Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 17 de 17
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 20(4): 473-484, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ood producers strive to meet the changing needs of consumers while maintaining the highest nutritional value of the products they supply. Physicochemical methods, which include modified atmosphere packaging, membrane techniques or ultrasounds, are the most frequently used to preserve food. Alternatively, biological methods can be applied, one of which is the use of bacteriophages (phages) to limit bacterial growth in the food environment. The purpose of our research was to verify the possibility of the use of bacteriophages as an antibacterial agent in minimally processed food environments of vegetable origin. The first stage of the research involved the isolation of phages against the dominant bacterial microflora in the analyzed products: broccoli sprouts, spinach leaves and freshly squeezed carrot-celery juice. Bacteriophages were isolated from municipal waste collected from sewage-treatment plants. Specific bacteriophages were isolated for twenty-nine out of thirty identified bacterial strains. The lytic activity of the phages was tested using a Bioscreen C automatic growth analyzer. Three methods for applying the phage cocktail were tested: direct addition of the cocktail, spraying it on, and placing the food product on a pad soaked with the phage mixture. The food products were packaged in a protective atmosphere and stored at 20°C. The total number of bacteria after adding the phage cocktail to the products was determined during the subsequent hours of incubation using classical microbial culturing. A significant decrease in the total number of bacteria was observed in the products containing phage suspensions. The obtained results suggest that application of the phage cocktail offers the possibility to extend the shelf life of the analyzed minimally processed food products by reducing the total number of saprophytic. METHODS: , food producers strive to meet the changing needs of consumers while maintaining the highest nutritional value of the products they supply. Physicochemical methods, which include modified atmosphere packaging, membrane techniques or ultrasounds, are the most frequently used to preserve food. Alternatively, biological methods can be applied, one of which is the use of bacteriophages (phages) to limit bacterial growth in the food environment. The purpose of our research was to verify the possibility of the use of bacteriophages as an antibacterial agent in minimally processed food environments of vegetable origin. The first stage of the research involved the isolation of phages against the dominant bacterial microflora in the analyzed products: broccoli sprouts, spinach leaves and freshly squeezed carrot-celery juice. Bacteriophages were isolated from municipal waste collected from sewage-treatment plants. Specific bacteriophages were isolated for twenty-nine out of thirty identified bacterial strains. The lytic activity of the phages was tested using a Bioscreen C automatic growth analyzer. Three methods for applying the phage cocktail were tested: direct addition of the cocktail, spraying it on, and placing the food product on a pad soaked with the phage mixture. The food products were packaged in a protective atmosphere and stored at 20°C. The total number of bacteria after adding the phage cocktail to the products was determined during the subsequent hours of incubation using classical microbial culturing. A significant decrease in the total number of bacteria was observed in the products containing phage suspensions. The obtained results suggest that application of the phage cocktail offers the possibility to extend the shelf life of the analyzed minimally processed food products by reducing the total number of saprophytic bac. RESULTS: , food producers strive to meet the changing needs of consumers while maintaining the highest nutritional value of the products they supply. Physicochemical methods, which include modified atmosphere packaging, membrane techniques or ultrasounds, are the most frequently used to preserve food. Alternatively, biological methods can be applied, one of which is the use of bacteriophages (phages) to limit bacterial growth in the food environment. The purpose of our research was to verify the possibility of the use of bacteriophages as an antibacterial agent in minimally processed food environments of vegetable origin. The first stage of the research involved the isolation of phages against the dominant bacterial microflora in the analyzed products: broccoli sprouts, spinach leaves and freshly squeezed carrot-celery juice. Bacteriophages were isolated from municipal waste collected from sewage-treatment plants. Specific bacteriophages were isolated for twenty-nine out of thirty identified bacterial strains. The lytic activity of the phages was tested using a Bioscreen C automatic growth analyzer. Three methods for applying the phage cocktail were tested: direct addition of the cocktail, spraying it on, and placing the food product on a pad soaked with the phage mixture. The food products were packaged in a protective atmosphere and stored at 20°C. The total number of bacteria after adding the phage cocktail to the products was determined during the subsequent hours of incubation using classical microbial culturing. A significant decrease in the total number of bacteria was observed in the products containing phage suspensions. The obtained results suggest that application of the phage cocktail offers the possibility to extend the shelf life of the analyzed minimally processed food products by reducing the total number of saprophytic bacteria.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830335

