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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153203

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) dual-task (TUGdt) tests predict dementia incidence among patients with subjective or mild cognitive impairment (SCI; MCI). Other study objectives were to determine whether TUGdt improves dementia prediction compared to a) demographic characteristics and standard cognitive tests alone; and b) TUG and Verbal Fluency performed separately. Patients (n = 172, age range 39-91 years, 78 women) with SCI or MCI performed TUGdt tests, including 1) naming animals and 2) reciting months backwards, and clinical cognitive tests at baseline. Diagnoses were identified at follow-up after 2.5 years. Logistic regression was used to predict dementia incidence, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and c-statistics for predictive capacity. Analyses were stratified by age and gender. At follow-up, 51 patients had developed dementia. The TUGdt result "animals/10 s" was associated with dementia incidence (standardized odds ratio (OR) = 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.28-7.23, p < 0.001), more so among patients under the median age of 72 years (standardized OR = 19.4, 95% CI 3.53-106.17, p < 0.001). TUGdt "animals/10 s" improved dementia prediction compared to demographic characteristics and standard tests alone (c-statistics 0.88 to 0.94) and single-task tests (c-statistics 0.86 to 0.89), but only in the younger patient group. TUGdt has the potential to become a useful tool for dementia prediction.

2.
Nat Metab ; 2(10): 1135-1148, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067605

RESUMO

Circulating proteins are vital in human health and disease and are frequently used as biomarkers for clinical decision-making or as targets for pharmacological intervention. Here, we map and replicate protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) for 90 cardiovascular proteins in over 30,000 individuals, resulting in 451 pQTLs for 85 proteins. For each protein, we further perform pathway mapping to obtain trans-pQTL gene and regulatory designations. We substantiate these regulatory findings with orthogonal evidence for trans-pQTLs using mouse knockdown experiments (ABCA1 and TRIB1) and clinical trial results (chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5), with consistent regulation. Finally, we evaluate known drug targets, and suggest new target candidates or repositioning opportunities using Mendelian randomization. This identifies 11 proteins with causal evidence of involvement in human disease that have not previously been targeted, including EGF, IL-16, PAPPA, SPON1, F3, ADM, CASP-8, CHI3L1, CXCL16, GDF15 and MMP-12. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of large-scale mapping of the genetics of the proteome and provide a resource for future precision studies of circulating proteins in human health.

