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1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 70, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and understanding of many autoinflammatory diseases, there are still a great number of patients with phenotypes that do not fit any clinically- and/or genetically-defined disorders. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a fourteen-year-old boy who presented at two and a half years of age with recurrent febrile episodes. Over the course of the disease, the episodes increased in frequency and severity, with new signs and symptoms continuing to appear. Most importantly, these included skin changes, splenomegaly and transaminitis. Only partial control of the disease was achieved with anti-IL-1 therapy. Extensive investigation showed generalized inflammation without immune deficiency, with increased levels of serum amyloid A and several pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon-γ, as well as an increased type I interferon score. Exome sequence analysis identified P369S and R408Q variants in the MEFV innate immunity regulator, pyrin (MEFV) gene and T260 M and T320 M variants in the NLR family pyrin domain containing 12 (NLRP12) gene. CONCLUSION: Patients with unclassified and/or unexplained autoinflammatory syndromes present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and collectively form a substantial part of every cohort of patients with autoinflammatory diseases. Therefore, it is important to acquire their full genomic profile through whole exome and/or genome sequencing and present their cases to a broader audience, to facilitate characterization of similar patients. A critical mass of well-characterized cases will lead to improved diagnosis and informed treatment.

3.
Transl Res ; 208: 15-29, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802431

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is a genetic heart muscle disorder characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of cardiomyocytes leading to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Mutations in genes encoding cardiac junctional proteins are known to cause about half of cases, while remaining genetic causes are unknown. Using exome sequencing, we identified 2 missense variants (p.H33N and p.H77Y) that were predicted to be damaging in the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) gene in 2 unrelated families. The p.H33N variant was found to be de novo. ILK links integrins and the actin cytoskeleton, and is essential for the maintenance of normal cardiac function. Both of the new variants are located in the ILK ankyrin repeat domain, which binds to the first LIM domain of the adaptor proteins PINCH1 and PINCH2. In silico binding studies proposed that the human variants disrupt the ILK-PINCH complex. Recombinant mutant ILK expressed in H9c2 rat myoblast cells shows aberrant prominent cytoplasmic localization compared to the wild-type. Expression of human wild-type and mutant ILK under the control of the cardiac-specific cmlc2 promotor in zebrafish shows that p.H77Y and p.P70L, a variant previously reported in a dilated cardiomyopathy family, cause cardiac dysfunction and death by about 2-3 weeks of age. Our findings provide genetic and functional evidence that ILK is a cardiomyopathy disease gene and highlight its relevance for diagnosis and genetic counseling of inherited cardiomyopathies.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Ratos , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Peixe-Zebra/genética
5.
J Hum Genet ; 64(4): 271-280, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670789

RESUMO

A decade ago, we described novel de novo submicroscopic deletions of chromosome 14q11.2 in three children with developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and similar dysmorphic features, including widely-spaced eyes, short nose with flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, prominent Cupid's bow of the upper lip, full lower lip, and auricular anomalies. We suggested that this constituted a new multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome due to defects in CHD8 and/or SUPT16H. The three patients in our original cohort were between 2 years and 3 years of age at the time. Here we present a fourth patient and clinical updates on our previous patients. To document the longitudinal course more fully, we integrate published reports of other patients and describe genotype-phenotype correlations among them. Children with the disorder present with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and/or autism spectrum disorder in addition to characteristic facies. Gastrointestinal and sleep problems are notable. The identification of multiple patients with the same genetic defect and characteristic clinical phenotype, confirms our suggestion that this is a syndromic disorder caused by haploinsufficiency or heterozygous loss of function of CHD8.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Facies , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Megalencefalia/genética , Megalencefalia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4619, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397230

RESUMO

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.