RESUMO

The food industry is still searching for novel solutions to effectively ensure the microbiological safety of food, especially fresh and minimally processed food products. Nowadays, the use of bacteriophages as potential biological control agents in microbiological food safety and preservation is a promising strategy. The aim of the study was the isolation and comprehensive characterization of novel bacteriophages with lytic activity against saprophytic bacterial microflora of minimally processed plant-based food products, such as mixed leaf salads. From 43 phages isolated from municipal sewage, four phages, namely Enterobacter phage KKP 3263, Citrobacter phage KKP 3664, Enterobacter phage KKP 3262, and Serratia phage KKP 3264 have lytic activity against Enterobacter ludwigii KKP 3083, Citrobacter freundii KKP 3655, Enterobacter cloacae KKP 3082, and Serratia fonticola KKP 3084 bacterial strains, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) identified Enterobacter phage KKP 3263 as an Autographiviridae, and Citrobacter phage KKP 3664, Enterobacter phage KKP 3262, and Serratia phage KKP 3264 as members of the Myoviridae family. Genome sequencing revealed that these phages have linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with sizes of 39,418 bp (KKP 3263), 61,608 bp (KKP 3664), 84,075 bp (KKP 3262), and 148,182 bp (KKP 3264). No antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, integrase, recombinase, or repressors, which are the main markers of lysogenic viruses, were annotated in phage genomes. Serratia phage KKP 3264 showed the greatest growth inhibition of Serratia fonticola KKP 3084 strain. The use of MOI 1.0 caused an almost 5-fold decrease in the value of the specific growth rate coefficient. The phages retained their lytic activity in a wide range of temperatures (from -20 °C to 50 °C) and active acidity values (pH from 4 to 11). All phages retained at least 70% of lytic activity at 60 °C. At 80 °C, no lytic activity against tested bacterial strains was observed. Serratia phage KKP 3264 was the most resistant to chemical factors, by maintaining high lytic activity across a broader range of pH from 3 to 11. The results indicated that these phages could be a potential biological control agent against saprophytic bacterial microflora of minimally processed plant-based food products.

3.
J Microbiol Methods ; 176: 105999, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659296

RESUMO

The present study examined the effect of six disruption methods of the cell wall (acid hydrolysis, ultrasonication, osmotic shock, pasteurization, homogenization with zirconia balls, and freezing/defrosting) on the efficiency of lipid extraction from yeast cells and the composition of fatty acids. Acid hydrolysis and sonication led to a significant increase in lipid extraction from Cyberlindnera jadinii ATCC 9950 and Rhodotorula glutinis LOCKR13 yeast cells. The amount of lipids extracted in these conditions increased for C. jadinii from 12.46 (biomass not subjected to any pretreatment) to 20.37 and 19.53 g/100 gd.w. after the application of acid hydrolysis and sonication, respectively, and for R. glutinis strain from 13.95 to 21.20 and 17.22 g/100 gd.w., respectively, for the same methods. Initial sonication of biomass led to a significant reduction in the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids. The largest differences in fatty acid composition were found for the sample homogenized with zirconium balls. This process resulted in the degradation of both oleic acid and linolenic acid. The obtained results revealed that the method that significantly increases lipid extraction and does not change the composition of fatty acids is acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. In addition, it is easy, cheap, does not require specialized equipment, and therefore can be implemented in any laboratory.


