains a great challenge. Herein, a series of anionic rare earth MOFs (RE-MOFs) were synthesized via a solvothermal template reaction and for the first time explored for uranium(VI) capture from an acidic medium. The unusually high extraction capacity of UO22+ (e.g., 538 mg U per g of Y-MOF) was achieved through ion-exchange with the concomitant release of Me2NH2+, during which the uranium(VI) extraction in the series of isostructural RE-MOFs was found to be highly sensitive to the ionic radii of the metal nodes. That is, the uranium(VI) adsorption capacities continuously increased as the ionic radii decreased. In-depth mechanism insight was obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, suggesting that both the accessible pore volume of the MOFs and hydrogen-bonding interactions contribute to the strong periodic tendency of uranium(VI) extraction.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101238

RESUMO

Gas-phase coordination complexes of actinyl(v) cations, AnO2+, provide a basis to assess fundamental aspects of actinide chemistry. Electrospray ionization of solutions containing an actinyl cation and sulfonate anion CH3SO2- or C6H5SO2- generated complexes [(AnVO2)(CH3SO2)2]- or [(AnVO2)(C6H5SO2)2]- where An = Np or Pu. Collision induced dissociation resulted in C-S bond cleavage for methanesulfinate to yield [(AnVO2)(CH3SO2)(SO2)]-, whereas hydrolytic ligand elimination occurred for benzenesulfinate to yield [(AnVO2)(C6H5SO2)(OH)]-. These different fragmentation pathways are attributed to a stronger C6H5-SO2- versus CH3-SO2- bond, which was confirmed for both the bare and coordinating sulfinate anions by energies computed using a relativistic multireference perturbative approach (XMS-CASPT2 with spin-orbit coupling). The results demonstrate shutting off a ligand fragmentation channel by increasing the strength of a particular bond, here a sulfinate C-S bond. The [(AnVO2)(CH3SO2)(SO2)]- complexes produced by CID spontaneously react with O2 to eliminate SO2, yielding [(AnO2)(CH3SO2)(O2)]-, a process previously reported for An = U and found here for An = Np and Pu. Computations confirm that the O2/SO2 displacement reactions should be exothermic or thermoneutral for all three An, as was experimentally established. The computations furthermore reveal that the products are superoxides [(AnVO2)(CH3SO2)(O2)]- for An = Np and Pu, but peroxide [(UVIO2)(CH3SO2)(O2)]-. Distinctive reduction of O2- to O22- concomitant with oxidation of U(v) to U(vi) reflects the relatively higher stability of hexavalent uranium versus neptunium and plutonium.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(3): 431-434, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825029

RESUMO

Uranium(vi) trans-bis(imido) complexes [U(κ4-{(tBu2ArO)2Me2-cyclam})(NPh)(NPhR)] react with CO2 to eliminate phenyl isocyanates and afford uranium(vi) trans-[O[double bond, length as m-dash]U[double bond, length as m-dash]NR]2+ complexes, including [U(κ4-{(tBu2ArO)2Me2-cyclam})(NPh)(O)] that was crystallographically characterized. DFT studies indicate that the reaction proceeds by endergonic formation of a cycloaddition intermediate; the secondary reaction to form a dioxo uranyl complex is both thermodynamically and kinetically hindered.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 58(23): 15962-15970, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713423

RESUMO

Thermodynamic properties of the complexation of 2,2'-(trifluoroazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (CF3ABDMA) with U(VI), Nd(III), and Np(V) have been studied in 1.0 M NaNO3 at 25 °C. Equilibrium constants of the complexation were determined by potentiometry and spectrophotometry. In comparison with a series of structurally related amine-bridged diacetamide ligands, including 2,2'-(benzylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (BnABDMA), 2,2'-azanediylbis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (ABDMA), and 2,2'-(methylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (MABDMA), CF3ABDMA forms weaker complexes with U(VI), Nd(III), and Np(V) due to the lower basicity of the center N atom in CF3ABDMA resulting from the attachment of the strong electron-withdrawing CF3- moiety. The complexation strength of CF3ABDMA with the three metal ions follows the order: UO22+ > Nd3+ > NpO2+, consistent with the order of the "effective" charges of the metal ions. Structural information on the U(VI)/CF3ABDMA complexes in solution and in solid was obtained by theoretical computation, single crystal X-ray diffractometry, 19F NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The structural data indicate that, similar to the three previously studied amine-bridged diacetamide ligands (BnABDMA, ABDMA, and MABDMA), the CF3ABDMA ligand coordinates to UO22+ in a tridentate mode, through the center nitrogen and the two amide oxygen atoms.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14139-14142, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697296

