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1.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 128-142, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are associated with adverse outcomes in adults and understanding the strength, consistency and biological gradient of the association between SSB consumption and health-related outcomes is important. We aimed to examine longitudinal associations between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) intake and obesity and cardiometabolic diseases (type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke) in adults. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis searching for articles published until December 2021 in the Pubmed, Lilacs, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase, and Scopus databases (PROSPERO CRD42021234206). RESULTS: After screening of more than 18 thousand titles and abstracts, 27 longitudinal studies were included in the review with all of them presenting medium or high methodological quality. None of the selected studies were from low-income countries and only three were conducted in middle-income countries. Type 2 diabetes was the most investigated disease - outcome in 15 out of 27 studies. Around 80% of the studies enrolled more than 10,000 individuals in the sample, and almost half of them followed the subjects for less than 10 years. A total of 1.5 million individuals were included in the pooled analyses, and results indicated that SSB intake increased the risk of type 2 diabetes (RR = 1.20; 95% C.I. 1.13-1.28), obesity (RR = 1.17; 95% C.I. 1.10-1.25), coronary heart disease (RR = 1.15; 9% C.I. 1.06-1.25), and stroke (RR = 1.10; 9% C.I. 1.01-1.19) in adults after adjustment for all potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Our systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that consumption of SSB intake appears to increase the risk obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, being the strongest evidence for type 2 diabetes. Actions are needed to be taken to reduce the SSB intake and its consequences worldwide.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adulto , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos
2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-13, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102244

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were (1) to systematically review the literature on the association between birth weight in children born in the first and second generation and (2) to quantify this association by performing a meta-analysis. A systematic review was carried out in six databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL and LILACS), in January 2021, for studies that recorded the birth weight of parents and children. A meta-analysis using random effects to obtain a pooled effect of the difference in birth weight and the association of low birth weight (LBW) between generations was performed. Furthermore, univariable meta-regression was conducted to assess heterogeneity. Egger's tests were used to possible publication biases. Of the 9878 identified studies, seventy were read in full and twenty were included in the meta-analysis (ten prospective cohorts and ten retrospective cohorts), fourteen studies for difference in means and eleven studies for the association of LBW between generations (twenty-three estimates). Across all studies, there was no statistically significant mean difference (MD) birth weight between first and second generation (MD 19·26, 95 % CI 28·85, 67·36; P = 0·43). Overall, children of LBW parents were 69 % more likely to have LBW (pooled effect size 1·69, 95 % CI (1·46, 1·95); I2:85·8 %). No source of heterogeneity was identified among the studies and no publication bias. The average birth weight of parents does not influence the average birth weight of children; however, the proportion of LBW among the parents seems to affect the offspring's birth weight.

3.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-28, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35184789

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the association between ultra-processed foods (UPF) on serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and to investigate the mediation role of adiposity. Participants were 524 adults from the EPITeen Cohort (Porto, Portugal) and 2888 participants from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Pelotas, Brazil). Dietary intake was collected using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) when participants were 21 years of age in the EPITeen and 23 years in the Pelotas Cohort. Serum IL-6 and body fat mass were evaluated when participants were 27 and 30 years old in the EPITeen and Pelotas, respectively. Generalized linear models were fitted to test main associations. Mediation of body fat mass was estimated using G-computation. After adjustment for socio-economic and behavior variables, among females from the EPITeen, the concentration of IL-6 (pg/mL) increased with increasing intake of UPF from 1.31 (95% CI 0.95; 1.82) in the first UPF quartile to 2.20 (95% CI 1.60; 3.01) and 2.64 (95% CI 1.89; 3.69) for the third and fourth UPF quartiles, respectively. A similar result was found among males in the Pelotas Cohort, IL-6 increased from 1.40 (95% CI 1.32; 1.49) in the first UPF quartile to 1.50 (95% CI 1.41; 1.59) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.49; 1.70) in the two highest UPF quartiles. The p-value for the linear trend was <0.01 in both findings. The indirect effect through fat mass was not significant. Our findings suggest that the consumption of UPF was associated with an increase in IL-6 concentration, however, this association was not explained by adiposity.

