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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for developing second primary cancers compared to the general population. Little is known about whether body mass index (BMI) increases this risk. We examined the association between BMI and second cancers among women with incident invasive breast cancer. METHODS: This retrospective cohort included 6,481 patients from Kaiser Permanente Colorado and Washington of whom 822 (12.7%) developed a second cancer (mean follow-up was 88.0 months). BMI at the first cancer was extracted from the medical record. Outcomes included: 1) all second cancers, 2) obesity-related second cancers, 3) any second breast cancer, and 4) estrogen receptor (ER)-positive second breast cancers. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for second cancers associated with BMI adjusted for site, diagnosis year, treatment, demographic, and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age at initial breast cancer diagnosis was 61.2 (standard deviation = 11.8) years. Most cases were overweight (33.4%) or obese (33.8%) and diagnosed at stage I (62.0%). In multivariable models, for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, the risk of any second cancer diagnosis increased by 7% (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.14); 13% (RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.21) for obesity-related cancers; 11% (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.21) for a second breast cancer, and 15% (RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27) for a second ER-positive breast cancer. CONCLUSION: We observed a statistically significant increased risk of second cancers associated with increasing BMI. These findings have important public health implications given the prevalence of overweight and obesity in breast cancer survivors and underscore the need for effective prevention strategies.

2.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 34, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 30% have a prior diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD). Thus, it is important to identify factors among BBD patients that elevate invasive cancer risk. In the general population, risk factors differ in their associations by clinical pathologic features; however, whether women with BBD show etiologic heterogeneity in the types of breast cancers they develop remains unknown. METHODS: Using a nested case-control study of BBD and breast cancer risk conducted in a community healthcare plan (Kaiser Permanente Northwest), we assessed relationships of histologic features in BBD biopsies and patient characteristics with subsequent breast cancer risk and tested for heterogeneity of associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor grade, and size. The study included 514 invasive breast cancer cases (median follow-up of 9 years post-BBD diagnosis) and 514 matched controls, diagnosed with proliferative or non-proliferative BBD between 1971 and 2006, with follow-up through mid-2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using multivariable polytomous logistic regression models. RESULTS: Breast cancers were predominantly ER-positive (86%), well or moderately differentiated (73%), small (74% < 20 mm), and stage I/II (91%). Compared to patients with non-proliferative BBD, proliferative BBD with atypia conferred increased risk for ER-positive cancer (OR = 5.48, 95% CI = 2.14-14.01) with only one ER-negative case, P-heterogeneity = 0.45. The presence of columnar cell lesions (CCLs) at BBD diagnosis was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, with a 2-fold increase (95% CI = 1.21-3.58) observed among postmenopausal women (56%), independent of proliferative BBD status with and without atypia. We did not identify statistically significant differences in risk factor associations by tumor grade or size. CONCLUSION: Most tumors that developed after a BBD diagnosis in this cohort were highly treatable low-stage ER-positive tumors. CCL in BBD biopsies may be associated with moderately increased risk, independent of BBD histology, and irrespective of ER status.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 24, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimates of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in the modern treatment era by year of diagnosis and characteristics of the first breast cancer are needed to assess the impact of recent advances in breast cancer treatment and inform clinical decision making. METHODS: We examined CBC risk among 419,818 women (age 30-84 years) who were diagnosed with a first unilateral invasive breast cancer and survived ≥ 1 year in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program cancer registries from 1992 to 2015 (follow-up through 2016). CBC was defined as a second invasive breast cancer in the contralateral breast ≥ 12 months after the first breast cancer. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of CBC by year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, and tumor characteristics for the first breast cancer. Cumulative incidence of CBC was calculated for women diagnosed with a first breast cancer in the recent treatment era (2004-2015, follow-up through 2016). RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 8 years (range 1-25 years), 12,986 breast cancer patients developed CBC. Overall, breast cancer patients had approximately twice the risk of developing cancer in the contralateral breast when compared to that expected in the general population (SIR = 2.21, 95% CI = 2.17-2.25). SIRs for CBC declined by year of first diagnosis, irrespective of age at diagnosis and estrogen receptor (ER) status (p-trends < 0.001), but the strongest decline was after an ER-positive tumor. The 5-year cumulative incidence of CBC ranged from 1.01% (95% CI = 0.90-1.14%) in younger women (age < 50 years) with a first ER-positive tumor to 1.89% (95% CI = 1.61-2.21%) in younger women with a first ER-negative tumor. CONCLUSION: Declines in CBC risk are consistent with continued advances in breast cancer treatment. The updated estimates of cumulative incidence inform breast cancer patients and clinicians on the risk of CBC and may help guide treatment decisions.

