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1.
Metabolites ; 11(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546276

RESUMO

Biological exploration of early biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in (pre)diabetic individuals is crucial for personalized management of diabetes. Here, we evaluated two candidate biomarkers of incident CKD (sphingomyelin (SM) C18:1 and phosphatidylcholine diacyl (PC aa) C38:0) concerning kidney function in hyperglycemic participants of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) cohort, and in two biofluids and six organs of leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice and wild type controls. Higher serum concentrations of SM C18:1 and PC aa C38:0 in hyperglycemic individuals were found to be associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher odds of CKD. In db/db mice, both metabolites had a significantly lower concentration in urine and adipose tissue, but higher in the lungs. Additionally, db/db mice had significantly higher SM C18:1 levels in plasma and liver, and PC aa C38:0 in adrenal glands. This cross-sectional human study confirms that SM C18:1 and PC aa C38:0 associate with kidney dysfunction in pre(diabetic) individuals, and the animal study suggests a potential implication of liver, lungs, adrenal glands, and visceral fat in their systemic regulation. Our results support further validation of the two phospholipids as early biomarkers of renal disease in patients with (pre)diabetes.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1279, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627659

RESUMO

Blood circulating proteins are confounded readouts of the biological processes that occur in different tissues and organs. Many proteins have been linked to complex disorders and are also under substantial genetic control. Here, we investigate the associations between over 1000 blood circulating proteins and body mass index (BMI) in three studies including over 4600 participants. We show that BMI is associated with widespread changes in the plasma proteome. We observe 152 replicated protein associations with BMI. 24 proteins also associate with a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) for BMI. These proteins are involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways impacting clinically relevant pathways of adiposity. Mendelian randomization suggests a bi-directional causal relationship of BMI with LEPR/LEP, IGFBP1, and WFIKKN2, a protein-to-BMI relationship for AGER, DPT, and CTSA, and a BMI-to-protein relationship for another 21 proteins. Combined with animal model and tissue-specific gene expression data, our findings suggest potential therapeutic targets further elucidating the role of these proteins in obesity associated pathologies.

3.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469137

RESUMO

The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from ~2.2 M to ~7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and α1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 284-294, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421400

RESUMO

Mastocytosis is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by uncontrolled expansion of mast cells, driven in >80% of affected individuals by acquisition of the KIT D816V mutation. To explore the hypothesis that inherited variation predisposes to mastocytosis, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study, analyzing 1,035 individuals with KIT D816V positive disease and 17,960 healthy control individuals from five European populations. After quality control, we tested 592,007 SNPs at stage 1 and 75 SNPs at stage 2 for association by using logistic regression and performed a fixed effects meta-analysis to combine evidence across the two stages. From the meta-analysis, we identified three intergenic SNPs associated with mastocytosis that achieved genome-wide significance without heterogeneity between cohorts: rs4616402 (pmeta = 1.37 × 10-15, OR = 1.52), rs4662380 (pmeta = 2.11 × 10-12, OR = 1.46), and rs13077541 (pmeta = 2.10 × 10-9, OR = 1.33). Expression quantitative trait analyses demonstrated that rs4616402 is associated with the expression of CEBPA (peQTL = 2.3 × 10-14), a gene encoding a transcription factor known to play a critical role in myelopoiesis. The role of the other two SNPs is less clear: rs4662380 is associated with expression of the long non-coding RNA gene TEX41 (peQTL = 2.55 × 10-11), whereas rs13077541 is associated with the expression of TBL1XR1, which encodes transducin (ß)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1 (peQTL = 5.70 × 10-8). In individuals with available data and non-advanced disease, rs4616402 was associated with age at presentation (p = 0.009; beta = 4.41; n = 422). Additional focused analysis identified suggestive associations between mastocytosis and genetic variation at TERT, TPSAB1/TPSB2, and IL13. These findings demonstrate that multiple germline variants predispose to KIT D816V positive mastocytosis and provide novel avenues for functional investigation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mastocitose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , DNA Intergênico , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-13/genética , Íntrons , Masculino , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Telomerase/genética , Triptases/genética
5.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 7, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of robust and trans-ethnically replicated DNA methylation markers of metabolic phenotypes, has hinted at a potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in lipid metabolism. However, DNA methylation and the lipid compositions and lipid concentrations of lipoprotein sizes have been scarcely studied. Here, we present an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) (N = 5414 total) of mostly lipid-related metabolic measures, including a fine profiling of lipoproteins. As lipoproteins are the main players in the different stages of lipid metabolism, examination of epigenetic markers of detailed lipoprotein features might improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of metabolic disturbances. RESULTS: We conducted an EWAS of leukocyte DNA methylation and 226 metabolic measurements determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the population-based KORA F4 study (N = 1662) and replicated the results in the LOLIPOP, NFBC1966, and YFS cohorts (N = 3752). Follow-up analyses in the discovery cohort included investigations into gene transcripts, metabolic-measure ratios for pathway analysis, and disease endpoints. We identified 161 associations (p value < 4.7 × 10-10), covering 16 CpG sites at 11 loci and 57 metabolic measures. Identified metabolic measures were primarily medium and small lipoproteins, and fatty acids. For apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, the associations mainly involved triglyceride composition and concentrations of cholesterol esters, triglycerides, free cholesterol, and phospholipids. All associations for HDL lipoproteins involved triglyceride measures only. Associated metabolic measure ratios, proxies of enzymatic activity, highlight amino acid, glucose, and lipid pathways as being potentially epigenetically implicated. Five CpG sites in four genes were associated with differential expression of transcripts in blood or adipose tissue. CpG sites in ABCG1 and PHGDH showed associations with metabolic measures, gene transcription, and metabolic measure ratios and were additionally linked to obesity or previous myocardial infarction, extending previously reported observations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence of a link between DNA methylation and the lipid compositions and lipid concentrations of different lipoprotein size subclasses, thus offering in-depth insights into well-known associations of DNA methylation with total serum lipids. The results support detailed profiling of lipid metabolism to improve the molecular understanding of dyslipidemia and related disease mechanisms.