4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 62(16): 4435-4448, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480268

RESUMO

This study aimed to review the literature on studies that evaluated the effects of omega-3 supplementation on parameters of diabetes in humans. An online search was conducted in the following databases: Pubmed, LILACS, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Science. It included experimental studies that investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation for diabetes treatment or prevention and its relationship with fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin. Observational, non-human studies and non-randomized clinical trials were excluded. The Cochrane scale assessed the quality of the studies. A meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of omega-3 on fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin. Thirty studies were included in the review. Almost 70% (n = 20) demonstrated at least one significant effect of the omega-3 supplementation related to diabetes. In the meta-analysis, there was a significant effect on the reduction of fasting blood glucose [SMD: -0.48; CI95%: -0.76, -0.19; p = 0.01; I2 = 88%] and insulin resistance [SMD: -0.61; CI95%: -0.98, -0.24; p = 0.01; I2 = 90%]. For glycated hemoglobin, there was no significant effect in the meta-analysis. This systematic review with meta-analysis demonstrated that supplementation with omega-3 has protective effects on diabetes parameters.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Resistência à Insulina , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Humanos
5.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210122, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394681

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To describe and compare the duration of breastfeeding of children enrolled in municipal preschools in Pelotas (RS), Brazil, in 2004 and 2018, taking into account sociodemographic and health factors. Methods Cross-sectional study, with children aged zero to six years. Data collection included interview with parents and children anthropometric assessment. Data was entered on EpiData 3.1 and analyzed on Stata 14.0. Median duration of breastfeeding was assessed according to the independent variables. Two children life tables were elaborated for the years 2004 and 2018. The statistical significance of the median analysis was based on the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test for dichotomic exposure and Kruskal Wallis test for polytomous exposure. Results A total of 1902 children were studied. In 2004, the median duration of breastfeeding was five months (IQR: 2.0;12.0) which increased one month for each weight category increase at birth. In 2018, the median was six months (IQR: 2.0;17.0) and increased two months for each weight category increase at birth. The life table showed that around 20.0% of the children in 2004 and 33% of the children in 2018 continued to be breastfed after 11 months of age. Conclusion The breastfeeding median increased in the period under review. The greater the birth weight, the longer the breastfeeding median duration.


RESUMO Objetivo Descreve e comparar a duração do aleitamento materno de crianças matriculadas em Escolas Municipais de Educação Infantil, de Pelotas (RS) Brasil, em 2004 e 2018 segundo fatores sociodemográficos e de saúde. Métodos Estudo transversal, com crianças de zero a seis anos de idade. A coleta de dados incluiu entrevistas com os pais e avaliação antropométrica das crianças. Os dados foram digitados no EpiData 3.1 e analisados no Stata 14.0. A duração da mediana do aleitamento materno foi analisada de acordo com as variáveis independentes. Foram elaboradas duas Tábuas de vida, para as crianças de 2004 e de 2018. A significância estatística das análises de mediana, foi baseada no teste de Wilcoxon Rank Sum para as exposições dicotômicas, e no teste de Kruskal Wallis para as exposições politômicas. Resultados Foram estudadas 1902 crianças ao total. Em 2004, a mediana da duração do aleitamento materno foi de cinco meses (IIQ: 2,0;12,0) e aumentou um mês a cada aumento de categoria de peso ao nascer. Em 2018, a mediana foi de seis meses (IIQ: 2,0;17,0) e aumentou dois meses a cada aumento de categoria de peso ao nascer. A Tábua de vida mostrou que cerca de 20,0% das crianças em 2004 e 33,0% das de 2018 tiveram aleitamento materno continuado após os 11 meses de idade. Conclusão A mediana aumentou no período analisado. Quanto maior o peso ao nascer, maior a mediana de aleitamento materno


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Tábuas de Vida , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Saúde/etnologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Fatores Sociodemográficos , Lactente
6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 41: 59-67, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is increasing worldwide. Resveratrol appears as a substance capable of helping with weight loss. This study aimed to investigate the resveratrol effect in the treatment of obesity in general population. METHODS: An online search was conducted in the following databases: Pubmed, LILACS, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science. Experimental studies that investigated the effects between resveratrol supplementation for weight loss treatment, as well as its relationship with overweight and obesity were included. Observational and non-human studies were excluded. The Cochrane scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were included, of which only three demonstrated some type of positive effect. In the meta-analysis, there was no significant effect on weight loss [SMD: 0.03; CI95%: -0,44, 0,49; p = 0,01; I2 = 82%], and body mass index (BMI) [SMD: 0.01; CI95%: -0,39, 0,41; p = 0,01; I2 = 72%]. A small effect was found on the waist circumference [SMD: -1.04; CI95%: -1,86, -0,27; p = 0,01; I2 = 87%]. CONCLUSION: This systematic review with meta-analysis demonstrated that supplementation with resveratrol does not have an anti-obesity effect.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/farmacologia
7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 529-536, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127071