Assuntos
Candida/química , Ácidos Graxos , Rhodotorula/química , Parede Celular/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrólise , Sonicação/métodos
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(10): 157, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576445

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of exogenous stress factors (sodium chloride as osmotic stressor, hydrogen peroxide as an inducer of oxidative stress, white light irradiation, and low temperature) on the biosynthesis of carotenoids and lipids by red yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis, R. mucilaginosa, and R. gracilis) during cultivation in media containing potato wastewater and glycerol. According to our results, the yeast were able to grow and biosynthesize lipids and carotenoids in the presence of the applied stress factors. Low temperature caused an increase in the biosynthesis of intracellular lipids and carotenoids. R. gracilis synthesized lipids (21.1 g/100 gd.w.) and carotenoids (360.4 µg/gd.w.) in greater quantities than that of other strains. Under these conditions, there was also an increase in the content of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic acids. The highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (30.4%) was synthesized by the R. gracilis yeast after cultivation at 20°C. Their quantity was 2.5-fold greater than that of the biomass grown in control conditions. The contribution of individual carotenoid fractions depended both on the yeast strain and the culture conditions. Induction of osmotic stress and low temperature intensified the biosynthesis of ß-carotene (up to 73.9% of the total carotenoid content). In oxidative stress conditions, yeast synthesized torulene (up to 82.2%) more efficiently than under other conditions, whereas white light irradiation increased the production of torularhodin (up to 20.0%).


Assuntos
Carotenoides/biossíntese , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Rhodotorula/genética , Rhodotorula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 189(2): 589-607, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073981

RESUMO

AbstractThe objective of this study was to determine the possibility of simultaneous biosynthesis of lipids and carotenoids by the Rhodotorula yeast strains in media with waste glycerol and deproteinized potato wastewater and to determine the level of pollution reduction by media. On the basis of results obtained during the yeast microcultures in the Bioscreen C system, it was found that potato wastewater and glycerol can be used as components of media for Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Rhodotorula gracilis yeast strains. The amount of glycerol added to media higher than 10% significantly decreased the growth rate of yeast. The results of yeast culture in the laboratory shaker flasks showed a possibility of simultaneous production of lipids and carotenoids by R. glutinis, R. mucilaginosa, and R. gracilis yeast strains during cultivation in media containing only waste glycerol and deproteinized potato wastewater. A higher intracellular lipid content (approximately 15 g/100 gd.w.) was obtained for R. mucilaginosa and R. gracilis yeast biomass after cultivation in experimental media with waste glycerol and potato wastewater. In conclusion, the yeast grown in media with potato wastewater supplemented with 3% or 5% glycerol synthesized carotenoids, and their content in biomass did not exceed 230 µg/gd.w.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/biossíntese , Glicerol/química , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Rhodotorula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/química , Águas Residuárias
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(4)2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935045

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are harmful contaminants of food and feed worldwide. Feed additives with the abilities to trap mycotoxins are considered substances which regulate toxin transfer from feed to tissue, reducing its absorption in animal digestive tract. Market analysis emphasizes growing interest of feed producers in mycotoxins binders obtained from yeast biomass. The aim of the study was to prescreen cell walls (CW) and ß(1,3)/(1,6)-glucan (ß-G) preparations isolated from Candida utilis ATCC 9950 cultivated on waste potato juice water with glycerol as adsorbents for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T-2) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). The adsorption was studied in single concentration tests at pH 3.0 and 6.0 in the presence of 1% of the adsorbent and 500 ng/mL of individual toxin. Evaluated CW and ß-G preparations had the potential to bind ZEN, OTA and AFB1 rather than DON, NIV, T-2 toxin and FB1. The highest percentage of adsorption (about 83%), adsorption capacity (approx. 41 µg/ g preparation) and distribution coefficient (458.7mL/g) was found for zearalenone when CW preparation was used under acidic conditions. Higher protein content in CW and smaller particles sizes of the formulation could influence more efficient binding of ZEN, OTA, DON and T-2 toxin at appropriate pH compared to purified ß-G. Obtained results show the possibility to transform the waste potato juice water into valuable Candida utilis ATCC 9950 preparation with mycotoxins adsorption properties. Further research is important to improve the binding capacity of studied preparations by increasing the active surface of adsorption.


