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1.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806205

RESUMO

Anemia is a significant comorbidity for older adults not fully attributable to iron deficiency. Low-grade inflammation and other micronutrient deficiencies also contribute. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between nutrient and non-nutrient factors with hemoglobin and anemia in 285 residents (>65 years) of 16 New Zealand aged-care facilities. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, sTfR, hepcidin, zinc, selenium, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), (with ferritin, sTfR, zinc and selenium adjusted for inflammation). Linear regression models examined the relationships between micronutrient biomarkers (iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin B-12 and D), age, sex, and health factors with hemoglobin. Thirty-two percent of participants exhibited anemia, although <2% had either depleted iron stores or iron deficiency. Plasma zinc and selenium deficiencies were present in 72% and 38% of participants, respectively. Plasma zinc and total body iron (TBI) were positively associated (p < 0.05) with hemoglobin, while gastric acid suppressing medications, hepcidin, and interleukin-6 were inversely associated. These relationships were maintained after the application of anemia cut-offs. These findings emphasize the importance of considering multiple micronutrient deficiencies as risk factors for anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/sangue , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Ferro/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Estado Nutricional
2.
J Nutr ; 151(5): 1277-1285, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a worldwide concern. Nutritional deficiencies and inflammation are considered main contributors, but zinc deficiency has only recently been associated with anemia. OBJECTIVES: In this study we assessed associations between zinc status and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anemia in preschool children 6-59 mo old (PSC) and nonpregnant women of reproductive age 15-49 y old (WRA) in population-based nutrition surveys. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 13 (PSC) and 12 (WRA) countries within the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were used. Multivariable linear models were constructed that included zinc status (plasma/serum zinc concentrations), Hb concentrations and anemia, iron status, age, sex, and inflammation (C-reactive protein and α-1-acid glycoprotein). Zinc was adjusted for inflammation in PSC according to the BRINDA algorithm. RESULTS: Data were available for 18,658 PSC and 22,633 WRA. Prevalence of anemia ranged from 7.5% to 73.7% and from 11.5% to 94.7% in PSC and WRA, respectively. Prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 9.2% to 78.4% in PSC and from 9.8% to 84.7% in WRA, with prevalence of zinc deficiency >20% in all countries except Azerbaijan (PSC), Ecuador (PSC), and the United Kingdom (WRA). Multivariable linear regression models showed that zinc concentrations were independently and positively associated with Hb concentrations in 7 of 13 countries for PSC and 5 of 12 countries for WRA. In the same models, ferritin concentration was also significantly associated with Hb among PSC and WRA in 9 and 10 countries, respectively. Zinc deficiency was significantly associated with anemia in PSC and WRA in 5 and 4 countries respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency was prevalent in most countries and associations between zinc and Hb in roughly half of the countries examined suggesting that strategies to combat zinc deficiency may help reduce anemia prevalence. More research on mechanisms by which zinc deficiency is associated with anemia and the reasons for the heterogeneity among countries is warranted.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Zinco/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3728, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580103

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the efficacy of multiple micronutrient supplementation on the biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status across anthropometric status categories in Vietnamese school children. In this 22-week randomised controlled trial, 347 undernourished, normal weight, or overweight/obese children aged 6-9 years were allocated to receive every school day a multiple micronutrient supplement (10 mg iron, 10 mg zinc, 400 µg vitamin A) or a placebo. Haematological indices; circulating ferritin, zinc, and retinol (corrected for inflammation); and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and 22 weeks. At week 22, linear mixed models showed that mean corpuscular volume increased by 0.3 fL, serum ferritin by 9.1 µg/L, plasma zinc by 0.9 µmol/L, and plasma retinol by 15%, and the prevalence of zinc deficiency decreased by 17.3% points in the intervention group compared to placebo. No intervention effects were found for other haematological indices, or the prevalence of anaemia. Multiple micronutrient supplementation for 22 weeks improved the biomarkers of zinc and vitamin A status and some biomarkers of iron status, and reduced the prevalence of zinc deficiency in Vietnamese school children.Trial registration: This trial was registered on 06/09/2016 at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12616001245482.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600460