6.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12855, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789449

RESUMO

DNA methylation may be one of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption is associated with the risk of disease. We conducted a large-scale, cross-sectional, genome-wide DNA methylation association study of alcohol consumption and a longitudinal analysis of repeated measurements taken several years apart. Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, DNA methylation was measured in blood samples from 5606 Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) participants. For 1088 of them, these measures were repeated using blood samples collected a median of 11 years later. Associations between alcohol intake and blood DNA methylation were assessed using linear mixed-effects regression models. Independent data from the London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) (N = 4042) and Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA) (N = 1662) cohorts were used to replicate associations discovered in the MCCS. Cross-sectional analyses identified 1414 CpGs associated with alcohol intake at P < 10-7 , 1243 of which had not been reported previously. Of these novel associations, 1078 were replicated (P < .05) using LOLIPOP and KORA data. Using the MCCS data, we also replicated 403 of 518 previously reported associations. Interaction analyses suggested that associations were stronger for women, non-smokers, and participants genetically predisposed to consume less alcohol. Of the 1414 CpGs, 530 were differentially methylated (P < .05) in former compared with current drinkers. Longitudinal associations between the change in alcohol intake and the change in methylation were observed for 513 of the 1414 cross-sectional associations. Our study indicates that alcohol intake is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation across the genome. Longitudinal analyses showed that the methylation status of alcohol-associated CpGs may change with alcohol consumption changes in adulthood.

7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(6): e002769, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). METHODS: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D). RESULTS: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.

8.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137338

RESUMO

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m2/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.

9.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by intracellular accumulations of α-synuclein and nerve cell loss in striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar structures. Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported potential involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in MSA pathogenesis. However, genetic etiology of this interaction remains unknown. We aimed to investigate genetic overlap between MSA and 7 autoimmune diseases and to identify shared genetic loci. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary statistics of MSA and 7 autoimmune diseases were combined in cross-trait conjunctional false discovery rate analysis to explore overlapping genetic background. Expression of selected candidate genes was compared in transgenic MSA mice and wild-type mice. Genetic variability of candidate genes was further investigated using independent whole-exome genotyping data from large cohorts of MSA and autoimmune disease patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: We observed substantial polygenic overlap between MSA and inflammatory bowel disease and identified 3 shared genetic loci with leading variants upstream of the DENND1B and RSP04 genes, and in intron of the C7 gene. Further, the C7 gene showed significantly dysregulated expression in the degenerating midbrain of transgenic MSA mice compared with wild-type mice and had elevated burden of protein-coding variants in independent MSA and inflammatory bowel disease cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence of shared genetic etiology between MSA and inflammatory bowel disease with an important role of the C7 gene in both phenotypes, with the implication of immune and gut dysfunction in MSA pathophysiology. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