RESUMO

The association between obesity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been extensively reported in the literature. However, the potential mechanisms underlying this association are not completely understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association between body composition and ADHD and explore the possible genetic mechanisms involved. We used data from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort at age 30-year follow-up (N = 3630). We first used logistic regression analysis to test whether body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) were associated with ADHD. We further tested the association between BMI polygenic risk score (BMI-PRS) and ADHD and the role of the genes upregulated in the reward system using a gene-set association approach. BMI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.09; p = 0.038) and FM (OR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07; p = 0.043) were associated with ADHD. The BMI-PRS was associated with ADHD (using p-value threshold (PT) = 0.4; OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.02-2.65) at a nominal level. In gene-set analysis, the reward system genes were associated with BMI in subjects with a high BMI-PRS score, considering PT = 0.4 (p = 0.014). The results suggest that BMI genetic components, especially those genes related to the reward system, may be involved in this association.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Recompensa , Fatores de Risco
8.
Ann Hum Biol ; 48(6): 525-533, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death globally. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a biomarker of cardiovascular risk. AIM: To investigate factors associated with IL-6 concentration in serum, from early life up to 30 years of age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the 2012-2013 follow-up, IL-6 was measured in 2809 participants of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort (1369 males). Multivariable linear regressions, stratified by sex, were performed to evaluate the associations of African ancestry, family income and maternal education at birth, monthly income and education at 30 years, smoking status, harmful alcohol intake, physical activity, and body composition with IL-6, considering a conceptual hierarchical framework. RESULTS: Males with low educational levels and current smokers had the highest mean IL-6. Among females, African ancestry and low monthly income were associated with the highest mean values for the outcome. Physical activity had an inverse association with IL-6 concentration among females. A direct relationship was observed between the measures of adiposity on IL-6, in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Body composition was the main predictor for the outcome evaluated in males and females. Thus, the avoidance of overweight remains an important strategy for the prevention and control of cardiovascular risk and biomarkers associated with these diseases.


Assuntos
Coorte de Nascimento , Interleucina-6 , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 70, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To systematically review the evidence for the association between food consumption according to processing and cardiometabolic factors in adults and/or the elderly. METHOD Two independent evaluators analyzed the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Lilacs until December 2018. We used the following terms: (convenience foods OR food processing OR highly-processed OR industrialized foods OR minimally-processed OR prepared foods OR processed foods OR ultra-processed OR ultraprocessed OR ultra processed OR unprocessed) AND (metabolic syndrome OR hypertension OR blood pressure OR diabetes mellitus OR glucose OR glycaemia OR insulin OR cholesterol OR triglycerides OR blood lipids OR overweight OR obesity) AND (adult OR adults OR adulthood OR aged OR elderly OR old). We assessed methodological and evidence qualities, and also extracted information for the qualitative synthesis from the selected studies. RESULTS Of the 6,423 studies identified after removing duplicates, eleven met the eligibility criteria. The main food classification we used was Nova. The consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively associated with overweight and obesity, high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome. All articles included met more than 50% of the methodological quality criteria. The quality of evidence was considered moderate for the outcome overweight and obesity and weak for hypertension and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS The Nova food classification stands out in the area of nutritional epidemiology when assessing the effects of food processing on health outcomes. Although caution is required in the interpretation, the results indicated that the consumption of ultra-processed foods can have an unfavorable impact in the health of individuals.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Compr Psychiatry ; 102: 152194, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on mental disorders prevalence and comorbidity, including suicidality, are scarce in low and middle-income settings. We aimed to describe the pattern of comorbidity between mental disorders and their association with suicidality. METHODS: In 1982, all hospital deliveries in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) were identified (n = 5914) and have been prospectively followed. Participants were evaluated for the presence of common mental disorders (CMD) at the ages of 18-19, 23 and 30 years. In 2012-13 (30 years of age), trained psychologists evaluated 3657 individuals for disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. RESULTS: Prevalence of suicidal wishing, suicidal planning and lifetime suicidal attempt was 4.9%, 3.8% and 6.6%, respectively. Suicidal wishing was most strongly associated with having joint major depressive episode (MD) and lifetime suicidal attempt (OR = 26.4, 95%CI:13.9-50.4) with comorbid MD with mania/hypomania (OR = 21.2, 95%CI:6.93-65.1). Suicidal planning was most strongly associated with having joint MD and lifetime suicidal attempt (OR = 44.7, 95%CI:22.6-88.4), with comorbid MD and social anxiety disorder (OR = 30.6, 95%CI:13.0-72.0), and joint social anxiety disorder with lifetime suicidal attempt (OR = 26.3, 95%CI:8.33-82.7). Independently of other disorders, prospective and cross-sectional measures of CMD were associated with higher rates of suicidality. LIMITATIONS: We do not have data on suicide deaths in follow-up and the diagnostic instrument used at 30 years of age was not used in all previous follow-up. CONCLUSION: MD and social anxiety have independent and combined associations with suicidality, and also with they occur with lifetime suicidal attempt and other mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Suicídio , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(5): 1935-1946, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402032