RESUMO

To reduce the burden of early-life linear growth faltering in low- and middle-income countries, interventions have focused on nutrition strategies, sometimes combined with water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). However, even when combined, their effects on linear growth have been inconsistent. Here, we investigate potential predictors of length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) in a cohort of resource-poor rural Indonesian infants to inform the optimal strategies to reduce linear growth faltering. Apparently healthy rural breastfed Indonesian infants were randomly selected from birth registries at age 6 months (n = 230) and followed up at 9 (n = 202) and 12 (n = 190) months. Using maximum likelihood estimation, we examined longitudinal relationships among socio-demographic status, maternal height, infant sex, age, water source, sanitation facility, energy, protein, micronutrient intakes and biomarkers (serum ferritin, zinc, retinol binding protein (RBP), selenium-adjusted for inflammation), and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (systemic inflammation biomarkers) at age 6 and 9 months on LAZ at age 9 and 12 months. Stunting (LAZ <-2) at 6, 9, and 12 months was 15.7%, 19.3%, and 22.6%, respectively. In the full model, the predictor variable at age 6 months that was most strongly associated with infant LAZ at 9 months was maternal height (0.18 (95% CI 0.03, 0.32) SD). At age 9 months, the strongest predictors of LAZ at 12 months were improved drinking water source (-0.40 (95% CI -0.65, -0.14) vs. not improved), elevated AGP compared to not elevated (0.26 (95%CI -0.06, 0.58), maternal height (0.16 (95% CI 0.02, 0.31) SD), sex (0.22 (95% CI -0.02,0.45) female vs. male), serum RBP (0.12 (95% CI -0.01, 0.25) SD), and protein intake (0.17 (95% CI -0.01, 0.35) SD). Health promotion that includes exclusive breastfeeding up to the first six months and follows microbial water quality guidelines to ensure water intake is always safe should be considered.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Estatura , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Microbiologia da Água
5.
J Nutr ; 151(3): 705-715, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When maternal micronutrient intakes and statuses are compromised, reductions in micronutrient concentrations in neonatal stores and human milk may result in suboptimal micronutrient intakes, statuses, and functional outcomes of breastfed infants during the critical first 6-month period. OBJECTIVES: We compared the adequacy of micronutrient intakes and statuses at 2 and/or 5 months and morbidity and growth faltering at 2, 5, and 12 months in a cohort of exclusively breastfed (EBF) and partially breastfed (PBF) infants from low-resource Indonesian households. METHODS: At 2 and 5 months, the breastfeeding status and human milk intake of 212 infants were determined using the deuterium oxide dose-to-mother technique, and intakes were calculated from milk micronutrient concentrations and 3-d weighed food intakes. At 5 months, five infant micronutrient biomarkers, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and α-1-acid-glycoprotein were measured. Infant morbidity, weight, and length were measured at 2, 5, and 12 months. Means, medians, or proportions were reported for each group and differences between groups were statistically determined. RESULTS: Median intakes of iron, thiamin, niacin, and vitamin B-12 were higher in PBF than EBF infants at 5 months (all P values < 0.05), but intakes in all infants were below adequate intakes. At 5 months, anemia was <20% in both groups, although fewer PBF versus EBF infants had vitamin B-12 deficiency (11.5% vs. 28.6%, respectively; P = 0.011). The mean ± SD length-for-age z-scores for EBF versus PBF infants at 2 months were 0.7 ± 0.9 versus -0.5 ± 1.1, respectively  (P = 0.158), declining to -1.4 ± 0.9 versus -1.1 ± 1.2, respectively, at 12 months (P = 0.059). Reported morbidity rates were generally low, with no evidence of a difference between infant groups (all P values > 0.126). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of exclusive or partial breastfeeding status, micronutrient intakes of infants were low, statuses were compromised, and growth faltering during the critical 6 months period of early infancy was present. The findings highlight the importance of improving maternal nutritional statuses and evaluating their impacts on infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pobreza , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Leite Humano/química
6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 246: 118982, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017792