Assuntos
Candida , Parede Celular/química , Glucanos/química , Micotoxinas/química , Agricultura , Glicerol/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos
7.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 18(4): 373-383, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930789

RESUMO

Phages were discovered relatively recently – at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The idea of using bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes was promoted by d’Herelle, who conducted the first successful experiments with prokaryotic viruses. Works of contemporary scientists on phage therapy were, however, halted due to the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Today, when many bacterial strains have developed resistance to common antibiotics offered by the pharmaceutical industry and when new, so far unknown, bacterial strains have appeared, the concept of using bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections has been revived. Considering the food sector, the search for novel solutions that would ensure the appropriate microbiological quality of minimally processed foods may bring an effective method for eradicating bacte- rial pathogens that induce food-borne infections. The employment of chemical and physical methods of food preservation often lead to the deterioration of its nutritive value and of its physical and organoleptic properties. Minimally processed foods manufactured without any drastic preservation methods can be especially at risk of developing microorganisms, including the pathogenic ones. Low-temperature production processes and cold-storage facilitate the development of psychrophilic microorganisms, while another threat is posed by the high microbiological contamination of raw materials. This work presents a biological method for the eradication of bacteria most commonly found in a food-based environment. The study concept postulated the use of bacteriophages to improve the microbiological quality of food, with special attention paid to minimally processed foods.  .


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Carga Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/virologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/virologia , Salmonella/virologia
8.
Microb Cell Fact ; 17(1): 49, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587755

RESUMO

Torulene and torularhodin represent the group of carotenoids and are synthesized by yeasts and fungi. The most important producers of these two compounds include yeasts of Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces genera. The first reports confirming the presence of torulene and torularhodin in the cells of microorganisms date to the 1930s and 1940s; however, only in the past few years, the number of works describing the properties of these compounds increased. These compounds have strong anti-oxidative and anti-microbial properties, and thus may be successfully used as food, feedstock, and cosmetics additives. In addition, tests performed on rats and mice showed that both torulene and torularhodin have anti-cancerous properties. In order to commercialize the production of these two carotenoids, it is necessary to obtain highly efficient yeast strains, for example, via mutagenization and optimization of cultivation conditions. Further studies on the activity of torulene and torularhodin on the human body are also needed.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/química , Animais , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 6061042, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098157

RESUMO

The search for efficient oleaginous microorganisms, which can be an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels obtained from oilseed crops, has been going on for many years. The suitability of microorganisms in this regard is determined by their ability to biosynthesize lipids with preferred fatty acid profile along with the concurrent utilization of energy-rich industrial waste. In this study, we isolated, characterized, and identified kefir yeast strains using molecular biology techniques. The yeast isolates identified were Candida inconspicua, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania unispora, and Zygotorulaspora florentina. We showed that deproteinated potato wastewater, a starch processing industry waste, supplemented with various carbon sources, including lactose and glycerol, is a suitable medium for the growth of yeast, which allows an accumulation of over 20% of lipid substances in its cells. Fatty acid composition primarily depended on the yeast strain and the carbon source used, and, based on our results, most of the strains met the criteria required for the production of biodiesel. In particular, this concerns a significant share of saturated fatty acids, such as C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids, such as C18:1 and C18:2. The highest efficiency in lipid biosynthesis exceeded 6.3 g L-1. Kazachstania unispora was able to accumulate the high amount of palmitoleic acid.


Assuntos
Kefir/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Biocombustíveis , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbono/química , Debaryomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Debaryomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Kluyveromyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Kluyveromyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipídeos/química , Solanum tuberosum/química
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 25-31, May. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010164