RESUMO

This article aims to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among primary care users. Cross-sectional study with women aged 20 to 59 years. Physical, sexual and psychological violence was screened by the World Health Organization instrument. Poisson regression was used for crude and adjusted analysis. Nine hundred ninety-one women participated in the study. The prevalence of violence throughout the lifespan was: psychological 57.6% (95%CI 54.6-60.7); physical 39.3% (95%CI 36.2-42.3) and sexual 18.0% (95%CI 15.7-20.5). Women with up to eight years of schooling, divorced or separated, whose mothers suffered intimate partner violence, who reported drug use and experienced sexual violence in childhood showed a higher prevalence of the three types of violence. Religion was associated with psychological and sexual violence and the use of cigarettes to physical and psychological violence. Participants with lower household income had a higher prevalence of physical violence. A high prevalence of intimate partner violence was identified among users. Worse socioeconomic conditions, risk behaviors and a history of assault are associated with greater occurrence of this problem.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(1): e20180162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between common mental disorders and socio-demographic variables, smoking habits and stressful events among the 30-year-old members of a 1982 cohort. METHOD: Mental disorder was analyzed by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Poisson regression was used to analyze the unadjusted and adjusted associations. RESULTS: Low level of education and stressful events increased the prevalence of mental disorders for both genders. Lower income for women and unemployment for men also remained associated with CMD. CONCLUSION: It was possible to describe the association between contemporary factors and mental disorders in a young population, to which prevention and control measures, through public policies proposed to the areas of Primary Care, Mental Health and Education, can represent a better quality of life and health.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 70, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1127235

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To systematically review the evidence for the association between food consumption according to processing and cardiometabolic factors in adults and/or the elderly. METHOD Two independent evaluators analyzed the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Lilacs until December 2018. We used the following terms: (convenience foods OR food processing OR highly-processed OR industrialized foods OR minimally-processed OR prepared foods OR processed foods OR ultra-processed OR ultraprocessed OR ultra processed OR unprocessed) AND (metabolic syndrome OR hypertension OR blood pressure OR diabetes mellitus OR glucose OR glycaemia OR insulin OR cholesterol OR triglycerides OR blood lipids OR overweight OR obesity) AND (adult OR adults OR adulthood OR aged OR elderly OR old). We assessed methodological and evidence qualities, and also extracted information for the qualitative synthesis from the selected studies. RESULTS Of the 6,423 studies identified after removing duplicates, eleven met the eligibility criteria. The main food classification we used was Nova. The consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively associated with overweight and obesity, high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome. All articles included met more than 50% of the methodological quality criteria. The quality of evidence was considered moderate for the outcome overweight and obesity and weak for hypertension and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS The Nova food classification stands out in the area of nutritional epidemiology when assessing the effects of food processing on health outcomes. Although caution is required in the interpretation, the results indicated that the consumption of ultra-processed foods can have an unfavorable impact in the health of individuals.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Revisar sistematicamente as evidências da associação entre consumo de alimentos de acordo com o processamento e fatores cardiometabólicos em adultos e idosos. MÉTODOS Dois avaliadores independentes analisaram as bases de dados eletrônicas PubMed, Web of Science e Lilacs até dezembro de 2018. Os seguintes termos foram utilizados: (convenience foods OR food processing OR highly-processed OR industrialized foods OR minimally-processed OR prepared foods OR processed foods OR ultra-processed OR ultraprocessed OR ultra processed OR unprocessed) AND (metabolic syndrome OR hypertension OR blood pressure OR diabetes mellitus OR glucose OR glycaemia OR insulin OR cholesterol OR triglycerides OR blood lipids OR overweight OR obesity) AND (adult OR adults OR adulthood OR aged OR elderly OR old). Nos estudos incluídos foram avaliadas as qualidades metodológica e de evidência, além de extraídas informações para a síntese qualitativa. RESULTADOS Dos 6.423 estudos identificados após a remoção das duplicatas, onze preencheram os critérios de elegibilidade. A principal classificação de alimentos utilizada foi a Nova. O consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados foi positivamente associado com excesso de peso e obesidade, hipertensão arterial e síndrome metabólica. Todos os artigos incluídos preencheram mais de 50% dos critérios de qualidade metodológica. A qualidade de evidência foi considerada moderada para o desfecho excesso de peso e obesidade e fraca para hipertensão arterial e síndrome metabólica. CONCLUSÕES A classificação de alimentos Nova se destaca na área da epidemiologia nutricional ao avaliar os efeitos do processamento de alimentos sobre desfechos em saúde. Embora seja necessária prudência na interpretação, os resultados indicam que o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados pode ter impacto desfavorável sobre a saúde dos indivíduos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(1): e20180162, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1057746