RESUMO

Raman and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were used to analyze 208 breast milk samples as part of a larger research study. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out using chemometric methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The obtained information on the main macronutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrate) were primarily evaluated in relation to the available metadata of the samples, where study location and respective primary food sources revealed a stronger differentiation in fat composition than its absolute content. The limitations and challenges of using both spectroscopic techniques for the type of analysis are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Leite , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Nutrientes , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(4): 1039-1050, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal micronutrient deficits during preconception and pregnancy may persist during lactation and compromise human milk composition. OBJECTIVE: We measured micronutrient concentrations in human milk and investigated their association with maternal micronutrient intakes, status, and milk volume. METHODS: Infant milk intake (measured via a deuterium dose-to-mother technique), milk micronutrient and fat concentrations, and maternal micronutrient intakes were assessed at 2 and 5 mo postpartum in 212 Indonesian lactating mother-infant pairs. Maternal hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol binding protein (RBP), zinc, selenium, and vitamin B-12 were measured at 5 mo (n = 163). Multivariate or mixed effects regression examined associations of milk micronutrient concentrations with maternal micronutrient intakes, status, and milk volume. RESULTS: Prevalence of anemia (15%), and iron (15% based on body iron), selenium (2.5%), and vitamin B-12 deficiency (0%) were low compared with deficiencies of zinc (60%) and vitamin A (34%). The prevalence of inadequate intakes was >50% for 7 micronutrients at 2 and 5 mo. Median milk concentrations for most micronutrients were below reference values, and nearly all declined between 2 and 5 mo postpartum and were not associated substantially with milk volume (except for ß-carotene, α-carotene, and ß-cryptoxanthin). At 5 mo postpartum, associations between maternal micronutrient status and corresponding milk concentrations reported as mean percentage difference in human milk concentration for each unit higher maternal biomarker were significant for hemoglobin (1.9%), iron biomarkers (ranging from 0.4 to 7%), RBP (35%), selenium (70%), and vitamin B-12 (0.1%), yet for maternal intakes only a positive association with ß-carotene existed. CONCLUSIONS: Most milk micronutrient concentrations declined during lactation, independent of changes in human milk production, and few were associated with maternal micronutrient intakes. The significant associations between maternal biomarkers and milk micronutrient concentrations at 5 mo warrant further study to investigate whether the declines in milk micronutrients are linked to shifts in maternal status.


Assuntos
Dieta , Micronutrientes/análise , Leite Humano/química , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
8.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(5): e17310, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anecdotally, vegetarian eating patterns seem to be increasing in parallel with growing concerns about environmental sustainability. While this pattern of eating is widely believed to be associated with benefits for the planet and individual health, it may increase the risk of inadequate intakes and nutrient deficiency if not planned carefully. Adolescent girls may be particularly at risk, as they have increased requirements for nutrients such as iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamin B12 during growth and development. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the SuNDiAL Project (Survey of Nutrition, Dietary Assessment, and Lifestyles) is to compare the dietary intakes and habits, nutrition status, motivations, attitudes, and physical activity of a sample of vegetarian and nonvegetarian adolescent girls in New Zealand. METHODS: A clustered, cross-sectional, nationwide study of adolescents aged 15-18 years was conducted. Secondary schools were recruited throughout New Zealand, and pupils (n=290) were invited to participate in data collection in either the first (February to April) or third (August to October) school term of 2019 (New Zealand schools operate on a 4-term year). Sociodemographic and health information; vegetarian status; dietary habits; and attitudes, motivations, and beliefs regarding food choices were assessed via an online self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were collected via two 24-hour diet recalls on nonconsecutive days and will be adjusted for within-person variation using the Multiple Source Method, to represent usual intakes. Nutrient adequacy will be assessed by the estimated average requirement cut-point method or probability approach as appropriate. Height and weight were measured, and blood and urine samples collected for micronutrient status assessment. Participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days to assess 24-hour activity patterns (time spent asleep, sedentary, or engagement in light-intensity or moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity). RESULTS: Recruitment and data collection were conducted in 2019. Data are currently being cleaned and analyzed, with publication of the main results anticipated at the end of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The SuNDiAL Project will provide a meaningful and timely description of diet, nutrition status, and motivational factors associated with vegetarianism and identify any risks this pattern of eating may pose for female adolescents. The results of this study will support the development of targeted recommendations and interventions aimed at enhancing the health, growth, and development of adolescent girls. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619000290190; https://tinyurl.com/yaumh278. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/17310.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456038