RESUMO

Background: Rhodotorula glutinis is capable of synthesizing numerous valuable metabolites with extensive potential industrial usage. This paper reports the effect of initial culture medium pH on growth and protein, lipid, and carotenoid biosynthesis by R. glutinis. Results: The highest biomass yield was obtained in media with pH 4.0­7.0, and the value after 72 h was 17.2­19.4 gd.w./L. An initial pH of the medium in the range of 4.0­7.0 has no significant effect on the protein (38.5­41.3 g/100 gd.w.), lipid (10.2­12.7 g/100 gd.w.), or carotenoid (191.7­202.9 µg/gd.w.) content in the biomass or on the profile of synthesized fatty acids and carotenoids. The whole pool of fatty acids was dominated by oleic (48.1­53.4%), linoleic (21.4­25.1%), and palmitic acids (13.0­15.8%). In these conditions, the yeast mainly synthesized torulene (43.5­47.7%) and ß-carotene (34.7­38.6%), whereas the contribution of torularhodin was only 12.1­16.8%. Cultivation in medium with initial pH 3.0 resulted in a reduction in growth (13.0 gd.w./L) and total carotenoid (115.8 µg/gd.w.), linoleic acid (11.5%), and torularhodin (4.5%) biosynthesis. Conclusion: The different values of initial pH of the culture medium with glycerol and deproteinized potato wastewater had a significant effect on the growth and protein, lipid, and carotenoid biosynthesis by R. glutinis.


Assuntos
Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Carotenoides/biossíntese , Leveduras , Solanum tuberosum , Proteínas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Águas Residuárias , Glicerol , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipídeos/biossíntese
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 44-48, May. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010289

RESUMO

Background: Depletion of petroleum resources has enforced the search for alternative sources of renewable energy. Introduction of biofuels into the market was expected to become a solution to this disadvantageous situation. Attempts to cover fuel demand have, however, caused another severe problem­the waste glycerol generated during biodiesel production at a concentration of approximately 10% w/w. This, in turn, prompted a global search for effective methods of valorization of the waste fraction of glycerol. Results: Utilization of the waste fraction at 48 h with an initial glycerol concentration of 30 g·L-1 and proceeding with 62% efficiency enabled the production of 9 g·L-1 dihydroxyacetone at 50% substrate consumption. The re-use of the immobilized biocatalyst resulted in a similar concentration of dihydroxyacetone (8.7 g·L-1) in two-fold shorter time, with an efficiency of 85% and lower substrate consumption (35%). Conclusions: The method proposed in this work is based on the conversion of waste glycerol to dihydroxyacetone in a reaction catalyzed by immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans cell extract with glycerol dehydrogenase activity, and it could be an effective way to convert waste glycerol into a valuable product.


Assuntos
Células Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Di-Hidroxiacetona/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Resíduos , Extratos Celulares , Células Imobilizadas/química , Gluconobacter oxydans , Biocombustíveis , Reciclagem , Energia Renovável , Glicerol/química
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(4): 31-37, July 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-793950

RESUMO

Background: The exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by yeast exhibit physico-chemical and rheological properties, which are useful in the production of food and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as well. The effect was investigated of selected carbon sources on the biosynthesis of EPS by Candida famata and Candida guilliermondii strains originally isolated from kefirs. Results: The biomass yields were dependent on carbon source (sucrose, maltose, lactose, glycerol, sorbitol) and ranged from 4.13 to 7.15 g/L. The highest biomass yield was reported for C. guilliermondii after cultivation on maltose. The maximum specific productivity of EPS during cultivation on maltose was 0.505 and 0.321 for C. guilliermondii and C. famata, respectively. The highest EPS yield was found for C. guilliermondii strain. The EPS produced under these conditions contained 65.4% and 61.5% carbohydrates, respectively. The specific growth rate (µ) of C. famata in medium containing EPS as a sole carbon source was 0.0068 h-1 and 0.0138 h-1 for C. guilliermondii strain. Conclusions: The most preferred carbon source in the synthesis of EPS for both Candida strains was maltose, wherein C. guilliermondii strain showed the higher yield of EPS biosynthesis. The carbon source affected the chemical composition of the resulting EPS and the contribution of carbohydrate in the precipitated preparation of polymers was higher during supplementation of maltose as compared to sucrose. It was also found that the EPS can be a source of carbon for the producing strains.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Candida , Carboidratos , Carbono , Leveduras , Biomassa , Técnicas de Cultura
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 100(14): 6103-6117, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27209039