4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 129, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases breast cancer (BC) risk, but cohort studies largely consider use only at enrollment. Evidence is limited on how changes in MHT use alter the magnitude of risk, and whether risk varies between invasive and in situ cancer, by histology or by hormone receptor status. METHODS: We investigated the roles of estrogen-alone therapy (ET) and estrogen plus progestin therapy (EPT) on BC risk overall, by histology and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, and on incidence of in situ disease, in the NIH-AARP cohort. Participants included 118,760 postmenopausal women (50-71 years), of whom 63.5% (n = 75,398) provided MHT use information at baseline in 1996 and in a follow-up survey in 2004, subsequent to the dissemination in 2002 of the Women's Health Initiative trial safety concerns regarding EPT. ET analyses included 50,476 women with hysterectomy (31,439 with follow-up data); EPT analyses included 68,284 women with intact uteri (43,959 with follow-up data). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models using age as the time metric with follow-up through 2011. RESULTS: Eight thousand three hundred thirty-three incident BC cases were accrued, 2479 in women with follow-up data. BC risk was not elevated in current ET users at baseline (HR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] CI = 0.95-1.16) but was higher in women continuing use through 2004 (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04-1.75). Ever EPT use at baseline was associated with elevated BC risk overall (HR = 1.54 (1.44-1.64), with a doubling in risk for women with 10 or more years of use, for in situ disease, and across subtypes defined by histology and ER/PR status (all p < 0.004). Risk persisted in women who continued EPT through 2004 (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39-2.32). In contrast, no association was seen in women who discontinued EPT before 2004 (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.99-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: ET use was not associated with BC risk in this cohort, although excess risk was suggested in women who continued use through 2004. EPT use was linked to elevated in situ and invasive BC risk, and elevated risk across invasive BC histologic and hormone receptor-defined subtypes, with the highest risk for women who continued use through the 2004 follow-up survey.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 100, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to certain outdoor air pollutants may be associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, though potential underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined whether outdoor air pollution was associated with involution of terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), the histologic site where most cancers arise and an intermediate marker of breast cancer risk. METHODS: Pathologist-enumerated TDLUs were assessed in H&E (hematoxylin and eosin)-stained breast tissue sections from 1904 US women ages 18-75 who donated to the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (2009-2012). The 2009 annual fine particulate matter < 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) total mass (µg/m3) at each woman's residential address was estimated from the Environmental Protection Agency's Downscaler Model combining Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) System modeling with air quality monitoring data. We secondarily considered CMAQ-modeled components of PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants. We used K-means clustering to identify groups of individuals with similar levels of PM2.5 components, selecting groups via cluster stability analysis. Relative rates (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between air pollutants and TDLU counts were estimated from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: PM2.5 total mass was associated with higher TDLU counts among all women (interquartile range (IQR) increase, RR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11). This association was evident among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women (premenopausal RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11; postmenopausal RR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00-1.23). We identified 3 groups corresponding to clusters that varied geographically and roughly represented high, medium, and low levels of PM2.5 components relative to population mean levels. Compared to the cluster with low levels, the clusters with both high (RR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.08-2.80) and medium (RR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.13-2.93) levels were associated with higher TDLU counts; although not significantly different, the magnitude of the associations was stronger among postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with reduced TDLU involution as measured by TDLU counts. Air pollution exposure may influence the histologic characteristics of normal tissue which could in turn affect breast cancer risk.