7.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 124, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a very rare and potentially fatal pediatric disorder, the cause of which is presently unknown. ROHHAD is often compared to Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) because both share childhood obesity as one of their most prominent and recognizable signs, and because other symptoms such as hypoventilation and autonomic dysfunction are seen in both. These phenotypic similarities suggest they might be etiologically related conditions. We performed an in-depth clinical comparison of the phenotypes of ROHHAD and PWS and used NGS and Sanger sequencing to analyze the coding regions of genes in the PWS region among seven ROHHAD probands. RESULTS: Detailed clinical comparison of ROHHAD and PWS patients revealed many important differences between the phenotypes. In particular, we highlight the fact that the areas of apparent overlap (childhood-onset obesity, hypoventilation, autonomic dysfunction) actually differ in fundamental ways, including different forms and severity of hypoventilation, different rates of obesity onset, and different manifestations of autonomic dysfunction. We did not detect any disease-causing mutations within PWS candidate genes in ROHHAD probands. CONCLUSIONS: ROHHAD and PWS are clinically distinct conditions, and do not share a genetic etiology. Our detailed clinical comparison and genetic analyses should assist physicians in timely distinction between the two disorders in obese children. Of particular importance, ROHHAD patients will have had a normal and healthy first year of life; something that is never seen in infants with PWS.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 95, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating how epigenetic information is transmitted through the mammalian germline is the key to understanding how this information impacts on health and disease susceptibility in offspring. EED is essential for regulating the repressive histone modification, histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3) at many developmental genes. RESULTS: In this study, we used oocyte-specific Zp3-Cre recombinase (Zp3Cre) to delete Eed specifically in mouse growing oocytes, permitting the study of EED function in oocytes and the impact of depleting EED in oocytes on outcomes in offspring. As EED deletion occurred only in growing oocytes and females were mated to normal wild type males, this model allowed the study of oocyte programming without confounding factors such as altered in utero environment. Loss of EED from growing oocytes resulted in a significant overgrowth phenotype that persisted into adult life. Significantly, this involved increased adiposity (total fat) and bone mineral density in offspring. Similar overgrowth occurs in humans with Cohen-Gibson (OMIM 617561) and Weaver (OMIM 277590) syndromes, that result from de novo germline mutations in EED or its co-factor EZH2, respectively. Consistent with a role for EZH2 in human oocytes, we demonstrate that de novo germline mutations in EZH2 occurred in the maternal germline in some cases of Weaver syndrome. However, deletion of Ezh2 in mouse oocytes resulted in a distinct phenotype compared to that resulting from oocyte-specific deletion of Eed. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence that altering EED-dependent oocyte programming leads to compromised offspring growth and development in the next generation.

9.
Mol Syndromol ; 9(2): 70-82, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593474

RESUMO

The overgrowth syndromes are important to diagnose, not just for accurate genetic counseling, but also for knowledge surrounding cancer surveillance and prognosis. There has been a recent expansion in the number of genes associated with a mendelian overgrowth phenotype, so this review updates previous classifications of overgrowth syndromes. We also describe a clinical and molecular approach to the investigation of individuals presenting with overgrowth. This review aims to assist the clinical diagnosis of generalized overgrowth syndromes by outlining the salient features of well-known overgrowth syndromes alongside the many syndromes that have been discovered and classified more recently. We provide key clinical "handles" to aid clinical diagnosis and a list of genes to aid with panel design when using next generation sequencing, which we believe is frequently needed due to the overlapping phenotypic features seen between overgrowth syndromes.

10.
J Med Genet ; 55(4): 215-221, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this guideline is to provide updated recommendations for Canadian genetic counsellors, medical geneticists, maternal fetal medicine specialists, clinical laboratory geneticists and other practitioners regarding the use of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for prenatal diagnosis. This guideline replaces the 2011 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC)-Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) Joint Technical Update. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group consisting of medical geneticists, genetic counsellors, maternal fetal medicine specialists and clinical laboratory geneticists was assembled to review existing literature and guidelines for use of CMA in prenatal care and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the CCMG membership-at-large for feedback and, following incorporation of feedback, was approved by the CCMG Board of Directors on 5 June 2017 and the SOGC Board of Directors on 19 June 2017. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations include but are not limited to: (1) CMA should be offered following a normal rapid aneuploidy screen when multiple fetal malformations are detected (II-1A) or for nuchal translucency (NT) ≥3.5 mm (II-2B) (recommendation 1); (2) a professional with expertise in prenatal chromosomal microarray analysis should provide genetic counselling to obtain informed consent, discuss the limitations of the methodology, obtain the parental decisions for return of incidental findings (II-2A) (recommendation 4) and provide post-test counselling for reporting of test results (III-A) (recommendation 9); (3) the resolution of chromosomal microarray analysis should be similar to postnatal microarray platforms to ensure small pathogenic variants are detected. To minimise the reporting of uncertain findings, it is recommended that variants of unknown significance (VOUS) smaller than 500 Kb deletion or 1 Mb duplication not be routinely reported in the prenatal context. Additionally, VOUS above these cut-offs should only be reported if there is significant supporting evidence that deletion or duplication of the region may be pathogenic (III-B) (recommendation 5); (4) secondary findings associated with a medically actionable disorder with childhood onset should be reported, whereas variants associated with adult-onset conditions should not be reported unless requested by the parents or disclosure can prevent serious harm to family members (III-A) (recommendation 8).The working group recognises that there is variability across Canada in delivery of prenatal testing, and these recommendations were developed to promote consistency and provide a minimum standard for all provinces and territories across the country (recommendation 9).