10.
Diabetes ; 69(12): 2756-2765, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024004

RESUMO

Early and precise identification of individuals with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) at risk for progressing to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is essential to prevent complications of diabetes. Here, we identify and evaluate prospective metabolite biomarkers and the best set of predictors of CKD in the longitudinal, population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) cohort by targeted metabolomics and machine learning approaches. Out of 125 targeted metabolites, sphingomyelin C18:1 and phosphatidylcholine diacyl C38:0 were identified as candidate metabolite biomarkers of incident CKD specifically in hyperglycemic individuals followed during 6.5 years. Sets of predictors for incident CKD developed from 125 metabolites and 14 clinical variables showed highly stable performances in all three machine learning approaches and outperformed the currently established clinical algorithm for CKD. The two metabolites in combination with five clinical variables were identified as the best set of predictors, and their predictive performance yielded a mean area value under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.857. The inclusion of metabolite variables in the clinical prediction of future CKD may thus improve the risk prediction in people with prediabetes and T2D. The metabolite link with hyperglycemia-related early kidney dysfunction warrants further investigation.

11.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989287

RESUMO

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (rG = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.

12.
Diabetes ; 69(12): 2766-2778, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928870

RESUMO

With an estimated prevalence of 463 million affected, type 2 diabetes represents a major challenge to health care systems worldwide. Analyzing the plasma proteomes of individuals with type 2 diabetes may illuminate hitherto unknown functional mechanisms underlying disease pathology. We assessed the associations between type 2 diabetes and >1,000 plasma proteins in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 cohort (n = 993, 110 cases), with subsequent replication in the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3) cohort (n = 940, 149 cases). We computed logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension. Additionally, we investigated associations with incident type 2 diabetes and performed two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to prioritize our results. Association analysis of prevalent type 2 diabetes revealed 24 replicated proteins, of which 8 are novel. Proteins showing association with incident type 2 diabetes were aminoacylase-1, growth hormone receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2. Aminoacylase-1 was associated with both prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. MR analysis yielded nominally significant causal effects of type 2 diabetes on cathepsin Z and rennin, both known to have roles in the pathophysiological pathways of cardiovascular disease, and of sex hormone-binding globulin on type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, our high-throughput proteomics study replicated previously reported type 2 diabetes-protein associations and identified new candidate proteins possibly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 88(4): 736-746, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early discrimination of patients with ischemic stroke (IS) from stroke mimics (SMs) poses a diagnostic challenge. The circulating metabolome might reflect pathophysiological events related to acute IS. Here, we investigated the utility of early metabolic changes for differentiating IS from SM. METHODS: We performed untargeted metabolomics on serum samples obtained from patients with IS (N = 508) and SM (N = 349; defined by absence of a diffusion weighted imaging [DWI] positive lesion on magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) who presented to the hospital within 24 hours after symptom onset (median time from symptom onset to blood sampling = 3.3 hours; interquartile range [IQR] = 1.6-6.7 hours) and from neurologically normal controls (NCs; N = 112). We compared diagnostic groups in a discovery-validation approach by applying multivariable linear regression models, machine learning techniques, and propensity score matching. We further performed a targeted look-up of published metabolite sets. RESULTS: Levels of 41 metabolites were significantly associated with IS compared to NCs. The top metabolites showing the highest value in separating IS from SMs were asymmetrical and symmetrical dimethylarginine, pregnenolone sulfate, and adenosine. Together, these 4 metabolites differentiated patients with IS from SMs with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90 in the replication sample, which was superior to multimodal cranial computed tomography (CT; AUC = 0.80) obtained for routine diagnostics. They were further superior to previously published metabolite sets detected in our samples. All 4 metabolites returned to control levels by day 90. INTERPRETATION: A set of 4 metabolites with known biological effects relevant to stroke pathophysiology shows unprecedented utility to identify patients with IS upon hospital arrival, thus encouraging further investigation, including multicenter studies. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:736-746.

14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(15): 15222-15259, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788422

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most abundant serum antibody which structural characteristics and effector functions are modulated through the attachment of various sugar moieties called glycans. Composition of the IgG N-glycome changes with age of an individual and in different diseases. Variability of IgG glycosylation within a population is well studied and is known to be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. However, global inter-population differences in IgG glycosylation have never been properly addressed. Here we present population-specific N-glycosylation patterns of IgG, analyzed in 5 different populations totaling 10,482 IgG glycomes, and of IgG's fragment crystallizable region (Fc), analyzed in 2,579 samples from 27 populations sampled across the world. Country of residence associated with many N-glycan features and the strongest association was with monogalactosylation where it explained 38% of variability. IgG monogalactosylation strongly correlated with the development level of a country, defined by United Nations health and socioeconomic development indicators, and with the expected lifespan. Subjects from developing countries had low levels of IgG galactosylation, characteristic for inflammation and ageing. Our results suggest that citizens of developing countries may be exposed to environmental factors that can cause low-grade chronic inflammation and the apparent increase in biological age.