7.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964115

RESUMO

Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the predominant anatomical structures where breast cancers originate. Having lesser degrees of age-related TDLU involution, measured as higher TDLUs counts or more epithelial TDLU substructures (acini), is related to increased breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease (BBD). We evaluated whether a recently developed polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313-common variants for breast cancer prediction is related to TDLU involution in the background, normal breast tissue, as this could provide mechanistic clues on the genetic predisposition to breast cancer. Among 1398 women without breast cancer, higher values of the PRS were significantly associated with higher TDLU counts (P = 0.004), but not with acini counts (P = 0.808), in histologically normal tissue samples from donors and diagnostic BBD biopsies. Mediation analysis indicated that TDLU counts may explain a modest proportion (≤10%) of the association of the 313-variant PRS with breast cancer risk. These findings suggest that TDLU involution might be an intermediate step in the association between common genetic variation and breast cancer risk.

8.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(12): 1007-1016, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727823

RESUMO

Periodontal disease may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, but studies have not considered invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) separately in the same population. We assessed the relationship between periodontal disease and breast cancer in a large prospective cohort study. The Sister Study followed women without prior breast cancer ages 35 to 74 years from 2003 to 2017 (N = 49,968). Baseline periodontal disease was self-reported, and incident breast cancer was ascertained over a mean follow-up of 9.3 years. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for multiple potential confounders, including smoking status. Heterogeneity in risk for invasive breast cancer versus DCIS was also estimated. About 22% of participants reported a history of periodontal disease at baseline. A total of 3,339 incident breast cancers (2,607 invasive breast cancer, 732 DCIS) were identified. There was no clear association between periodontal disease and overall breast cancer risk (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.11). However, we observed a nonstatistically significant suggestive increased risk of invasive breast cancer (HR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97-1.17) and decreased risk of DCIS (HR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-1.04) associated with periodontal disease, with evidence for heterogeneity in the risk associations (relative HR for invasive breast cancer versus DCIS = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52). A case-only analysis for etiologic heterogeneity confirmed this difference. We observed no clear association between periodontal disease and overall breast cancer risk. The heterogeneity in risk associations for invasive breast cancer versus DCIS warrants further exploration.

9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 183(2): 467-478, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, poorly understood and aggressive tumor. We extended prior findings linking high body mass index (BMI) to substantial increased IBC risk by examining BMI associations before and after adjustment for well-characterized comorbidities using medical record data for diabetes, insulin resistance, and disturbances of cholesterol metabolism in a general community healthcare setting. METHODS: We identified 247 incident IBC cases diagnosed at Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2005 and 2017 and 2470 controls matched 10:1 on birth year and geographic area and with ≥ 13 months of continuous enrollment prior to diagnosis/index date. We assessed exposures from 6 years up to one year prior to the diagnosis/index date, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Before adjustment for comorbidities, ORs (95% CIs) for BMI of 25-< 30, 30-< 35, and ≥ 35 compared to < 25 kg/m2 were 1.5 (0.9-2.3), 2.0 (1.2-3.1), and 2.5 (1.4-4.4), respectively. After adjustment for pre-diabetes/diabetes, HDL-C and triglyceride levels, and dyslipidemia, corresponding ORs were 1.3 (0.8-2.1), 1.6 (0.9-2.9), and 1.9 (1.0-3.5). The OR for HDL-C levels < 50 mg/dL compared to ≥ 65 mg/dL was 2.0 (1.2-3.3) in the adjusted model. In a separate model the OR for a triglyceride/HDL-C ratio ≥ 2.50 compared to < 1.62 was 1.7 (1.1-2.8) after adjustment for BMI, pre-diabetes/diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results did not differ significantly by estrogen receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and measures of insulin resistance independently increased IBC risk as did obesity and low HDL-C levels. These findings, if confirmed, have implications for IBC prevention.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e203645, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329771