RESUMO

Rhodotorula glutinis is capable of synthesizing numerous valuable compounds with a wide industrial usage. Biomass of this yeast constitutes sources of microbiological oils, and the whole pool of fatty acids is dominated by oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. Due to its composition, the lipids may be useful as a source for the production of the so-called third-generation biodiesel. These yeasts are also capable of synthesizing carotenoids such as ß-carotene, torulene, and torularhodin. Due to their health-promoting characteristics, carotenoids are commonly used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They are also used as additives in fodders for livestock, fish, and crustaceans. A significant characteristic of R. glutinis is its capability to produce numerous enzymes, in particular, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). This enzyme is used in the food industry in the production of L-phenylalanine that constitutes the substrate for the synthesis of aspartame-a sweetener commonly used in the food industry.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/biossíntese , Enzimas/química , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Microbiologia Industrial , Rhodotorula/química , Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Biomassa , Ácido Linoleico/biossíntese , Ácido Oleico/biossíntese , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/biossíntese , Rhodotorula/enzimologia , beta Caroteno/biossíntese
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(6): 428-432, Nov. 2015. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-772286

RESUMO

Background Deproteinized potato wastewater and glycerol are two by-products which are difficult to dispose. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Rhodotorula glutinis to use glycerol and nitrogen compounds present in deproteinized potato wastewater and to evaluate the ability of simultaneous biodegradation of potato wastewater and glycerol via microbiological methods. Results It has been found that R. glutinis used glycerol and potato wastewater as a source of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The highest degree of glycerol content (70.6%) reduction was found after cultivation of the investigated strain using a medium with 5% glycerol. In this medium, a significant reduction in the total protein content, estimated at 61%, was observed. The process of 72 h cultivation of yeast in a medium containing potato wastewater and 5% glycerol reduced the chemical oxygen demand (COD) more than 77%. Supplementation of media with high doses of glycerol (i.e. 20 and 25%) led to decreased metabolic activity in the yeast strain tested. Conclusion It has been found that there is a possibility of simultaneous biodegradation of potato wastewater and glycerol during the cultivation of R. glutinis.

15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 99(13): 5373-82, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26003453

RESUMO

This paper examines the process of selenium bioaccumulation and selenium metabolism in yeast cells. Yeast cells can bind elements in ionic from the environment and permanently integrate them into their cellular structure. Up to now, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, and Yarrowia lipolytica yeasts have been used primarily in biotechnological studies to evaluate binding of minerals. Yeast cells are able to bind selenium in the form of both organic and inorganic compounds. The process of bioaccumulation of selenium by microorganisms occurs through two mechanisms: extracellular binding by ligands of membrane assembly and intracellular accumulation associated with the transport of ions across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cell interior. During intracellular metabolism of selenium, oxidation, reduction, methylation, and selenoprotein synthesis processes are involved, as exemplified by detoxification processes that allow yeasts to survive under culture conditions involving the elevated selenium concentrations which were observed. Selenium yeasts represent probably the best absorbed form of this element. In turn, in terms of wide application, the inclusion of yeast with accumulated selenium may aid in lessening selenium deficiency in a diet.