RESUMO

The diverse reactivity of [LnO2(NO3)2]- complexes with water in the gas phase, for Ln = Ce, Pr and Nd, examined in a quadrupole ion trap and complemented by ab initio computations, illuminates the chemical stability of Pr in the unusual +5 oxidation state.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 58(20): 14005-14014, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556998

RESUMO

Swapping of an oxygen atom of water with that of a pentavalent actinide dioxide cation, AnO2+ also called an "actinyl", requires activation of an An-O bond. It was previously found that such oxo exchange in the gas phase occurs for the first two actinyls, PaO2+ and UO2+, but not the next two, NpO2+ and PuO2+. The An-O bond dissociation energies (BDEs) decrease from PaO2+ to PuO2+, such that the observation of a parallel decrease in the An-O bond reactivity is intriguing. To elucidate oxo exchange, we here extend experimental studies to AmO2+, americyl(V), and CmO2+, curyl(V), which were produced in remarkable abundance by electrospray ionization of Am3+ and Cm3+ solutions. Like other AnO2+, americyl(V) and curyl(V) adsorb up to four H2O molecules to form tetrahydrates AnO2(H2O)4+ with the actinide hexacoordinated by oxygen atoms. It was found that AmO2+ does not oxo-exchange, whereas CmO2+ does, establishing a "turn" to increasing the reactivity from americyl to curyl, which validates computational predictions. Because oxo exchange occurs via conversion of an actinyl(V) hydrate, AnO2(H2O)+, to an actinide(V) hydroxide, AnO(OH)2+, it reflects the propensity for actinyl(V) hydrolysis: PaO2+ hydrolyzes and oxo-exchanges most easily, despite the fact that it has the highest BDE of all AnO2+. A reexamination of the computational results for actinyl(V) oxo exchange reveals distinctive properties and chemistry of curyl(V) species, particularly CmO(OH)2+.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(36): 19868-19878, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475264

RESUMO

Electrospray ionization of solutions containing a tripodal hydroxylamine ligand, H3TriNOx ([((2-tBuNOH)C6H4CH2)3N]) denoted as L, and a hydrogen halide HX: HCl, HBr and/or HI, yielded gas-phase anion complexes [L(X)]- and [L(HX2)]-. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of mixed-halide complexes, [L(HXaXb)]-, indicated highest affinity for I- and lowest for Cl-. Structures and energetics computed by density functional theory are in accord with the CID results, and indicate that the gas-phase binding preference is a manifestation of differing stabilities of the HX molecules. A high halide affinity of [L(H)]+ in solution was also demonstrated, though with a highest preference for Cl- and lowest for I-, the opposite observation of, but not in conflict with, what is observed in gas phase. The results suggest a connection between gas- and condensed-phase chemistry and computational approaches, and shed light on the aggregation and anion recognition properties of hydroxylamine receptors.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(18): 10917-10925, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432660

RESUMO

The pertechnetate anion (99TcO4-) is a long-lived radioactive species that is soluble in aqueous solution, in contrast to sparingly soluble 99TcO2. Results are reported for photocatalytic reduction and removal of perrhenate (ReO4-), a nonradioactive surrogate for 99TcO4-, using a TiO2 (P25) nanoparticle suspension in formic acid under UV-visible irradiation. Re(VII) removal up to 98% was achieved at pH = 3 under air or N2. The proposed mechanism is Re(VII)/Re(IV) reduction mediated by reducing radicals (·CO2-) from oxidation of formic acid, not direct reduction by photogenerated electrons of TiO2. Recycling results indicate that photocatalytic reduction of ReO4- exhibits excellent regeneration and high activity with >95% removal even after five cycles. 99Tc(VII) is more easily reduced than Re(VII) in the presence of NO3- with very slow redissolution of reduced 99Tc. This study presents a novel method for the removal of ReO4-/99TcO4- from aqueous solution, with potential application for deep geological disposal.