3.
Atherosclerosis ; (307): 11-15, Aug., 2020. tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1122622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous proteomics efforts in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have predominantly evaluated urinary protein levels. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the association between plasma levels of 80 cardiovascular disease-related proteins and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with CKD. METHODS: Individuals with CKD stages 3-5 (eGFR below 60 ml min-1 [1.73 m]-2) from three community-based cohorts (PIVUS, ULSAM, SAVA), one diabetes cohort (CARDIPP) and one cohort with peripheral artery disease patients (PADVA) with information on 80 plasma protein biomarkers, assessed with a proximity extension assay, and follow-up data on incident MACE, were used as discovery sample. To validate findings and to asses generalizability to patients with CKD in clinical practice, an outpatient CKD-cohort (Malnutrition, Inflammation and Vascular Calcification (MIVC)) was used as replication sample. RESULTS: In the discovery sample (total n = 1316), 249 individuals experienced MACE during 7.0 ± 2.9 years (range 0.005-12.9) of follow-up, and in the replication sample, 71 MACE events in 283 individuals over a mean ± SD change of 2.9 ± 1.2 years (range 0.1-4.0) were documented. Applying Bonferroni correction, 18 proteins were significantly associated with risk of MACE in the discovery cohort, adjusting for age and sex in order of significance, GDF-15, FGF-23, REN, FABP4, IL6, TNF-R1, AGRP, MMP-12, AM, KIM-1, TRAILR2, TNFR2, CTSL1, CSF1, PlGF, CA-125, CCL20 and PAR-1 (p < 0.000625 for all). Only matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) was significantly associated with an increased risk of MACE in the replication sample (hazard ratio (HR) per SD increase, 1.36, 95% CI (1.07-1.75), p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomics analyses identified plasma MMP-12 as a promising cardiovascular risk marker in patients with CKD.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Proteômica
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 258, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination between early-stage dementia and other cognitive impairment diagnoses is central to enable appropriate interventions. Previous studies indicate that dual-task testing may be useful in such differentiation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dual-task test outcomes discriminate between groups of individuals with dementia disorder, mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 464 individuals (mean age 71 years, 47% women) were included in the study, of which 298 were patients undergoing memory assessment and 166 were cognitively healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to the diagnosis received: dementia disorder, mild cognitive impairment, or subjective cognitive impairment. Data collection included participants' demographic characteristics. The patients' cognitive test results and diagnoses were collected from their medical records. Healthy controls underwent the same cognitive tests as the patients. The mobility test Timed Up-and-Go (TUG single-task) and two dual-task tests including TUG (TUGdt) were carried out: TUGdt naming animals and TUGdt months backwards. The outcomes registered were: time scores for TUG single-task and both TUGdt tests, TUGdt costs (relative time difference between TUG single-task and TUGdt), number of different animals named, number of months recited in correct order, number of animals per 10 s, and number of months per 10 s. Logistic regression models examined associations between TUG outcomes pairwise between groups. RESULTS: The TUGdt outcomes "animals/10 s" and "months/10 s" discriminated significantly (p < 0.001) between individuals with an early-stage dementia diagnosis, mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. The TUGdt outcome "animals/10 s" showed an odds ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval 2.0-5.4) for the groups dementia disorders vs. mild cognitive impairment. TUGdt cost outcomes, however, did not discriminate between any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel TUGdt outcomes "words per time unit", i.e. "animals/10 s" and "months/10 s", demonstrate high levels of discrimination between all investigated groups. Thus, the TUGdt tests in the current study could be useful as complementary tools in diagnostic assessments. Future studies will be focused on the predictive value of TUGdt outcomes concerning dementia risk for individuals with mild cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive impairment.

5.
Atherosclerosis ; 307: 11-15, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous proteomics efforts in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have predominantly evaluated urinary protein levels. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the association between plasma levels of 80 cardiovascular disease-related proteins and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with CKD. METHODS: Individuals with CKD stages 3-5 (eGFR below 60 ml min-1 [1.73 m]-2) from three community-based cohorts (PIVUS, ULSAM, SAVA), one diabetes cohort (CARDIPP) and one cohort with peripheral artery disease patients (PADVA) with information on 80 plasma protein biomarkers, assessed with a proximity extension assay, and follow-up data on incident MACE, were used as discovery sample. To validate findings and to asses generalizability to patients with CKD in clinical practice, an outpatient CKD-cohort (Malnutrition, Inflammation and Vascular Calcification (MIVC)) was used as replication sample. RESULTS: In the discovery sample (total n = 1316), 249 individuals experienced MACE during 7.0 ± 2.9 years (range 0.005-12.9) of follow-up, and in the replication sample, 71 MACE events in 283 individuals over a mean ± SD change of 2.9 ± 1.2 years (range 0.1-4.0) were documented. Applying Bonferroni correction, 18 proteins were significantly associated with risk of MACE in the discovery cohort, adjusting for age and sex in order of significance, GDF-15, FGF-23, REN, FABP4, IL6, TNF-R1, AGRP, MMP-12, AM, KIM-1, TRAILR2, TNFR2, CTSL1, CSF1, PlGF, CA-125, CCL20 and PAR-1 (p < 0.000625 for all). Only matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) was significantly associated with an increased risk of MACE in the replication sample (hazard ratio (HR) per SD increase, 1.36, 95% CI (1.07-1.75), p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomics analyses identified plasma MMP-12 as a promising cardiovascular risk marker in patients with CKD.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2542, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439900