RESUMO

(1) Background: Aspects of the Mongolian food supply, including high availability of animal-source foods and few plant foods, are plausibly associated with disease in the population. Data on Mongolian diets are lacking, and these risks are poorly quantified. The purpose of this study was to provide a multifaceted nutritional analysis of the modern Mongolian diet. (2) Methods: The study population consisted of 167 male and 167 female healthy non-pregnant urban and nomadic adults (22-55 years) randomly selected from lists of residents in 8 regions. From 2011-2016, 3-day weighed diet records and serum were collected twice from each participant in summer and winter; anthropometry was collected once from each participant. Serum was analyzed for biomarkers, and nutrient intake computed using purpose-built food composition data and adjusted for within-person variation. Exploratory dietary patterns were derived and analyzed for associations with diet and nutrition measurements. (3) Results: We collected 1838 of an expected 1986 diet records (92.5%), 610/658 serum samples (92.7%), and 315/334 height and weight measurements (94.3%). Sixty-one percent of men and 51% of women were overweight or obese. Consumption of red meat, refined grains, and whole-fat dairy was high, while that of fruits, non-tuberous vegetables, eggs, nuts and seeds, fish and poultry, and whole grains was low. Dairy and red meat were more consumed in summer and winter, respectively. Dietary inadequacy of 10 of 21 assessed nutrients, including fiber, folate, and vitamin D were >50% prevalent, while protein, zinc, and vitamin B12 inadequacy were low. Biochemical evidence of iron and vitamin A deficiency was also low. Three dietary patterns (Urban, Transitional, Nomadic) explained 41% of variation in food consumption. The Urban pattern was positively associated with BMI in multivariate analysis. (4) Conclusions: Results indicate a high prevalence of key dietary inadequacies and overweight among Mongolian adults. Prior studies by our group have suggested that expanded supplementation and food fortification would be effective in addressing micronutrient inadequacies; these strategies should be coupled with measures to mitigate the growing burden of chronic disease.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Registros de Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mongólia , Obesidade , Verduras , Vitamina B 12 , Vitaminas , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1051-1057, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The stable isotope deuterium dose-to-mother (DTM) technique to estimate nonbreast milk water intake demonstrates that maternal self-report methods of infant feeding overestimate the true prevalence of exclusively breastfeeding practices. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine potential monosaccharide and oligosaccharide markers that distinguish between exclusively breastfed (EBF) versus nonexclusively breastfed (non-EBF) infants utilizing LC-MS-based methods. METHODS: Data for the analysis were collected as part of a larger, longitudinal study of 192 breastfed Indonesian infants aged 2 mo and followed up at 5 mo. Feces samples were collected from infants aged 2 mo (n = 188) and 5 mo (n = 184). EBF and non-EBF strata at each time point were determined via the DTM technique. Feces samples were analyzed to determine monosaccharide content using ultra-high-performance LC-triple quadrupole MS (UHPLC-QqQ MS). Relative abundances of fecal oligosaccharides were determined using nano-LC-Chip-quadrupole time-of-flight MS (nano-LC-Chip-Q-ToF MS). RESULTS: At age 2 mo, monosaccharide analysis showed the abundance of fructose and mannose were significantly higher (+377% and +388%, respectively) in non-EBF compared with EBF infants (P <0.0001). Fructose and mannose also showed good discrimination with areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 and 0.82, respectively. Oligosaccharide analysis showed that a 6-hexose (Hex6) isomer had good discrimination (AUC = 0.80) between EBF and non-EBF groups at 5 mo. CONCLUSION: Carbohydrate products, particularly fecal mono- and oligosaccharides, differed between EBF and non-EBF infants aged under 6 mo and can be used as potential biomarkers to distinguish EBF versus non-EBF feeding practices.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/química , Fezes/química , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente
11.
Nutrition ; 69: 110553, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inappropriate infant and young child feeding and caring practices affect nutritional status, increases the risk for growth faltering, and ultimately, affect child survival. The aim of this study was to characterize the feeding and caring practices of disadvantaged urban Indian children 12 to 24 mo of age in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in self-selected households in a South Delhi slum. A household survey was administered to the mother/primary caregiver of 120 eligible children. We collected child anthropometry, 2-d weighed food records (n = 69), and compliance to WHO and PAHO recommended feeding, caring, food safety, and hygiene practices. RESULTS: Of the children, 39% were stunted, 31% underweight, and 10% wasted; none were overweight. Despite 88% achieving minimum meal frequency (more than three to four meals daily), only 50% consumed at least four food groups (minimum dietary diversity), and 44% a minimum acceptable diet (composite score of minimum meal frequency and minimum dietary diversity). Consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods, vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables, and eggs was low (<25%) and flesh foods were negligible (1.4%), whereas consumption of both sugary and snack foods was >60%. Reported compliance to responsive feeding indicators was generally ∼50%, but there was a wide range (13-98%) for food safety and hygiene practices, which were not always consistent with home observations. CONCLUSIONS: Complementary feeding and caregiving practices were suboptimal among these disadvantaged young Indian children and education interventions focused on infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, food safety, and hygiene practices are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Características da Família , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Áreas de Pobreza , Magreza/etiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/etiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219675, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295313