RESUMO

Importance: The role of endogenous progesterone in the development of breast cancer remains largely unexplored to date, primarily owing to assay sensitivity limitations and low progesterone concentrations in postmenopausal women. Recently identified progesterone metabolites may provide insights as experimental data suggest that 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) concentrations reflect cancer-promoting properties and 3α-dihydroprogesterone (3αHP) concentrations reflect cancer-inhibiting properties. Objective: To evaluate the association between circulating progesterone and progesterone metabolite levels and breast cancer risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay, prediagnostic serum levels of progesterone and progesterone metabolites were quantified in a case-cohort study nested within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (n = 15 595). Participation was limited to women not receiving exogenous hormone therapy at the time of blood sampling (1992-1993). Incident breast cancer cases (n = 405) were diagnosed during 12 follow-up years and a subcohort of 495 postmenopausal women were randomly selected within 10-year age and clinical center strata. Progesterone assays were completed in July 2017; subsequent data analyses were conducted between July 15, 2017, and December 20, 2018. Exposures: Circulating concentrations of pregnenolone, progesterone, and their major metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of breast cancer, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for key confounders, including estradiol. Evaluation of hormone ratios and effect modification were planned a priori. Results: The present study included 405 incident breast cancer cases and a subcohort of 495 postmenopausal women; the mean (SD) age at the time of the blood draw was 67.2 (6.2) years. Progesterone concentrations were a mean (SD) of 4.6 (1.7) ng/dL. Women with higher circulating progesterone levels were at an increased risk for breast cancer per SD increase in progesterone levels (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35; P = .048). The association with progesterone was linear in a 5-knot spline and stronger for invasive breast cancers (n = 267) (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.43; P = .004). Among women in the lowest quintile (Q1) of circulating estradiol (<6.30 pg/mL) elevated progesterone concentrations were associated with reduced breast cancer risk per SD increase in progesterone levels (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.95; P = .04) and increased risk among women in higher quintiles of estradiol (Q2-Q5; ≥6.30 pg/mL) (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.35; P = .01; P = .04 for interaction). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-cohort study of postmenopausal women, elevated circulating progesterone levels were associated with a 16% increase in the risk of breast cancer. Additional research should be undertaken to assess how postmenopausal breast cancer risk is associated with both endogenous progesterone and progesterone metabolites and their interactions with estradiol.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013177

RESUMO

Mammographic percent density (MPD) is an independent risk factor for developing breast cancer, but its inclusion in clinical risk models provides only modest improvements in individualized risk prediction, and MPD is not typically assessed in younger women because of ionizing radiation concerns. Previous studies have shown that tissue sound speed, derived from whole breast ultrasound tomography (UST), a non-ionizing modality, is a potential surrogate marker of breast density, but prior to this study, sound speed has not been directly linked to breast cancer risk. To that end, we explored the relation of sound speed and MPD with breast cancer risk in a case-control study, including 61 cases with recent breast cancer diagnoses and a comparison group of 165 women, frequency matched to cases on age, race, and menopausal status, and with a recent negative mammogram and no personal history of breast cancer. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the relation of quartiles of MPD and sound speed with breast cancer risk adjusted for matching factors. Elevated MPD was associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the trend did not reach statistical significance (OR per quartile = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.70; ptrend = 0.10). In contrast, elevated sound speed was significantly associated with breast cancer risk in a dose-response fashion (OR per quartile = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.54; ptrend = 0.0003). The OR trend for sound speed was statistically significantly different from that observed for MPD (p = 0.005). These findings suggest that whole breast sound speed may be more strongly associated with breast cancer risk than MPD and offer future opportunities for refining the magnitude and precision of risk associations in larger, population-based studies, including women younger than usual screening ages.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(1)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963437