15.
Glycobiology ; 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521004

RESUMO

Human protein glycosylation is a complex process, and its in vivo regulation is poorly understood. Changes in glycosylation patterns are associated with many human diseases and conditions. Understanding the biological determinants of protein glycome provides a basis for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) allow to study biology via a hypothesis-free search of loci and genetic variants associated with a trait of interest. Sixteen loci were identified by three previous GWAS of human plasma proteome N-glycosylation. However, the possibility that some of these loci are false positives needs to be eliminated by replication studies, which have been limited so far. Here, we use the largest set of samples so far (4,802 individuals) to replicate the previously identified loci. For all but one locus, the expected replication power exceeded 95%. Of the sixteen loci reported previously, fifteen were replicated in our study. For the remaining locus (near the KREMEN1 gene) the replication power was low, and hence replication results were inconclusive. The very high replication rate highlights the general robustness of the GWAS findings as well as the high standards adopted by the community that studies genetic regulation of protein glycosylation. The fifteen replicated loci present a good target for further functional studies. Among these, eight genes encode glycosyltransferases: MGAT5, B3GAT1, FUT8, FUT6, ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, ST3GAL4, and MGAT3. The remaining seven loci offer starting points for further functional follow-up investigation into molecules and mechanisms that regulate human protein N-glycosylation in vivo.

16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(2): e1007616, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012148

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify genetic variants associated with traits or diseases. GWAS never directly link variants to regulatory mechanisms. Instead, the functional annotation of variants is typically inferred by post hoc analyses. A specific class of deep learning-based methods allows for the prediction of regulatory effects per variant on several cell type-specific chromatin features. We here describe "DeepWAS", a new approach that integrates these regulatory effect predictions of single variants into a multivariate GWAS setting. Thereby, single variants associated with a trait or disease are directly coupled to their impact on a chromatin feature in a cell type. Up to 61 regulatory SNPs, called dSNPs, were associated with multiple sclerosis (MS, 4,888 cases and 10,395 controls), major depressive disorder (MDD, 1,475 cases and 2,144 controls), and height (5,974 individuals). These variants were mainly non-coding and reached at least nominal significance in classical GWAS. The prediction accuracy was higher for DeepWAS than for classical GWAS models for 91% of the genome-wide significant, MS-specific dSNPs. DSNPs were enriched in public or cohort-matched expression and methylation quantitative trait loci and we demonstrated the potential of DeepWAS to generate testable functional hypotheses based on genotype data alone. DeepWAS is available at https://github.com/cellmapslab/DeepWAS.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Análise Multivariada , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
17.
Diabetes Care ; 43(4): 875-884, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of epigenetics in statins' diabetogenic effect comparing DNA methylation (DNAm) between statin users and nonusers in an epigenome-wide association study in blood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Five cohort studies' participants (n = 8,270) were classified as statin users when they were on statin therapy at the time of DNAm assessment with Illumina 450K or EPIC array or noncurrent users otherwise. Associations of DNAm with various outcomes like incident type 2 diabetes, plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (HOMA of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) as well as with gene expression were investigated. RESULTS: Discovery (n = 6,820) and replication (n = 1,450) phases associated five DNAm sites with statin use: cg17901584 (1.12 × 10-25 [DHCR24]), cg10177197 (3.94 × 10-08 [DHCR24]), cg06500161 (2.67 × 10-23 [ABCG1]), cg27243685 (6.01 × 10-09 [ABCG1]), and cg05119988 (7.26 × 10-12 [SC4MOL]). Two sites were associated with at least one glycemic trait or type 2 diabetes. Higher cg06500161 methylation was associated with higher fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.34 [95% CI 1.22, 1.47]). Mediation analyses suggested that ABCG1 methylation partially mediates the effect of statins on high insulin and HOMA-IR. Gene expression analyses showed that statin exposure and ABCG1 methylation were associated with ABCG1 downregulation, suggesting epigenetic regulation of ABCG1 expression. Further, outcomes insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly associated with ABCG1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: This study sheds light on potential mechanisms linking statins with type 2 diabetes risk, providing evidence on DNAm partially mediating statins' effects on insulin traits. Further efforts shall disentangle the molecular mechanisms through which statins may induce DNAm changes, potentially leading to ABCG1 epigenetic regulation.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 15, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900413