Assuntos
Rênio , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio , Ânions , Água
13.
Inorg Chem ; 58(15): 10148-10159, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318537

RESUMO

A gas-phase uranyl peroxide dimer supported by three 12-crown-4 ether (12C4) ligands, [(UO2)2(O2)(12C4)3)]2+ (A), was prepared by electrospray ionization. Density functional theory (DFT) indicates a structure with two terminal 12C4 and the third 12C4 bridging the uranium centers. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of A resulted in elimination of the bridging 12C4 to yield a uranyl peroxide dimer with two terminal donor ligands, [(12C4)(UO2)(O2)(UO2)(12C4)]2+ (B). Remarkably, CID of B resulted in elimination of the bridging peroxide concomitant with reduction of U(VI) to U(V) in C, [(12C4)(UO2)(UO2)(12C4)]2+. DFT studies indicate that in C there is direct interaction between the two UO2+ species, which can thus be considered as a so-called cation-cation interaction (CCI). This formal CCI, induced by tetradentate 12C4 ligands, corresponds to destruction of the linear uranyl moieties and creation of bridging U-O-U oxo-bonds. On the basis of the structural rearrangement to achieve the structurally extreme CCI interaction, it is predicted also to be accessible for PaO2+ but is less feasible for transuranic actinyls.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(23): 4900-4907, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120248

RESUMO

Recently, the carbon nanobelt (CNB) comprising a closed loop of fully fused edge-sharing benzene rings has been reported in an experiment. To explore its potential molecular properties and applications, we performed scalar relativistic density functional theory investigations on the interaction mechanisms of the CNB with a series of actinide atoms (An = Th-Am). Computations indicate that doping of actinide (An) atoms onto the surface of the CNB can result in the formation of stable actinide endohedral An@CNB compounds, along with the formation of C-An-C rings as well as a drastic structural transformation of the CNB. Compared to transuranium actinides, Th, Pa, and U exhibit a stronger adsorption affinity to the CNB in terms of the calculated binding energies. The adaptive natural density partitioning analysis shows that there form five 3c-2e bonds and two 5c-2e bonds in An@CNB for An = Th, Pa, and U, with fewer multicenter bonds for An = Np, Pu, and Am. These theoretical results provide a new strategy for chemical modification and functionalization of the CNB by actinide doping in the future.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1532, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948745

RESUMO

Efficient anion recognition is of great significance for radioactive 99TcO4- decontamination, but it remains a challenge for traditional sorbents. Herein, we put forward a tactic using soft crystalline cationic material with anion-adaptive dynamics for 99TcO4- sequestration. A cucurbit[8]uril-based supramolecular metal-organic material is produced through a multi-component assembly strategy and used as a sorbent for effective trapping of TcO4-. Excellent separation of TcO4-/ReO4- is demonstrated by fast removal kinetics, good sorption capacity and high distribution coefficient. Remarkably, the most superior selectivity among metal-organic materials reported so far, together with good hydrolytic stability, indicates potential for efficient TcO4- removal. The structure incorporating ReO4- reveals that the supramolecular framework undergoes adaptive reconstruction facilitating the effective accommodation of TcO4-/ReO4-. The results highlight opportunities for development of soft anion-adaptive sorbents for highly selective anion decontamination.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(7): 3739-3747, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843686

RESUMO

Environmental contamination by 99Tc(VII) from radioactive wastewater streams is of particular concern due to the long half-life of 99Tc and high mobility of pertechnetate. Herein, we report a novel MXene-polyelectrolyte nanocomposite with three-dimensional networks for enhanced removal of perrhenate, which is pertechnetate simulant. The introduction of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) regulates the surface charge and improves the stability of Ti2CT x nanosheet, resulting in Re(VII) removal capacity of up to 363 mg g-1, and fast sorption kinetics. The Ti2CT x/PDDA nanocomposite furthermore exhibits good selectivity for ReO4- when competing anions (such as Cl- and SO42-) coexist at a concentration of 1800 times. The immobilization mechanism was confirmed as a sorption-reduction process by batch sorption experiments and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The pH-dependent reducing activity of Ti2CT x/PDDA nanocomposite toward Re(VII) was clarified by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. As the pH increases, the local environment gradually changes from octahedral-coordinated Re(IV) to tetrahedral-coordinated Re(VII). The overall results suggest that Ti2CT x/PDDA nanocomposite may be a promising candidate for efficient elimination of Tc contamination. The reported surface modification strategy might result in applications of MXene-based materials in environmental remediation of other oxidized anion pollutants.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Ânions , Titânio , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
17.
Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) ; 25(1): 58-72, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773924