RESUMO

The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrioventricular conduction, and is associated with conduction abnormalities, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiovascular mortality. Here we report a multi-ancestry (N = 293,051) genome-wide association meta-analysis for the PR interval, discovering 202 loci of which 141 have not previously been reported. Variants at identified loci increase the percentage of heritability explained, from 33.5% to 62.6%. We observe enrichment for cardiac muscle developmental/contractile and cytoskeletal genes, highlighting key regulation processes for atrioventricular conduction. Additionally, 8 loci not previously reported harbor genes underlying inherited arrhythmic syndromes and/or cardiomyopathies suggesting a role for these genes in cardiovascular pathology in the general population. We show that polygenic predisposition to PR interval duration is an endophenotype for cardiovascular disease, including distal conduction disease, AF, and atrioventricular pre-excitation. These findings advance our understanding of the polygenic basis of cardiac conduction, and the genetic relationship between PR interval duration and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Eletrocardiografia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Endofenótipos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150995

RESUMO

New methods to screen for and identify early-stage dementia disorders are highly sought after. The purpose of this pilot study is to develop a study protocol for a dual-task test aimed at aiding the early detection of dementia disorders. We used the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test, which is a mobility task involving starting in a sitting position, standing up, walking three meters to cross a line on the floor, turning around, walking back and sitting down again. We combined TUG with the verbal task of naming different animals. Pilot study participants were 43 individuals with and without established dementia diagnoses who attended a clinic for memory assessment. Video-recorded test performances were systematically analysed. Deviant test performances concerning the interplay between test administration and participants' responses to the assessment instructions were revealed and led to refinements being made to the final study protocol. Exploration of the dual-task test outcome measures in a sub-sample of 22 persons, ten with and twelve without dementia, indicated that step-length and number of named animals after the turning point of the dual-task test might constitute appropriate measures for examining this kind of sample. We concluded that the refined study protocol is feasible for testing individuals undergoing initial memory assessments and healthy controls. Follow-up studies with larger samples are being carried out and will bring new knowledge to this area of research. It may also provide an opportunity for further studies exploring possibilities for broad clinical implementation.


Assuntos
Cognição , Demência , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Caminhada , Demência/diagnóstico , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Marcha , Humanos , Memória , Projetos Piloto , Gravação em Vídeo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 163, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919418

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(3): 349-357, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654039

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) is the most common somatic genetic aberration and is associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality, various forms of cancer and Alzheimer's disease, as well as other common human diseases. By tracking LOY frequencies in subjects from which blood samples have been serially collected up to five times during up to 22 years, we observed a pronounced intra-individual variation of changes in the frequency of LOY within individual men over time. We observed that in some individuals the frequency of LOY in blood clearly progressed over time and that in other men, the frequency was constant or showed other types of longitudinal development. The predominant method used for estimating LOY is calculation of the median Log R Ratio of probes located in the male specific part of chromosome Y (mLRRY) from intensity data generated by SNP-arrays, which is difficult to interpret due to its logarithmic and inversed scale. We present here a formula to transform mLRRY-values to percentage of LOY that is a more comprehensible unit. The formula was derived using measurements of LOY from matched samples analysed using SNP-array, whole genome sequencing and a new AMELX/AMELY-based assay for droplet digital PCR. The methods described could be applied for analyses of the vast amount of SNP-array data already generated in the scientific community, allowing further discoveries of LOY associated diseases and outcomes.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(6): 2018-2025, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with high mortality rate and substantial disability among survivors. Its causes are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate risk factors for SAH using a novel nationwide cohort consortium. METHODS: We obtained individual participant data of 949 683 persons (330 334 women) between 25 and 90 years old, with no history of SAH at baseline, from 21 population-based cohorts. Outcomes were obtained from the Swedish Patient and Causes of Death Registries. RESULTS: During 13 704 959 person-years of follow-up, 2659 cases of first-ever fatal or non-fatal SAH occurred, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) (7.4-10.6)/100 000 person-years] in men and 13.8 [(11.4-16.2)/100 000 person-years] in women. The incidence rate increased exponentially with higher age. In multivariable-adjusted Poisson models, marked sex interactions for current smoking and body mass index (BMI) were observed. Current smoking conferred a rate ratio (RR) of 2.24 (95% CI 1.95-2.57) in women and 1.62 (1.47-1.79) in men. One standard deviation higher BMI was associated with an RR of 0.86 (0.81-0.92) in women and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) in men. Higher blood pressure and lower education level were also associated with higher risk of SAH. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH is 45% higher in women than in men, with substantial sex differences in risk factor strengths. In particular, a markedly stronger adverse effect of smoking in women may motivate targeted public health initiatives.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/mortalidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 764-773, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148414