11.
Cell Rep ; 22(1): 163-174, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298418

RESUMO

Depolarization of neuroendocrine cells results in calcium influx, which induces vesicle exocytosis and alters gene expression. These processes, along with the restoration of resting membrane potential, are energy intensive. We hypothesized that cellular mechanisms exist to maximize energy production during excitation. Here, we demonstrate that NPAS4, an immediate early basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor, acts to maximize energy production by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). As such, knockout of Npas4 from insulin-producing ß cells results in reduced OXPHOS, loss of insulin secretion, ß cell dedifferentiation, and type 2 diabetes. NPAS4 plays a similar role in the nutrient-sensing cells of the hypothalamus. Its knockout here results in increased food intake, reduced locomotor activity, and elevated peripheral glucose production. In conclusion, NPAS4 is critical for the coordination of metabolism during the stimulation of electrically excitable cells; its loss leads to the defects in cellular metabolism that underlie the cellular dysfunction that occurs in metabolic disease.

12.
Diabetes ; 67(3): 412-422, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217654

RESUMO

p300 (EP300) and CBP (CREBBP) are transcriptional coactivators with histone acetyltransferase activity. Various ß-cell transcription factors can recruit p300/CBP, and thus the coactivators could be important for ß-cell function and health in vivo. We hypothesized that p300/CBP contribute to the development and proper function of pancreatic islets. To test this, we bred and studied mice lacking p300/CBP in their islets. Mice lacking either p300 or CBP in islets developed glucose intolerance attributable to impaired insulin secretion, together with reduced α- and ß-cell area and islet insulin content. These phenotypes were exacerbated in mice with only a single copy of p300 or CBP expressed in islets. Removing p300 in pancreatic endocrine progenitors impaired proliferation of neonatal α- and ß-cells. Mice lacking all four copies of p300/CBP in pancreatic endocrine progenitors failed to establish α- and ß-cell mass postnatally. Transcriptomic analyses revealed significant overlaps between p300/CBP-downregulated genes and genes downregulated in Hnf1α-null islets and Nkx2.2-null islets, among others. Furthermore, p300/CBP are important for the acetylation of H3K27 at loci downregulated in Hnf1α-null islets. We conclude that p300 and CBP are limiting cofactors for islet development, and hence for postnatal glucose homeostasis, with some functional redundancy.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Glicemia/análise , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Tamanho Celular , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/citologia , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/patologia , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Lisina , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/patologia
13.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 314(5): E418-E432, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066462

RESUMO

Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with reduced hepatic mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Cholic acid (CA) is the predominant 12α-hydroxylated bile acid that regulates hepatic lipid metabolism, and its circulating levels are negatively correlated with insulin resistance. Abolishing CA synthesis via the genetic disruption of the enzyme sterol 12α-hydroxylase ( Cyp8b1-/-) leads in resistance to diabetes and hepatic steatosis. Here, we show that long-term stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis leads to a severe impairment in overall metabolic and respiratory function in control mice ( Cyp8b1+/+) but strikingly not in Cyp8b1-/- mice. Cyp8b1-/- mice are protected from such metabolic impairments associated with T2D and NASH by inhibiting hepatic de novo lipogenic gene and protein expression and altering gut microbiota composition. The protective phenotype is compromised when NASH induction is independent of impairment in de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Consequently, Cyp8b1-/- mice also show a reduction in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis along with a shift in antimicrobial dynamics in the small intestine. Our data show that the altered bile acid composition of Cyp8b1-/- mice preserves metabolic and respiratory function by repressing hepatic DNL and driving favorable changes in gut antimicrobial responses.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(11): 3087-3092, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898540

RESUMO

TRPV4 encodes a polymodal calcium-permeable plasma membrane channel. Dominant pathogenic mutations in TRPV4 lead to a wide spectrum of abnormal phenotypes. This is the first report of biallelic TRPV4 mutations and we describe two compound heterozygous siblings presenting with a complex phenotype including severe neuromuscular involvement. In light of previously well described dominant inheritance for TRPV4-related neuromuscular disease, our study suggests a role for compound heterozygosity and loss-of-function as a potential novel disease mechanism for this group of disorders. Profound intellectual disability was also noted in both affected children, suggesting that TRPV4 may be necessary for normal brain development.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Doenças Neuromusculares/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Doenças Neuromusculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Irmãos
15.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0174030, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301585