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the association between common mental disorders and socio-demographic variables, smoking habits and stressful events among the 30-year-old members of a 1982 cohort. Method: Mental disorder was analyzed by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Poisson regression was used to analyze the unadjusted and adjusted associations. Results: Low level of education and stressful events increased the prevalence of mental disorders for both genders. Lower income for women and unemployment for men also remained associated with CMD. Conclusion: It was possible to describe the association between contemporary factors and mental disorders in a young population, to which prevention and control measures, through public policies proposed to the areas of Primary Care, Mental Health and Education, can represent a better quality of life and health.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir la asociación de trastornos mentales comunes a los 30 años en los miembros de cohorte de 1982 con variables sociodemográficas, tabaquismo y eventos estresores. Método: los trastornos mentales se identificaron mediante el Cuestionario de Autorreporte de Síntomas (SRQ-20). La Regresión de Poisson se utilizó para analizar las asociaciones brutas y ajustadas. Resultados: la poca escolarización y los eventos estresores aumentaron la frecuencia de trastornos en ambos sexos. Los ingresos familiares bajos de las mujeres y la falta de trabajo de los hombres también estaban relacionados. Conclusión: Existe una asociación entre los factores contemporáneos y los trastornos mentales padecidos por los jóvenes, en los que las medidas de prevención y control, a través de políticas públicas en las áreas de Atención Primaria, de Salud Mental y de Educación, pueden representar una mejoría en la calidad de vida e influenciar notablemente en su salud.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a associação de transtorno mental comum aos 30 anos nos membros da coorte de 1982 com variáveis sociodemográficas, tabagismo e eventos estressores. Método: Transtorno mental foi identificado pelo Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para analisar as associações brutas e ajustadas. Resultados: A baixa escolaridade e os eventos estressores aumentaram a frequência de transtorno em ambos os sexos. A menor renda familiar para mulheres e a falta de trabalho para homens também se mantiveram associadas. Conclusão: Permitiu descrever a associação de fatores contemporâneos com os transtornos mentais em população jovem, na qual as medidas de prevenção e controle, por meio de políticas públicas propostas nas áreas de Atenção Básica, Saúde Mental e Educação, podem representar uma melhor qualidade de vida e de saúde.

15.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e200123, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1143839