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether metabolomic profiling of blood can lead to novel insights into heart failure pathogenesis or improved risk prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling was performed in plasma or serum samples from three community-based cohorts without heart failure at baseline (total n = 3924; 341 incident heart failure events; median follow-up ranging from 4.6 to 13.9 years). Cox proportional hazard models were applied to assess the association of each of the 206 identified metabolites with incident heart failure in the discovery cohorts Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) (n = 920) and Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) (n = 1121). Replication was undertaken in the independent cohort TwinGene (n = 1797). We also assessed whether metabolites could improve the prediction of heart failure beyond established risk factors (age, sex, body mass index, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid medication, diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood pressure medication, glomerular filtration rate, smoking status, and myocardial infarction prior to or during follow-up). Higher circulating urobilin and lower sphingomyelin (30:1) were associated with incident heart failure in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted models in the discovery and replication sample. The hazard ratio for urobilin in the replication cohort was estimated to 1.29 per standard deviation unit, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03-1.63), and for sphingomyelin (30:1) to 0.72 (95% CI 0.58-0.89). Results remained similar after further adjustment for established heart failure risk factors in meta-analyses of all three cohorts. Urobilin concentrations were inversely associated with left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline in the PIVUS cohort (ß = -0.70, 95% CI -1.03 to -0.38). No major improvement in risk prediction was observed when adding the top 2 metabolites (C-index 0.787, 95% CI 0.752-0.823) or nine Lasso-selected metabolites (0.790, 95% CI 0.754-0.826) to a modified Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities heart failure risk score model (0.780, 95% CI 0.745-0.816). CONCLUSIONS: Our metabolomic profiling of three community-based cohorts study identified associations of circulating levels of the haem breakdown product urobilin, and sphingomyelin (30:1), a cell membrane component involved in signal transduction and apoptosis, with incident heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Urobilina/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(s1): S75-S83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tools to identify individuals at preclinical stages of dementia disorders are needed to enable early interventions. Alterations in dual-task performance have been detected early in progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, dual-task testing may have the potential to screen for cognitive impairment caused by neurodegeneration. Exploring correlations between dual-task performance and biomarkers of neurodegeneration is therefore of interest. OBJECTIVE: To investigate correlations between Timed Up-and-Go dual-task (TUGdt) outcomes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid-ß 42 (Aß42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). METHODS: This cross-sectional cohort study included 90 participants (age range 49-84 years) undergoing memory assessment, who were subsequently diagnosed with AD, other dementia disorders, mild cognitive impairment, or subjective cognitive impairment. TUG combined with "Naming Animals" (TUGdt NA) and "Months Backwards" (TUGdt MB), respectively, were used to assess dual-task performance. The number of correct words and time taken to complete the tests were measured. The CSF biomarkers were analysed by ELISA. Spearman's rank correlation was used for analyses between TUGdt outcomes (TUGdt NA and TUGdt MB), and CSF biomarkers, adjusted for age, gender, and educational level. RESULTS: The number of correct words, as well as the number of correct words/10 s during TUGdt NA correlated negatively to CSF t-tau and p-tau. No correlations were found between any time scores and CSF biomarkers. CONCLUSION: The correlations between TUGdt NA and t-tau and p-tau may indicate that neurodegeneration affects dual-task performance. Longitudinal studies are needed to further explore dual-task testing in screening for cognitive impairment due to neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Cognição , Atividade Motora , Degeneração Neural/diagnóstico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
13.
Ups J Med Sci ; 124(1): 21-28, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618330