RESUMO

Electrospray ionization was used to generate species such as [ZnNO3(CH3OH)2]+ from Zn(NO3)2•XH2O dissolved in a mixture of CH3OH and H2O. Collision-induced dissociation of [ZnNO3(CH3OH)2]+ causes elimination of CH3OH to form [ZnNO3(CH3OH)]+. Subsequent collision-induced dissociation of [ZnNO3(CH3OH)]+ causes elimination of 47 mass units (u), consistent with ejection of HNO2. The neutral loss shifts to 48 u for collision-induced dissociation of [ZnNO3(CD3OH)]+, demonstrating the ejection of HNO2 involves intra-complex transfer of H from the methyl group methanol ligand. Subsequent collision-induced dissociation causes the elimination of 30 u (32 u for the complex with CD3OH), suggesting the elimination of formaldehyde (CH2 = O). The product ion is [ZnOH]+. Collision-induced dissociation of a precursor complex created using CH3-18OH shows the isotope label is retained in CH2 = O. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the "rearranged" product, ZnOH with bound HNO2 and formaldehyde is significantly lower in energy than ZnNO3 with bound methanol. We therefore used infrared multiple-photon photodissociation spectroscopy to determine the structures of both [ZnNO3(CH3OH)2]+ and [ZnNO3(CH3OH)]+. The infrared spectra clearly show that both ions contain intact nitrate and methanol ligands, which suggests that rearrangement occurs during collision-induced dissociation of [ZnNO3(CH3OH)]+. Based on the density functional theory calculations, we propose that transfer of H, from the methyl group of the CH3OH ligand to nitrate, occurs in concert with the formation of a Zn-C bond. After dissociation to release HNO2, the product rearranges with the insertion of the remaining O atom into the Zn-C bond. Subsequent C-O bond cleavage, with H transfer, produces an ion-molecule complex composed of [ZnOH]+ and O = CH2.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(17): 2441-2444, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734779

RESUMO

Selectivity for An(iii) vs. Ln(iii) binding and extraction using dipicolinamide analogs containing the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O vs. C[double bond, length as m-dash]S groups was investigated in solution and the gas-phase, and by DFT calculations. The results show higher selectivity for complex formation and extraction for Am(iii) vs. Eu(iii) for the softer dithioamide vs. the diamide ligand, while in CH3CN the diamide binds more strongly than the thioamide to several Ln(iii), forming 1 : 1 complexes.

19.
Chemistry ; 25(17): 4245-4254, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452791

RESUMO

Gas-phase bimolecular reactions of metal cations with water provide insights into intrinsic characteristics of hydrolysis. For the actinide dioxide cations, actinyl(V) AnO2 + , melding of experiment and computation provides insights into trends for hydrolysis, as well as for oxo-exchange between actinyls and water that proceeds by a hydrolysis pathway. Here this line of inquiry is further extended into the actinide series with CCSD(T) computations of potential energy surfaces, for the reaction pathway for oxo-exchange through hydrolysis of nine actinyl(V) ions, from PaO2 + to EsO2 + . The computed surfaces are in accord with previous experimental results for oxo-exchange, and furthermore predict spontaneous exchange for CmO2 + , BkO2 + , CfO2 + and EsO2 + , but not for AmO2 + . Natural Bond Order analysis of the species involved in both hydrolysis and oxo-exchange reveals an inverse correlation between the barrier to hydrolysis and the charge on the actinide centre, q(An). Based on this correlation, it can be concluded that hydrolysis, and related phenomena such as oxo-exchange, become less favourable as the charge on the metal centre decreases. The new results provide a straightforward rationalization of trends across a wide swathe of the actinide series.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(76): 10698-10701, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187044

RESUMO

Oxo group activation with reduction of neptunyl(vi) and plutonyl(vi) to tetravalent hydroxo species by the hydroxypyridinone siderophore derivative 3,4,3-LI-(1,2-HOPO) was investigated in the gas-phase via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, in solution via Raman spectroscopy, and computationally via density functional theory. Dissociation of the gas-phase tetravalent complexes resulted in actinide-hydroxo bond cleavage.

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