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To describe children food consumption in the five municipal schools in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, and their main characteristics. Methods Cross-sectional study of children enrolled in five municipal schools. The mothers were interviewed at the school. The questionnaire about habitual food consumption was based on the guidelines of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System. The data were entered in EpiData 3.1 and reviewed in Stata 14.0. The consumption frequency was reported according to each exposure category. Statistical tests based on Chi-Square test with 5% significance level and adjusted analyses through Poisson regression were used. Results A total of 548 children were included. Females represented 51.1% of the total sample; the average age was 48.3 months. Children up to two years of age were those who consumed the most fruits and vegetables while sweets were mostly consumed by older children, aged between three and four years. Unhealthy foods had a high frequency of consumption, with sweet being the most consumed (58.8%), followed by packet snacks (53.3%). In the adjusted analysis, eating meals in front of the screens remained associated with lower consumption of vegetables. Conclusion Eating meals in front of the screens reduces children's vegetables consumption. At the same time, the child's age and maternal education seem to have some influence on the consumption of unhealthy foods, indicating the need for nutritional education interventions.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever o consumo alimentar de crianças de cinco escolas municipais de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, e suas principais características. Métodos Estudo transversal, incluindo crianças de cinco escolas da rede municipal de educação infantil de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. As mães foram entrevistadas na escola, sendo que as perguntas sobre consumo alimentar habitual foram elaboradas a partir das orientações do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional. Os dados foram digitados no EpiData 3.1 e analisados no Stata 14.0. A frequência de consumo foi apresentada de acordo com cada categoria de exposição, e foram elaborados testes estatísticos baseados no qui-quadrado, sendo 5% o nível de significância e análise ajustada por meio de regressão de Poisson. Resultados Foram incluídas 548 crianças, dentre as quais o sexo feminino representou 51,1% e a média de idade foi de 48,3 meses. Crianças com até dois anos de idade são as que mais consomem frutas e legumes, e as com três e quatro anos são as que mais consomem doces. Os alimentos não saudáveis apresentaram elevada frequência de consumo, sendo o doce o mais consumido (58,8%), seguido do salgadinho de pacote (53,3%). Na análise ajustada, fazer refeições em frente às telas se manteve associado ao menor consumo de legumes. Conclusão Fazer as refeições em frente às telas diminui o consumo de legumes pelas crianças. Ao mesmo tempo, a idade da criança e a escolaridade materna parecem ter alguma influência no consumo de alimentos não saudáveis, indicando a necessidade de intervenções de educação nutricional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos , Pré-Escolar , Nutrição da Criança/educação
16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(12): e00192518, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800787

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the association between prevalence of excess weight and obesity and overall and disease-specific mortality rates in Brazilian state capitals and Argentine provinces. This was an ecological study with secondary data, where the principal exposures were prevalence rates for excess weight and obesity, estimated with data from Brazil's Vigitel survey (Risk and Protective Factors Surveillance System for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Through Telephone Interveiew) in 2014 and Argentina's National Risk Factor Survey in 2013. Overall and specific mortality rates for the year 2015 were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System in the Brazilian Health Informatics Department and the Division of Health Statistics and Information of the Argentine Ministry of Health. Brazilian mortality rates were standardized with the age structure of the Argentine population as the standard. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were used to assess the association between the prevalence rates for excess weight and obesity and the overall and specific mortality rates. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, prevalence of obesity was positively associated with the overall mortality rate both in Brazil (ß = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.01; 0.35) and in Argentina (ß = 0.06; 95%CI: 0.01; 0.13). There was no association with the specific cardiovascular and cancer mortality rates. We conclude that the Brazilian state capitals and Argentine provinces with the highest prevalence of obesity present higher overall mortality rates, while this association was inconsistent for the specific rates.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a associação da prevalência de excesso de peso e obesidade com as taxas de mortalidade total e específica nas capitais brasileiras e províncias argentinas. Estudo ecológico com dados secundários, em que as exposições principais foram as prevalências de excesso de peso e obesidade estimadas com base em dados da pesquisa Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) de 2014 (Brasil) e da Pesquisa Nacional de Fatores de Risco de 2013 (Argentina). As taxas de mortalidade geral e específicas para o ano de 2015 foram obtidas no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do Departamento de Informática do SUS (Brasil) e na Direção de Estatísticas e Informações de Saúde do Ministério da Saúde (Argentina). As taxas de mortalidade brasileiras foram padronizadas considerando-se a estrutura etária da população argentina como padrão. Regressão linear bruta e ajustada foi utilizada para avaliar a associação das prevalências de excesso de peso e obesidade com as taxas de mortalidade geral e específicas. Após o ajuste para os potenciais fatores de confusão, a prevalência de obesidade se associou positivamente com a taxa de mortalidade geral tanto no Brasil (ß = 0,18; IC95%: 0,01; 0,35) quanto na Argentina (ß = 0,06; IC95%: 0,01; 0,13). Para as demais taxas de mortalidade (cardiovascular e por câncer) não houve associação. Conclui-se que as capitais brasileiras e províncias argentinas com maiores prevalências de obesidade apresentam maiores taxas de mortalidade geral, sendo esta associação inconsistente para as taxas específicas.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la asociación de la prevalencia de exceso de peso y obesidad con las tasas de mortalidad total y específica en capitales brasileñas y provincias argentinas. Estudio ecológico con datos secundarios, donde las exposiciones principales fueron las prevalencias de exceso de peso y obesidad, estimados a partir de datos de la Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas No Transmisibles por Entrevista Telefónica (Vigitel) de 2014 (Brasil) y de la Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo de 2013 (Argentina). Las tasas de mortalidad general y específicas del año 2015 se obtuvieron del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad del Departamento de Informática del SUS (Brasil) y de la Dirección de Estadística e Información de Salud del Ministerio de Salud de Argentina. Las tasas de mortalidad brasileñas fueron estandarizadas considerando la estructura etaria de la población argentina como patrón. Se utilizó la regresión lineal bruta y ajustada para evaluar la asociación de las prevalencias de exceso de peso y obesidad con tasas de mortalidad general y específicas. Tras el ajuste de los potenciales factores de confusión, la prevalencia de obesidad se asoció positivamente con la tasa de mortalidad general, tanto en Brasil (ß = 0,18; IC95%: 0,01; 0,35), como en Argentina (ß = 0,06; IC95%: 0,01; 0,13). Para las demás tasas de mortalidad (cardiovascular y por cáncer), no hubo asociación. Se concluye que las capitales brasileñas y provincias argentinas con mayores prevalencias de obesidad presentan mayores tasas de mortalidad general, siendo esta asociación inconsistente en el caso de las tasas específicas.