RESUMO

We herein outline the rationale for a Swedish cohort consortium, aiming to facilitate greater use of Swedish cohorts for world-class research. Coordination of all Swedish prospective population-based cohorts in a common infrastructure would enable more precise research findings and facilitate research on rare exposures and outcomes, leading to better utilization of study participants' data, better return of funders' investments, and higher benefit to patients and populations. We motivate the proposed infrastructure partly by lessons learned from a pilot study encompassing data from 21 cohorts. We envisage a standing Swedish cohort consortium that would drive development of epidemiological research methods and strengthen the Swedish as well as international epidemiological competence, community, and competitiveness.


Assuntos
Sistema de Registros , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Ética Médica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 67(2): 639-651, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed based on a clinical evaluation as well as analyses of classical biomarkers: Aß42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although the sensitivities and specificities of the classical biomarkers are fairly good for detection of AD, there is still a need to develop novel biochemical markers for early detection of AD. OBJECTIVE: We explored if integration of novel proteins with classical biomarkers in CSF can better discriminate AD from non-AD subjects. METHODS: We applied ELISA, mass spectrometry, and multivariate modeling to investigate classical biomarkers and the CSF proteome in subjects (n = 206) with 76 AD patients, 74 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, 11 frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, and 45 non-dementia controls. The MCI patients were followed for 4-9 years and 21 of these converted to AD, whereas 53 remained stable. RESULTS: By combining classical CSF biomarkers with twelve novel markers, the area of the ROC curves (AUROCS) of distinguishing AD and MCI/AD converters from non-AD were 93% and 96%, respectively. The FTDs and non-dementia controls were identified versus all other groups with AUROCS of 96% and 87%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of new and classical CSF biomarkers in a model-based approach can improve the identification of AD, FTD, and non-dementia control subjects.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Demência Frontotemporal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteoma , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 29, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604766

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Cálculos Renais/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etnologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
17.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 11: 429-440, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858078

RESUMO

The APPswe (Swedish) mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene causes dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a result of increased ß-secretase cleavage of the amyloid-ß (Aß) precursor protein. This leads to abnormally high Aß levels, not only in brain but also in peripheral tissues of mutation carriers. Here, we selectively disrupted the human mutant APPSW allele using CRISPR. By applying CRISPR/Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes, we generated allele-specific deletions of either APPSW or APPWT. As measured by ELISA, conditioned media of targeted patient-derived fibroblasts displayed an approximate 60% reduction in secreted Aß. Next, coding sequences for the APPSW-specific guide RNA (gRNA) and Cas9 were packaged into separate adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. Site-specific indel formation was achieved both in primary neurons isolated from APPSW transgenic mouse embryos (Tg2576) and after co-injection of these vectors into hippocampus of adult mice. Taken together, we here present proof-of-concept data that CRISPR/Cas9 can selectively disrupt the APPSW allele both ex vivo and in vivo-and thereby decrease pathogenic Aß. Hence, this system may have the potential to be developed as a tool for gene therapy against AD caused by APPswe and other point mutations associated with increased Aß.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8691, 2018 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875472