RESUMO

The association of progesterone/progesterone metabolites with elevated mammographic breast density (MBD) and delayed age-related terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, strong breast cancer risk factors, has received limited attention. Using a reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry assay, we quantified serum progesterone/progesterone metabolites and explored cross-sectional relationships with MBD and TDLU involution among women, ages 40-65, undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. Quantitative MBD measures were estimated in pre-biopsy digital mammograms. TDLU involution was quantified in diagnostic biopsies. Adjusted partial correlations and trends across MBD/TDLU categories were calculated. Pregnenolone was positively associated with percent MBD-area (MBD-A, rho: 0.30; p-trend = 0.01) among premenopausal luteal phase women. Progesterone tended to be positively associated with percent MBD-A among luteal phase (rho: 0.26; p-trend = 0.07) and postmenopausal (rho: 0.17; p-trend = 0.04) women. Consistent with experimental data, implicating an elevated 5α-pregnanes/3α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP/3αHP) metabolite ratio in breast cancer, higher 5αP/3αHP was associated with elevated percent MBD-A among luteal phase (rho: 0.29; p-trend = 0.08), but not postmenopausal women. This exploratory analysis provided some evidence that endogenous progesterone and progesterone metabolites might be correlated with MBD, a strong breast cancer risk factor, in both pre- and postmenopausal women undergoing breast biopsy. Additional studies are needed to understand the role of progesterone/progesterone metabolites in breast tissue composition and breast cancer risk.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(2): 445-457, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The long-term risks and benefits of radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remain unclear. Recent data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries showed that DCIS-associated radiotherapy treatment significantly increased risk of second non-breast cancers including lung cancer. To help understand those observations and whether breast cancer risk factors are related to radiotherapy treatment decision-making, we examined associations between lifestyle and clinical factors with DCIS radiotherapy receipt. METHODS: Among 1628 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, diagnosed with incident DCIS (1995-2011), we examined associations between lifestyle and clinical factors with radiotherapy receipt. Radiotherapy and clinical information were ascertained from state cancer registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radiotherapy receipt (yes/no) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 45% (n = 730) received radiotherapy. No relationships were observed for most lifestyle factors and radiotherapy receipt, including current smoking (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.70, 1.34). However positive associations were observed for moderate alcohol consumption and infrequent physical activity. The strongest associations were observed for radiotherapy receipt and more recent diagnoses (2005-2011 vs. 1995-1999; OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.14, 2.25), poorly versus well-differentiated tumors (OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.16, 2.46) and endocrine therapy (OR 3.37, 95%CI 2.56, 4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical characteristics were the strongest determinants of DCIS radiotherapy. Receipt was largely unrelated to lifestyle factors suggesting that the previously observed associations in SEER were likely not confounded by these lifestyle factors. Further studies are needed to understand mechanisms driving radiotherapy-associated second malignancies following DCIS, to identify prevention opportunities for this growing population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/etiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689948

RESUMO

Mammographic breast density (MD) reflects breast fibroglandular content. Its decline following adjuvant tamoxifen treated, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been associated with improved outcomes. Breast cancers arise from structures termed lobules, and lower MD is associated with increased age-related lobule involution. We assessed whether pre-treatment involution influenced associations between MD decline and risk of breast cancer-specific death. ER-positive tamoxifen treated patients diagnosed at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (1990-2008) were defined as cases who died of breast cancer (n = 54) and matched controls (remained alive over similar follow-up; n = 180). Lobule involution was assessed by examining terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in benign tissues surrounding cancers as TDLU count/mm2, median span and acini count/TDLU. MD (%) was measured in the unaffected breast at baseline (median 6-months before) and follow-up (median 12-months after tamoxifen initiation). TDLU measures and baseline MD were positively associated among controls (p < 0.05). In multivariable regression models, MD decline (≥10%) was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific death before (odds ratio (OR): 0.41, 95% CI: 0.18-0.92) and after (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.18-0.94) adjustment for TDLU count/mm2, TDLU span (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14-0.84), and acini count/TDLU (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.81). MD decline following adjuvant tamoxifen is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific death, irrespective of pre-treatment lobule involution.