Assuntos
Obesidade/mortalidade , Sobrepeso/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana , Aumento de Peso
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190056, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the association between the history of violence against women and the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of intimate partners. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 938 women using basic health care, aged between 20 and 59 years, who at the time of the interview had an intimate partner. Information about the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of the intimate partner were collected, as well as the WHO VAW Study instrument for tracking the psychological, physical and sexual violence experienced in the past year. A bivariate analysis was performed using the Pearson c2 test and multivariate analysis using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: The highest prevalences of psychological, physical and sexual violence were significantly associated with partners who had no occupation and who refused to use condoms in sexual relationships. Men who were considered controllers and who consumed alcoholic beverages were associated with greater perpetration of psychological and physical violence (p < 0.05). Partners with up to eight years of schooling present a higher frequency of psychological violence (PR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.05 - 1.66), while sexual violence was significantly higher among women whose partners smoked: 1.94, 95%CI 1.11 - 3.38). CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the importance of health professionals, work together in other sectors such as education and safety, dealing with alcohol and other drugs, as well as addressing issues of gender.


OBJETIVO: Verificar associação entre a história de violência contra a mulher e características sociodemográficas e comportamentais do parceiro íntimo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 938 mulheres usuárias da atenção básica de saúde, com idade entre 20 e 59 anos e que no momento da entrevista possuíam parceiro íntimo. Foram coletadas informações sobre as características sociodemográficas e comportamentais, do parceiro íntimo, bem como foi aplicado o instrumento World Health Organization Violence Against Woman (WHO VAW Study) para o rastreamento da violência psicológica, física e sexual vivenciada no último ano. Foi realizada análise bivariada, por meio do teste do c2 de Pearson, e multivariada usando regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS: As maiores prevalências de violência psicológica, física e sexual estiveram significativamente associadas aos parceiros que não possuíam ocupação e que recusaram o uso do preservativo nas relações sexuais. Homens que foram considerados controladores e que ingeriam bebida alcoólica estiveram associados a maior perpetração de violência psicológica e física (p < 0,05). Parceiros com até 8 anos de escolaridade apresentam maior frequência de prática de violência psicológica (RP = 1,32; IC95% 1,05 - 1,66), enquanto a violência sexual foi significativamente maior entre as mulheres cujos parceiros fumavam (RP = 1,94; IC95% 1,11 - 3,38). CONCLUSÕES: Esses dados evidenciam a importância de os profissionais de saúde atuarem juntamente a outros setores, tais como educação e segurança, no enfrentamento ao álcool e outras drogas, bem como na abordagem das questões de gênero.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/classificação , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/classificação , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(9): 3483-3494, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508766

RESUMO

This paper evaluates the knowledge of community health workers in complementary feeding and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, work routines and describes the resources available in primary care facilities to master this topic. We applied questionnaires to the responsible for health services and to community health workers, the latter consisting of a knowledge test that allowed the calculation of scores according to the number of correct answers in multiple-choice questions. There was a positive association with age, length of service, home visits to children under 24 months, providing guidance or seeking information about complementary feeding with the knowledge in feeding in the first 24 months of life. There were discrepant responses by health services and the community health workers regarding training, government materials and child growth monitoring. Greater mastery was noted in breastfeeding in relation to complementary feeding. Therefore, primary care facilities should provide support and resources to increase knowledge in complementary feeding through training and access to government materials.