Assuntos
Candida/metabolismo , Compostos Organosselênicos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Compostos de Selênio/metabolismo , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Metilação , Oxirredução , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo
16.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 14(4): 283-292, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28068035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: xopolysaccharides (EPS) are not a well-established group of metabolites. An industrial scale    of this EPS production is limited mainly by low yield biosynthesis. Until now, enzymes and biosynthesis pathways, as well as the role of regulatory genes, have not been described. Some of yeast EPS show antitumor, immunostimulatory and antioxidant activity. Others, absorb heavy metals and can function as bioactive components of food. Also, the potential of yeast EPS as thickeners or stabilizers can be found. Optimal conditions for the biosynthesis of yeast exopolysaccharides require strong oxygenation and low temperature of the culture, due to the physiology of the producer strains. The medium should contain sucrose as a carbon source and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen source, wherein the C:N ratio in the substrate should be 15:1. The cultures are long and the largest accumulation of polymers is observed after 4 or 5 days of culturing. The structure of yeast EPS is complex which affects the strain and culture condition. The EPS from yeast are linear mannans, pullulan, glucooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides and other heteropolysaccharides containing α-1,2; α-1,3; α-1,6; ß-1,3; ß-1,4 bonds. Mannose and glucose have the largest participation of carbohydrates for. METHODS: t exopolysaccharides (EPS) are not a well-established group of metabolites. An industrial scale    of this EPS production is limited mainly by low yield biosynthesis. Until now, enzymes and biosynthesis pathways, as well as the role of regulatory genes, have not been described. Some of yeast EPS show antitumor, immunostimulatory and antioxidant activity. Others, absorb heavy metals and can function as bioactive components of food. Also, the potential of yeast EPS as thickeners or stabilizers can be found. Optimal conditions for the biosynthesis of yeast exopolysaccharides require strong oxygenation and low temperature of the culture, due to the physiology of the producer strains. The medium should contain sucrose as a carbon source and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen source, wherein the C:N ratio in the substrate should be 15:1. The cultures are long and the largest accumulation of polymers is observed after 4 or 5 days of culturing. The structure of yeast EPS is complex which affects the strain and culture condition. The EPS from yeast are linear mannans, pullulan, glucooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides and other heteropolysaccharides containing α-1,2; α-1,3; α-1,6; ß-1,3; ß-1,4 bonds. Mannose and glucose have the largest participation of carbohydrates formin. RESULTS: t exopolysaccharides (EPS) are not a well-established group of metabolites. An industrial scale    of this EPS production is limited mainly by low yield biosynthesis. Until now, enzymes and biosynthesis pathways, as well as the role of regulatory genes, have not been described. Some of yeast EPS show antitumor, immunostimulatory and antioxidant activity. Others, absorb heavy metals and can function as bioactive components of food. Also, the potential of yeast EPS as thickeners or stabilizers can be found. Optimal conditions for the biosynthesis of yeast exopolysaccharides require strong oxygenation and low temperature of the culture, due to the physiology of the producer strains. The medium should contain sucrose as a carbon source and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen source, wherein the C:N ratio in the substrate should be 15:1. The cultures are long and the largest accumulation of polymers is observed after 4 or 5 days of culturing. The structure of yeast EPS is complex which affects the strain and culture condition. The EPS from yeast are linear mannans, pullulan, glucooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides and other heteropolysaccharides containing α-1,2; α-1,3; α-1,6; ß-1,3; ß-1,4 bonds. Mannose and glucose have the largest participation of carbohydrates forming EPS.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/biossíntese , Leveduras/fisiologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Carboidratos , Quelantes/química , Quelantes/isolamento & purificação , Quelantes/metabolismo , Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Temperatura Baixa , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/uso terapêutico , Oxirredução , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
17.
Molecules ; 19(12): 20941-61, 2014 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25517337

RESUMO

Selected methods for yeast cell disruption were evaluated to establish their suitability for cell wall preparation in the process of ß-glucan isolation. The effect of different disruption methods on contents of total saccharides, ß-glucans and proteins in the produced cell walls preparations was analyzed. The degree of cell wall purification from intracellular components was established on the basis of the ratio of solubilised material. The investigated methods included: cell exposure to hot water (autoclaving), thermally-induced autolysis, homogenization in a bead mill, sonication and their combinations. Experimental systems were prepared in water (pH 5.0 and pH 7.0) and Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell wall preparations with the highest degree of cytosol component release and purification of ß-glucans were produced by 30 min of cell homogenization with zirconium-glass beads (0.5 mm in diameter). This was confirmed by the highest ratio of solubilised material (approx. 64%-67%). The thus-produced preparations contained ca. 60% of total saccharides, 13%-14% of ß(1,3)/(1,6)-glucans, and approx. 35% of crude proteins. Similar results were obtained after autolysis coupled with bead milling as well as with sonication, but the time required for these processes was more than 24 h. Homogenization in a bead mill could be valuable for general isolation procedures because allows one to eliminate the different autolytic activity of various yeast strains.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação , Tampões (Química) , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sonicação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , beta-Glucanas/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...