16.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754628

RESUMO

Breast density, a breast cancer risk factor, is a radiologic feature that reflects fibroglandular tissue content relative to breast area or volume. Its histology is incompletely characterized. Here we use deep learning approaches to identify histologic correlates in radiologically-guided biopsies that may underlie breast density and distinguish cancer among women with elevated and low density. We evaluated hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained digitized images from image-guided breast biopsies (n = 852 patients). Breast density was assessed as global and localized fibroglandular volume (%). A convolutional neural network characterized H&E composition. In total 37 features were extracted from the network output, describing tissue quantities and morphological structure. A random forest regression model was trained to identify correlates most predictive of fibroglandular volume (n = 588). Correlations between predicted and radiologically quantified fibroglandular volume were assessed in 264 independent patients. A second random forest classifier was trained to predict diagnosis (invasive vs. benign); performance was assessed using area under receiver-operating characteristics curves (AUC). Using extracted features, regression models predicted global (r = 0.94) and localized (r = 0.93) fibroglandular volume, with fat and non-fatty stromal content representing the strongest correlates, followed by epithelial organization rather than quantity. For predicting cancer among high and low fibroglandular volume, the classifier achieved AUCs of 0.92 and 0.84, respectively, with epithelial organizational features ranking most important. These results suggest non-fatty stroma, fat tissue quantities and epithelial region organization predict fibroglandular volume. The model holds promise for identifying histological correlates of cancer risk in patients with high and low density and warrants further evaluation.

17.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(12): 861-870, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645342

RESUMO

Delayed terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution is associated with elevated mammographic breast density (MD). Both are independent breast cancer risk factors among women with benign breast disease (BBD). Prior digital analyses of normal breast tissues revealed that epithelial nuclear density (END) and TDLU involution are inversely correlated. Accordingly, we examined associations of END, TDLU involution, and MD in BBD clinical biopsies. This study included digitized images of 262 representative image-guided hematoxylin and eosin-stained biopsies from 224 women diagnosed with BBD, enrolled within the cross-sectional BREAST-Stamp project that were visually assessed for TDLU involution (TDLU count/100 mm2, median TDLU span and median acini count per TDLU). A digital algorithm estimated nuclei count per unit epithelial area, or END. Single X-ray absorptiometry of prebiopsy ipsilateral craniocaudal digital mammograms measured global and localized MD surrounding the biopsy region. Adjusted ordinal logistic regression models assessed relationships between tertiles of TDLU and END measures. Analysis of covariance examined mean differences in MD across END tertiles. TDLU measures were positively associated with increasing END tertiles [TDLU count/100 mm2, ORT3vsT1: 3.42, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.87-6.28; acini count/TDLUT3vsT1, OR: 2.40, 95% CI, 1.39-4.15]. END was significantly associated with localized, but not, global MD. Relationships were most apparent among patients with nonproliferative BBD. These findings suggest that quantitative END reflects different but complementary information to the histologic information captured by visual TDLU and radiologic MD measures and merits continued evaluation in assessing cellularity of breast parenchyma to understand the etiology of BBD.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Mama/patologia , Epitélio/patologia , Doença da Mama Fibrocística/diagnóstico , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Algoritmos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doença da Mama Fibrocística/patologia , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(11): 781-790, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481539