RESUMO

Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD) type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11ß-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet or a nutrient-matched low-fat, no-sucrose control diet prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. At day 17 of gestation, HFHS dams had ~20% lower circulating corticosterone levels than controls. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between maternal diet and fetal sex for circulating corticosterone levels in the fetuses, whereby HFHS males tended to have higher corticosterone than control males, with no effect in female fetuses. However, placental 11ß-HSD1 or 11ß-HSD2 expression did not differ between diets or show an interaction between diet and sex. To assess potential long-term consequences of this sex-specific effect on fetal corticosterone, we studied locomotor activity and metabolic traits in adult offspring. Despite a sex-specific effect of maternal diet on fetal glucocorticoids, there was little evidence of sex-specific effects on offspring physiology or behaviour, although HFHS offspring of both sexes had higher circulating corticosterone at 9 weeks of age. Our results suggest the existence of as yet unknown mechanisms that mitigate the effects of altered glucocorticoid exposure early in development, making offspring resilient to the potentially negative effects of a HFHS maternal diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feto/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Fatores Sexuais , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(3): 771-775, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211972

RESUMO

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder with variable expressivity associated with hamartomatous tumors, abnormalities of the skin, and neurologic problems including seizures, intellectual disability, and autism. TSC is caused by pathogenic variants in either TSC1 or TSC2. In general, TSC2 pathogenic variants are associated with a more severe phenotype than TSC1 pathogenic variants. Here, we report a pathogenic TSC2 variant, c.1864C>T, p.(Arg622Trp), associated with a mild phenotype, with most carriers meeting fewer than two major clinical diagnostic criteria for TSC. This finding has significant implications for counseling patients regarding prognosis. More patient data are required before changing the surveillance recommendations for patients with the reported variant. However, consideration should be given to tailoring surveillance recommendations for all pathogenic TSC1 and TSC2 variants with documented milder clinical sequelae. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Alelos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico , Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Linhagem , Rabdomioma/diagnóstico , Rabdomioma/genética , Rabdomioma/cirurgia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa
17.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud ; 3(1): a001156, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050599

RESUMO

We describe a woman who presented with cataracts, optic atrophy, lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, and peripheral neuropathy. Exome sequencing identified a c.235C > G p.(Leu79Val) variant in the optic atrophy 3 (OPA3) gene that was confirmed to be de novo. This report expands the severity of the phenotypic spectrum of autosomal dominant OPA3 mutations.

19.
J Genet Couns ; 26(1): 21-31, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27743245

RESUMO

Here we review the current understanding of the genetic architecture of intracranial berry aneurysms (IBA) to aid in the genetic counseling of patients at risk for this condition. The familial subtype of IBA, familial intracranial aneurysms (FIA), is associated with increased frequency of IBA, increased risk of rupture, and increased morbidity and mortality after rupture. Family history is the strongest predictor for the development of IBA. However, a genetic test is not yet available to assess risk within a family. Studies using linkage analysis, genome-wide association, and next-generation sequencing have found several candidate loci and genes associated with disease onset, but have not conclusively implicated a single gene. In addition to family history, a separate or concurrent diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a strong genetic risk factor for IBA formation. We also discuss the relative risk for developing IBA in several Mendelian syndromes including vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type I, and Loeys-Dietz syndrome.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/complicações , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Intracraniano/etiologia , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/complicações , Síndrome de Loeys-Dietz/genética , Síndrome de Marfan/complicações , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Horm Metab Res ; 49(1): 64-72, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27701682

RESUMO

Acylation of ghrelin is mediated by ghrelin O-acyltansferase (GOAT). Exogenous acylated ghrelin (AG) stimulates growth hormone (GH) and food intake. In non-pregnant (NP) animals, the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis prevents hypoglycemia caused by caloric restriction (CR). In humans, maternal malnutrition challenges glucose metabolism, which is a key determinant of fetal health. To clarify the role of AG and GH, we compared effects of CR on the GOAT-ghrelin-GH axis in pregnant (P) and NP mice. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and GOAT knock-out (KO) P and NP mice were freely fed (FF) or subjected to 50% CR for one week. CR was started in P mice on Day 10.5 after conception. We measured body composition, blood glucose, plasma ghrelin and GH, stomach, hypothalamus and pituitary GOAT and ghrelin expression, and liver glycogen content and Pck1 expression. GOAT and AG were undetectable in KO. In NP mice, CR did not affect blood glucose (-1.3 mmol/l, p>0.05) in WT but was lowered (-1.8 mmol/l, p<0.0001) in KO. GH and Pck1 mRNA expression increased in WT but not in KO. In P mice, CR markedly lowered glucose (-2.7 mmol/l; p<0.0001) in WT and caused fatal hypoglycemia in KO, despite similarly elevated GH in WT and KO mice. KO animals are more prone to hypoglycemia than WT. GH, which is high in P animals, does not prevent hypoglycemia caused by CR during pregnancy. Our data suggest a specific role of AG in the regulation of gluconeogenesis to maintain euglycemia during pregnancy when energy availability is limited.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/fisiologia , Restrição Calórica , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Grelina/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Acilação/genética , Aciltransferases/genética , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Feminino , Grelina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Gravidez
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