RESUMO

Information on micronutrient adequacy of diets of rural Indonesian lactating women is lacking, despite their high nutrient requirements. This is of concern because deficits in micronutrient intakes may compromise the health of both mothers and infants. This study aimed to assess micronutrient adequacy and dietary diversity (DD) among rural lactating women and explore relationships between micronutrient adequacy, DD, and intakes of energy and food groups consumed. We measured in-home 12-h weighed food records and 12-h recalls over three non-consecutive days from 121 exclusively breastfeeding women at 2-5 months postpartum. Next, we calculated intakes of energy and 11 micronutrients and estimated probability of adequacy (PA) for usual intakes of 11 micronutrients for each women taking into account national fortification of wheat flour with thiamin, riboflavin, folate, zinc, and iron. We assessed DD from nine food groups consumed. Energy and macronutrient balance were within recommended ranges, yet population prevalence of adequacy was less than 50% for niacin, vitamins B6 and C, and less than 60% for calcium, vitamin B12 and vitamin A, all micronutrients not targeted by the national wheat flour fortification program. In contrast, population prevalence of adequacy for the fortified micronutrients was at least 60%, with iron and zinc attaining 79% and 97%, respectively. Overall mean population prevalence of micronutrient adequacy was 57% and mean (±SD) DD score was 4.3±1.2. Mean PAs, a composite measure based on individual PAs over 11 micronutrients, were strongly correlated with energy intakes and with DD scores. In the multivariate models with maternal education and wealth index as covariates, organ meats were the most important determinant of mean PA after controlling for energy intake. In conclusion, despite wheat flour fortification, lactating mothers remained at risk of multiple micronutrient inadequacies. Increasing intakes of animal source foods including organ meats, and fruits and vegetables should be considered.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/fisiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais/fisiologia , Adulto , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
13.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261779