RESUMO

Insulin resistance (IR) predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but its causes are incompletely understood. Metabolic challenges like the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can reveal pathogenic mechanisms. We aimed to discover associations of IR with metabolite trajectories during OGTT. In 470 non-diabetic men (age 70.6 ± 0.6 years), plasma samples obtained at 0, 30 and 120 minutes during an OGTT were analyzed by untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics. IR was assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method. We applied age-adjusted linear regression to identify metabolites whose concentration change was related to IR. Nine trajectories, including monounsaturated fatty acids, lysophosphatidylethanolamines and a bile acid, were significantly associated with IR, with the strongest associations observed for medium-chain acylcarnitines C10 and C12, and no associations with L-carnitine or C2-, C8-, C14- or C16-carnitine. Concentrations of C10- and C12-carnitine decreased during OGTT with a blunted decline in participants with worse insulin resistance. Associations persisted after adjustment for obesity, fasting insulin and fasting glucose. In mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to different acylcarnitines, we observed blunted insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after treatment with C10- or C12-carnitine. In conclusion, our results identify medium-chain acylcarnitines as possible contributors to IR.


Assuntos
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Células 3T3-L1 , Idoso , Animais , Carnitina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Lipólise , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos
19.
Diabetologia ; 61(8): 1748-1757, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796748

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Multiplex proteomics could improve understanding and risk prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in type 2 diabetes. This study assessed 80 cardiovascular and inflammatory proteins for biomarker discovery and prediction of MACE in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We combined data from six prospective epidemiological studies of 30-77-year-old individuals with type 2 diabetes in whom 80 circulating proteins were measured by proximity extension assay. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used in a discovery/replication design to identify biomarkers for incident MACE. We used gradient-boosted machine learning and lasso regularised Cox regression in a random 75% training subsample to assess whether adding proteins to risk factors included in the Swedish National Diabetes Register risk model would improve the prediction of MACE in the separate 25% test subsample. RESULTS: Of 1211 adults with type 2 diabetes (32% women), 211 experienced a MACE over a mean (±SD) of 6.4 ± 2.3 years. We replicated associations (<5% false discovery rate) between risk of MACE and eight proteins: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, IL-27 subunit α (IL-27a), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, protein S100-A12, TNF receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R)2. Addition of the 80-protein assay to established risk factors improved discrimination in the separate test sample from 0.686 (95% CI 0.682, 0.689) to 0.748 (95% CI 0.746, 0.751). A sparse model of 20 added proteins achieved a C statistic of 0.747 (95% CI 0.653, 0.842) in the test sample. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We identified eight protein biomarkers, four of which are novel, for risk of MACE in community residents with type 2 diabetes, and found improved risk prediction by combining multiplex proteomics with an established risk model. Multiprotein arrays could be useful in identifying individuals with type 2 diabetes who are at highest risk of a cardiovascular event.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Proteômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(1): 55-62, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28967680

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify novel risk markers for incident heart failure using proteomic profiling of 80 proteins previously associated with cardiovascular pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proteomic profiling (proximity extension assay) was performed in two community-based prospective cohorts of elderly individuals without heart failure at baseline: the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors [PIVUS, n = 901, median age 70.2 (interquartile range 70.0-70.3) years, 80 events]; and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men [ULSAM, n = 685, median age 77.8 (interquartile range 76.9-78.1) years, 90 events]. Twenty-nine proteins were associated with incident heart failure in the discovery cohort PIVUS after adjustment for age and sex, and correction for multiple testing. Eighteen associations replicated in ULSAM. In pooled analysis of both cohorts, higher levels of nine proteins were associated with incident heart failure after adjustment for established risk factors: growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1), tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2), spondin-1 (SPON1), matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), follistatin (FS), urokinase-type plasminogen activator surface receptor (U-PAR), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2). Of these, GDF-15, U-PAR, MMP-12, TRAIL-R2, SPON1 and FS were associated with worsened echocardiographic left ventricular systolic function at baseline, while only TIM-1 was positively associated with worsened diastolic function (P < 0.02 for all). CONCLUSION: Proteomic profiling identified several novel associations between proteins involved in apoptosis, inflammation, matrix remodelling, and fibrinolysis with incident heart failure in elderly individuals. Our results encourage additional studies investigating the underlying mechanisms and the clinical utility of our findings.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Previsões , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Proteômica/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
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