RESUMO

DNA methylation and blood circulating proteins have been associated with many complex disorders, but the underlying disease-causing mechanisms often remain unclear. Here, we report an epigenome-wide association study of 1123 proteins from 944 participants of the KORA population study and replication in a multi-ethnic cohort of 344 individuals. We identify 98 CpG-protein associations (pQTMs) at a stringent Bonferroni level of significance. Overlapping associations with transcriptomics, metabolomics, and clinical endpoints suggest implication of processes related to chronic low-grade inflammation, including a network involving methylation of NLRC5, a regulator of the inflammasome, and associated pQTMs implicating key proteins of the immune system, such as CD48, CD163, CXCL10, CXCL11, LAG3, FCGR3B, and B2M. Our study links DNA methylation to disease endpoints via intermediate proteomics phenotypes and identifies correlative networks that may eventually be targeted in a personalized approach of chronic low-grade inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Inflamação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Epigenômica , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Alemanha , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica , Receptores de IgG/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935258

RESUMO

Sample collection, processing, storage and isolation methods constitute pre-analytic factors that can influence the quality of samples used in research and clinical practice. With regard to biobanking practices, a critical point in the sample's life chain is storage, particularly long-term storage. Since most studies examine the influence of different temperatures (4°C, room temperature) or delays in sample processing on sample quality, there is only little information on the effects of long-term storage at ultra-low (vapor phase of liquid nitrogen) temperatures on biomarker levels. Among these biomarkers, circulating miRNAs hold great potential for diagnosis or prognosis for a variety of diseases, like cancer, infections and chronic diseases, and are thus of high interest in several scientific questions. We therefore investigated the influence of long-term storage on levels of eight circulating miRNAs (miR-103a-3p, miR-191-5p, miR-124-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-451a, miR-23a-3p, miR-93-5p, miR-24-3p, and miR-33b-5p) from 10 participants from the population-based cohort study KORA. Sample collection took place during the baseline survey S4 and the follow-up surveys F4 and FF4, over a time period spanning from 1999 to 2014. The influence of freeze-thaw (f/t) cycles on miRNA stability was also investigated using samples from volunteers (n = 6). Obtained plasma samples were profiled using Exiqon's miRCURYTM real-time PCR profiling system, and repeated measures ANOVA was used to check for storage or f/t effects. Our results show that detected levels of most of the studied miRNAs showed no statistically significant changes due to storage at ultra-low temperatures for up to 17 years; miR-451a levels were altered due to contamination during sampling. Freeze-thawing of one to four cycles showed an effect only on miR-30c-5p. Our results highlight the robustness of this set of circulating miRNAs for decades of storage at ultra-low temperatures and several freeze-thaw cycles, which makes our findings increasingly relevant for research conducted with biobanked samples.


Assuntos
Congelamento/efeitos adversos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tempo , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Biomarcadores/sangue , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , MicroRNA Circulante/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade de RNA , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(4): 1357-1369, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089867

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inter-individual metabolic differences may be a reason for previously inconsistent results in diet-diabetes associations. We aimed to investigate associations between dietary intake and diabetes for metabolically homogeneous subgroups ('metabotypes') in a large cross-sectional study. METHODS: We used data of 1517 adults aged 38-87 years from the German population-based KORA FF4 study (2013/2014). Dietary intake was estimated based on the combination of a food frequency questionnaire and multiple 24-h food lists. Glucose tolerance status was classified based on an oral glucose tolerance test in participants without a previous diabetes diagnosis using American Diabetes Association criteria. Logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between dietary intake and diabetes for two distinct metabotypes, which were identified based on 16 biochemical and anthropometric parameters. RESULTS: A low intake of fruits and a high intake of total meat, processed meat and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) were significantly associated with diabetes in the total study population. Stratified by metabotype, associations with diabetes remained significant for intake of total meat (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67) and processed meat (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.24-4.04) in the metabotypes with rather favorable metabolic characteristics, and for intake of fruits (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-0.99) and SSB (OR:1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.35) in the more unfavorable metabotype. However, only the association between SSB intake and diabetes differed significantly by metabotype (p value for interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest an influence of metabolic characteristics on diet-diabetes associations, which may help to explain inconsistent previous results. The causality of the observed associations needs to be confirmed in prospective and intervention studies.

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