RESUMO

Little is known about the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in school children in Vietnam. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and its subtypes, and the associations of types of anaemia with demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric factors among 6-9-year-old primary school children in rural areas of Hai Phong City, Vietnam. Haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were measured, and demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were collected in 893 children from eight primary schools. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 115 g/L) was 12.9% (95% CI: 8.1%, 19.9%), microcytic anaemia (Hb < 115 g/L and MCV < 80 fL) was 7.9% (95% CI: 5.3%, 11.6%) and normocytic anaemia (Hb < 115 g/L and MCV 80-90 fL) was 5.3% (95% CI: 2.9%, 9.5%). No child presented with macrocytic anaemia (Hb < 115 g/L and MCV > 90 fL). Children who were underweight, wasted, or in anthropometric failure (either underweight, stunted or wasted) were more likely to be anaemic (all p ≤ 0.004), and specifically, to have normocytic anaemia (all p ≤ 0.006), than those who were not underweight, wasted or in anthropometric failure. Stunted children were more likely to be anaemic (p = 0.018) than those who were not stunted. Overweight/obese children were less likely to be anaemic (p = 0.026) or have normocytic anaemia (p = 0.038) compared with children who were not overweight/obese. No anthropometric status indicator was associated with the risk of microcytic anaemia. No demographic or socio-economic factor was associated with any type of anaemia. Anaemia remains a public health issue in rural areas in Hai Phong City, Vietnam, and future approaches for its prevention and control should target undernourished primary school children.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Saúde da População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Fatores Etários , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia Macrocítica/sangue , Anemia Macrocítica/diagnóstico , Anemia Macrocítica/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Vietnã/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 391-400, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the sole source of nutrition for exclusively breastfed infants in the first 6 mo of life, yet few studies have measured micronutrient concentrations in breast milk in light of maternal diet and subsequent infant micronutrient intakes. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the adequacy of micronutrient intakes of exclusively breastfed Indonesian infants by measuring milk volume and micronutrient concentrations and assessed maternal micronutrient intakes and their relationship with milk concentrations. METHODS: Mother-infant (2-5.3 mo) dyads (n = 113) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Volume of breast-milk intake via the deuterium dose-to-mother technique over 14 d and analyzed micronutrient concentrations were used to calculate micronutrient intakes of exclusively breastfed infants. Maternal 3-d weighed food records were collected to assess median (IQR) micronutrient intakes. Multivariate regression analyses examined the association of usual maternal micronutrient intakes with milk micronutrient concentrations after adjustment for confounding variables. RESULTS: Mean ± SD intake of breast-milk volume was 787 ± 148 mL/d. Median daily infant intakes of iron, zinc, selenium, magnesium, sodium, and B-vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, B-6, and B-12) were below their respective Adequate Intakes. Inadequacies in maternal intakes (as % < estimated average requirements) were >40% for calcium, niacin, and vitamins A, B-6, and B-12. Significant positive associations existed between maternal usual intakes of vitamin A, niacin and riboflavin and milk retinol, nicotinamide, and free riboflavin concentrations in both unadjusted and adjusted (for infant age, milk volume, and parity) analyses (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of micronutrient intakes for these exclusively breastfed infants and their mothers fell below recommendations, with associations between maternal intakes and breast-milk concentrations for 3 nutrients. Data on nutrient requirements of exclusively breastfed infants are limited, and a better understanding of the influence of maternal nutritional status on milk nutrient concentrations and its impact on the breastfed infant is needed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Micronutrientes/química , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1503-1510, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation may result in interaction effects due to competing absorptive pathways of trace elements. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MMN supplementation with or without iron on serum zinc, selenium, and copper concentrations in Cambodian women. METHODS: In a 2 × 2 factorial double-blind randomized 12-wk trial, predominantly anemic, nonpregnant women (aged 18-45 y) received daily 60 mg of iron (Fe; n = 201); 14 other micronutrients including zinc (15 mg), selenium (65 µg), and copper (2 mg), but no iron (MMN; n = 202); 60 mg iron plus MMN (Fe + MMN; n = 206); or a placebo (n = 200). Fasting morning blood was collected at baseline and 12 wk from women in 26 villages in Kampong Chhnang province. Serum zinc, selenium, and copper concentrations (secondary outcomes of the randomized controlled trial) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Generalized linear regression was used to estimate intervention effects [ß coefficient (95% CI)] for Fe (with or without MMN) and MMN (with or without Fe) after testing for the presence of an Fe × MMN interaction. RESULTS: A total of 760 women completed the trial. Zinc deficiency prevalence at baseline was 45% (inflammation-adjusted serum zinc <10.7 µmol/L). A significant Fe × MMN interaction (P = 0.02) was detected in the 2 × 2 analysis with serum zinc concentration as the outcome: the MMN group had a higher mean serum zinc concentration at 12 wk (12.3 µmol/L; 95% CI: 12.2, 12.4 µmol/L) compared with all other groups, and the Fe + MMN group had a higher mean serum zinc concentration (11.6 µmol/L; 95% CI: 11.5, 11.7 µmol/L) compared with the Fe group (11.0 µmol/L; 95% CI: 10.9, 11.0 µmol/L) and the placebo group (11.2 µmol/L; 95% CI: 11.1, 11.4 µmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of 60 mg iron in the daily MMN formulation may be interfering with the absorption and/or metabolism of supplemental zinc in Cambodian women. This is of particular concern when MMN supplementation is implemented in populations with risk of zinc deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT-02481375.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Zinco/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Cobre/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selênio/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/deficiência
16.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(8): 1206-1208, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235956