RESUMO

Black women in the United States are disproportionately affected by early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer. DNA methylation has shown differences by race in healthy and tumor breast tissues. We examined associations between genome-wide DNA methylation levels in breast milk and breast cancer risk factors, including race, to explain how this reproductive stage influences a woman's risk for, and potentially contributes to racial disparities in, breast cancer. Breast milk samples and demographic, behavioral, and reproductive data, were obtained from cancer-free, uniparous, and lactating U.S. black (n = 57) and white (n = 82) women, ages 19-44. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed on extracted breast milk DNA using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Statistically significant associations between breast cancer risk factors and DNA methylation beta values, adjusting for potential confounders, were determined using linear regression followed by Bonferroni Correction (P < 1.63 × 10-7). Epigenetic analysis in breast milk revealed statistically significant associations with race and lactation duration. Of the 284 CpG sites associated with race, 242 were hypermethylated in black women. All 227 CpG sites associated with lactation duration were hypomethylated in women who lactated longer. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of differentially methylated promoter region CpGs by race and lactation duration revealed enrichment for networks implicated in carcinogenesis. Associations between DNA methylation and lactation duration may offer insight on its role in lowering breast cancer risk. Epigenetic associations with race may mediate social, behavioral, or other factors related to breast cancer and may provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying racial disparities in breast cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Mama/metabolismo , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Lactação , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 81, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong breast cancer risk factor that reflects fibroglandular and adipose tissue composition, but its biologic underpinnings are poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are markers that may be associated with MD given their hypothesized role in breast carcinogenesis. IGFBPs sequester IGF-I, limiting its bioavailability. Prior studies have found positive associations between circulating IGF-I and the IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratio and breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and six other IGFBPs with MD. METHODS: Serum IGF measures were quantified in 296 women, ages 40-65, undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy. Volumetric density measures (MD-V) were assessed in pre-biopsy digital mammograms using single X-ray absorptiometry. Area density measures (MD-A) were estimated by computer-assisted thresholding software. Age, body mass index (BMI), and BMI2-adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations of serum IGF measures with MD. Effect modification by BMI was also assessed. RESULTS: IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were not strongly associated with MD after BMI adjustment. In multivariable analyses among premenopausal women, IGFBP-2 was positively associated with both percent MD-V (ß = 1.49, p value = 0.02) and MD-A (ß = 1.55, p value = 0.05). Among postmenopausal women, positive relationships between IGFBP-2 and percent MD-V (ß = 2.04, p = 0.003) were observed; the positive associations between IGFBP-2 and percent MD-V were stronger among lean women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) (ß = 5.32, p = 0.0002; p interaction = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: In this comprehensive study of IGFBPs and MD, we observed a novel positive association between IGFBP-2 and MD, particularly among women with lower BMI. In concert with in vitro studies suggesting a dual role of IGFBP-2 on breast tissue, promoting cell proliferation as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, our findings suggest that further studies assessing the role of IGFBP-2 in breast tissue composition, in addition to IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, are warranted.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(2): 527-536, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254158

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, yet its relationship with tumor characteristics is not well established, particularly in Asian populations. METHODS: MD was assessed from a total of 2001 Chinese breast cancer patients using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories. Molecular subtypes were defined using immunohistochemical status on ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67, as well as tumor grade. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test associations between MD and molecular subtype (luminal A = reference) adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, parity, and nodal status. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 51.7 years (SD = 10.7) and the average BMI was 24.7 kg/m2 (SD = 3.8). The distribution of BI-RADS categories was 7.4% A = almost entirely fat, 24.2% B = scattered fibroglandular dense, 49.4% C = heterogeneously dense, and 19.0% D = extremely dense. Compared to women with BI-RADS = A/B, women with BI-RADS = D were more likely to have HER2-enriched tumors (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.08-3.06, p = 0.03), regardless of menopausal status. The association was only observed in women with normal (< 25 kg/m2) BMI (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.24-4.76, p < 0.01), but not among overweight/obese women (OR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.38-2.52, p = 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese women with normal BMI, higher breast density was associated with HER2-enriched tumors. The results may partially explain the higher proportion of HER2+ tumors previously reported in Asian women.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
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