Este artigo avalia o conhecimento dos agentes comunitários de saúde em alimentação complementar e sua associação com características sociodemográficas, rotinas de trabalho e descreve os recursos disponíveis nas unidades básicas de saúde para que tenham domínio neste tema. Foi aplicado um questionário ao responsável do serviço de saúde e outro aos agentes comunitários de saúde, este último composto pelo teste de conhecimento que permitiu o cálculo de escores conforme o número de acertos em questões de múltipla escolha. Houve associação positiva com idade, tempo de profissão, visitas domiciliares a crianças com até 24 meses, realizar orientações e buscar informações sobre alimentação complementar com o conhecimento em alimentação nos primeiros 24 meses de vida. Evidenciou-se desacordo entre as respostas do serviço de saúde e dos agentes comunitários de saúde quanto a treinamentos, materiais governamentais e acompanhamento do crescimento infantil. Verificou-se maior domínio em aleitamento materno em relação à alimentação complementar, portanto, a unidade básica de saúde deve oferecer respaldo e recursos que ampliem o conhecimento em alimentação complementar, mediante treinamentos e acesso facilitado aos materiais governamentais.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(9): 3483-3494, set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019681

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo avalia o conhecimento dos agentes comunitários de saúde em alimentação complementar e sua associação com características sociodemográficas, rotinas de trabalho e descreve os recursos disponíveis nas unidades básicas de saúde para que tenham domínio neste tema. Foi aplicado um questionário ao responsável do serviço de saúde e outro aos agentes comunitários de saúde, este último composto pelo teste de conhecimento que permitiu o cálculo de escores conforme o número de acertos em questões de múltipla escolha. Houve associação positiva com idade, tempo de profissão, visitas domiciliares a crianças com até 24 meses, realizar orientações e buscar informações sobre alimentação complementar com o conhecimento em alimentação nos primeiros 24 meses de vida. Evidenciou-se desacordo entre as respostas do serviço de saúde e dos agentes comunitários de saúde quanto a treinamentos, materiais governamentais e acompanhamento do crescimento infantil. Verificou-se maior domínio em aleitamento materno em relação à alimentação complementar, portanto, a unidade básica de saúde deve oferecer respaldo e recursos que ampliem o conhecimento em alimentação complementar, mediante treinamentos e acesso facilitado aos materiais governamentais.


Abstract This paper evaluates the knowledge of community health workers in complementary feeding and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, work routines and describes the resources available in primary care facilities to master this topic. We applied questionnaires to the responsible for health services and to community health workers, the latter consisting of a knowledge test that allowed the calculation of scores according to the number of correct answers in multiple-choice questions. There was a positive association with age, length of service, home visits to children under 24 months, providing guidance or seeking information about complementary feeding with the knowledge in feeding in the first 24 months of life. There were discrepant responses by health services and the community health workers regarding training, government materials and child growth monitoring. Greater mastery was noted in breastfeeding in relation to complementary feeding. Therefore, primary care facilities should provide support and resources to increase knowledge in complementary feeding through training and access to government materials.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Aleitamento Materno , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Etários , Visita Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1101-1108, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834447

RESUMO

This study used data from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil, to estimate the controlled direct effect of early-life socioeconomic position (SEP) on periodontitis at age 31 years, controlling for adulthood income and education, smoking, and dental hygiene. Sex was included as a covariate. Early-life SEP was measured at participant birth based on income, health services payment mode, maternal education, height, and skin color (lower versus middle/higher SEP). Periodontitis was assessed through clinical examination at age 31 years (healthy, mild periodontitis, or moderate-to-severe disease). Adulthood behaviors (smoking, dental hygiene) were the mediators, and adulthood SEP (education and income) represented the exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders. A regression-based approach was used to assess the controlled direct effect of early-life SEP on periodontitis. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate risk ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The prevalences of mild and moderate-to-severe periodontitis were 23.0% and 14.3%, respectively (n = 539). Individuals from the lowest early-life SEP had a higher risk of moderate-to-severe periodontitis controlled for mediators and exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders: risk ratio = 1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 3.24), E value 3.1. We found that early-life SEP was associated with the development of periodontitis in adulthood that was not mediated by adulthood SEP and behaviors.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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