RESUMO

Excessive maternal fat mass may impair lactogenesis and lead to lower breastmilk volume. We investigated this relationship in rural Indonesian exclusively breastfeeding mother-infant (2-5.3 months) dyads (n = 112) by measuring breastmilk intake by deuterium oxide dose-to-mother technique (DDMT) and maternal fat mass by DDMT, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and body mass index (BMI). We also compared fat mass assessed by DDMT and BIA. In this population, we found a significant negative relationship between breastmilk intake and maternal fat mass measured by DDMT (ß = -5.04 mL, 95% CI: -9.36, -0.72, P = 0.023), and similar but slightly weaker negative trend with BIA and BMI, after adjusting for social-economic status, maternal age, infant age and sex. Maternal fat mass estimates by BIA and DDMT showed good agreement. In light of the trend for overweight and obesity worldwide, further research is needed into the underlying mechanisms of this negative relationship.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite Humano , Mães , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Masculino , População Rural
17.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 8(8): 596-605, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215140

RESUMO

A deuterium oxide dose-to-mother (DTM) technique is used to determine if an infant is exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). However, the DTM method is intensive, requiring seven paired mother-infant samples during a 14-day study period. The purpose of this study was to develop a field-friendly protocol. Data from 790 mother-infant pairs from nine countries were analyzed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method with Stan. The data were split into (i) model building (565 pairs) and (ii) design evaluation (225 pairs). EBF classification was based on a previously published cut-off for nonmilk water intake. Classification based on the full design was the reference (gold standard classification). The receiver operating characteristics of parsimonious designs were used to determine an optimal parsimonious classification method. The best two postdose windows (days 7-9 and 13-14) yielded optimal categorization with similar performance in the design evaluation data. This postdose two-sample design provided 95% sensitivity and specificity when compared with the full design.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Mães
18.
J Food Compost Anal ; 78: 42-48, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057213

RESUMO

Phytate is widely distributed in the plant kingdom, and its significance for human nutrition has been often described. Data on phytate is available in very few composition tables, for a limited number of foods and mainly for raw products. With the aim of publishing the first global repository of analytical data on phytate, data on moisture, phytate, zinc, iron and calcium were compiled. Other aspects, such as the analytical method used, biodiversity and processing, were considered, and phytate: mineral ratios were calculated when possible. From a comprehensive literature search, over 250 references were compiled, generating 3377 entries: 39% for raw and 61% for processed foods. Most of the entries were for cereals (35%), followed by legumes (27%) and vegetables (11%). The most common analytical methods used were indirect precipitation (26%) and anion exchange (25%), while separate determination of IPs is the most recommended. The database can be used as a tool for nutrition workers to include into food composition tables and to develop programmes related to mineral deficiencies. These data will be useful for designing diets with enhanced mineral bioavailability and for improving the estimates for nutrient requirements. The database is available at the INFOODS (www.fao.org/infoods/infoods/tables-and-databases/en) and IZiNCG webpages (www.izincg.org).

19.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 3(5): nzz022, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037278

RESUMO

Background: Anemia during infancy in Indonesia is common, with iron deficiency (ID) assumed to be the major cause. Other micronutrients besides iron may have a role in determining hemoglobin (Hb) but have not yet been explored in Indonesia. Objective: We investigated 7 micronutrient biomarkers and selected nonnutritional factors as potential predictors of Hb and anemia at ages 6, 9, and 12 mo in a cohort of Indonesian infants at risk of coexisting micronutrient deficiencies. Methods: Apparently healthy breastfed infants were randomly selected from birth registries at 6 mo (n = 230) and followed-up at 9 mo (n = 202) and 12 mo (n = 190). Hb, serum micronutrient biomarkers-iron [as ferritin and serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR)], zinc, selenium, folate, vitamin A [as retinol-binding protein (RBP)], vitamin B-12, and vitamin D (as 25-hydroxyvitamin D) (adjusted for inflammation, where appropriate)-and maternal sociodemographic status, health, BMI, heminthiasis, and selected Hb genetic disorders were measured. Multivariate analysis examined relations between micronutrient biomarkers and nonnutritional factors (except helminthiasis and genetic Hb disorders) with Hb and anemia at 6 and 12 mo. Results: ID (based on ferritin) was a predictor of lower Hb and anemia at both 6 and 12 mo of age (P < 0.02). Additional predictors at 6 mo were tertiary education and higher maternal Hb for higher Hb, sex (being male) and inflammation (P < 0.05) for both lower Hb and anemia, and greater maternal height (P = 0.036) for anemia only. At 12 mo, a significant biomarker predictor besides ID was RBP (P = 0.035) for Hb. Conclusion: ID was a major contributor to lower Hb and anemia, although RBP was also associated.

20.
Br J Nutr ; 122(1): 71-77, 2019 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975226

RESUMO

Reducing multifactorial stunting is a priority for the 2025 WHO Global Nutrition Target. In the plant-based complementary diets of low-income countries, deficits in several growth-limiting micronutrients may contribute to stunting. Hence the intercorrelation between multiple micronutrients in terms of their intake and impact is important. Therefore, our aim was to develop a nutrient quality score using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of Indonesian infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age and to evaluate the association of the scores with linear growth and stunting. At 6 months, 217 infants were recruited from Sumedang District, West Java, with 195 and 189 followed at 9 and 12 months of age, respectively. Complementary food intakes were assessed using 2-d weighed food records. Eight correlated nutrients (vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, Ca, Fe and Zn) were summarised using PCA into a single nutrient pattern that explained 56-65 % of the total variability. Nutrient quality scores were related to demographic, inflammation and complementary food indicator variables in hypothesised directions. While no significant relationships were apparent with linear growth, the odds of being stunted at ages 9 and 12 months was lower for infants with a higher nutrient quality score at 9 months (OR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·59, 0·95 and OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·88), respectively, for the fully adjusted models. A data-driven nutrient quality score is a valid tool to assess the influence of nutrient quality on stunting in at-risk infants.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Alimentos Infantis/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Valor Nutritivo , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Análise de Componente Principal
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