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1.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595669

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. It is known to be a multifactorial disease and several causes are associated with its occurrence as well as progression. However, the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aß) is widely considered its major pathogenic hallmark. Additionally, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and aging (cellular senescence) are considered as additional hits affecting the disease pathology. Several studies are now suggesting important role of inflammation in AD, which shifts our thought towards the brain's resident immune cells, microglia, and astrocytes; how they interact with neurons; and how these interactions are affected by intra and extracellular stressful factors. These interactions can be modulated by different mechanisms and pathways, in which exosomes could play an important role. Exosomes are multivesicular bodies secreted by nearly all types of cells. The exosomes secreted by glial cells or neurons affect the interactions and thus the physiology of these cells by transmitting miRNAs, proteins, and lipids. Exosomes can serve as a friend or foe to the neuron function, depending upon the carried signals. Exosomes, from the healthy microenvironment, may assist neuron function and health, whereas, from the stressed microenvironment, they carry oxidative and inflammatory signals to the neurons and thus prove detrimental to the neuronal function. Furthermore, exosomes can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and from the blood plasma they can enter the brain cells and activate microglia and astrocytes. Exosomes can transport Aß or Tau, cytokines, miRNAs between the cells, and alter the physiology of recipient cells. They can also assist in Aß clearance and regulation of synaptic activity. The exosomes derived from different cells play different roles, and this field is still in its infancy stage. This review advocates exosomes' role as a friend or foe in neurodegenerative diseases, especially in the case of Alzheimer's disease.

4.
Ann Neurol ; 90(5): 808-820, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for acute symptomatic seizures and post-stroke epilepsy after acute ischemic stroke and evaluate the effects of reperfusion treatment. METHODS: We assessed the risk factors for post-stroke seizures using logistic or Cox regression in a multicenter study, including adults from 8 European referral centers with neuroimaging-confirmed ischemic stroke. We compared the risk of post-stroke seizures between participants with or without reperfusion treatment following propensity score matching to reduce confounding due to treatment selection. RESULTS: In the overall cohort of 4,229 participants (mean age 71 years, 57% men), a higher risk of acute symptomatic seizures was observed in those with more severe strokes, infarcts located in the posterior cerebral artery territory, and strokes caused by large-artery atherosclerosis. Strokes caused by small-vessel occlusion carried a small risk of acute symptomatic seizures. 6% developed post-stroke epilepsy. Risk factors for post-stroke epilepsy were acute symptomatic seizures, more severe strokes, infarcts involving the cerebral cortex, and strokes caused by large-artery atherosclerosis. Electroencephalography findings within 7 days of stroke onset were not independently associated with the risk of post-stroke epilepsy. There was no association between reperfusion treatments in general or only intravenous thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy with the time to post-stroke epilepsy or the risk of acute symptomatic seizures. INTERPRETATION: Post-stroke seizures are related to stroke severity, etiology, and location, whereas an early electroencephalogram was not predictive of epilepsy. We did not find an association of reperfusion treatment with risks of acute symptomatic seizures or post-stroke epilepsy. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:808-820.

5.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection are well recognized. Seizures and status epilepticus (SE) have been reported as possible manifestations and/or complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection at different disease stages, but few data are known about the type, severity, treatment response, and recurrence. METHODS: Single-center retrospective case series. RESULTS: This case series describes four COVID-19-positive patients admitted to an Italian University Hospital, who developed status epilepticus during the active phase of disease, independently from the severity of respiratory symptoms. Two of them presented a relapse after resolution of the acute viral infection, a feature that has not been previously reported. CONCLUSIONS: Although a possible association between SE and COVID-19 has been reported, the exact etiopathogenetic mechanism remains still not understood. Our series adds new insights to shed further light on this controversial issue.

6.
Artif Intell Med ; 118: 102133, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412849

RESUMO

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. It is caused by an increased upper airway resistance during sleep, which determines episodes of partial or complete interruption of airflow. The detection and treatment of OSAS is particularly important in patients who suffered a stroke, because the presence of severe OSAS is associated with higher mortality, worse neurological deficits, worse functional outcome after rehabilitation, and a higher likelihood of uncontrolled hypertension. The gold standard test for diagnosing OSAS is polysomnography (PSG). Unfortunately, performing a PSG in an electrically hostile environment, like a stroke unit, on neurologically impaired patients is a difficult task; moreover, the number of strokes per day vastly outnumbers the availability of polysomnographs and dedicated healthcare professionals. Hence, a simple and automated recognition system to identify OSAS cases among acute stroke patients, relying on routinely recorded vital signs, is highly desirable. The vast majority of the work done so far focuses on data recorded in ideal conditions and highly selected patients, and thus it is hardly exploitable in real-life circumstances, where it would be of actual use. In this paper, we propose a novel convolutional deep learning architecture able to effectively reduce the temporal resolution of raw waveform data, like physiological signals, extracting key features that can be used for further processing. We exploit models based on such an architecture to detect OSAS events in stroke unit recordings obtained from the monitoring of unselected patients. Unlike existing approaches, annotations are performed at one-second granularity, allowing physicians to better interpret the model outcome. Results are considered to be satisfactory by the domain experts. Moreover, through tests run on a widely-used public OSAS dataset, we show that the proposed approach outperforms current state-of-the-art solutions.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Polissonografia , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Sinais Vitais
7.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 208: 106839, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325334

RESUMO

Several central and peripheral nervous system complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been recently described. An effective mass vaccination program is necessary to effectively reduce infection spread and, consequently, limit long-term sequelae, including those affecting the nervous system. Nevertheless, as more patients gain access to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, it is important to report potential adverse events. Herein, we report a patient with previous history of post-infectious rhombencephalitis who developed an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) two weeks after being vaccinated for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Mielite Transversa/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072379

RESUMO

Chronic pain syndromes present a subversion of both functional and structural nociceptive networks. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to evaluate changes in cortical excitability and plasticity in patients with chronic migraine (CM) treated with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A). We enrolled 11 patients with episodic migraine (EM) and 11 affected by CM. Baseline characteristics for both groups were recorded using single- and paired-pulse TMS protocols. The same TMS protocol was repeated in CM patients after four cycles of BoNT/A completed in one year. At baseline, compared with EM patients, patients with CM had a lower threshold in both hemispheres (right hemisphere: 46% ± 7.8 vs. 52% ± 4.28, p = 0.03; left hemisphere: 52% ± 4.28 vs. 53.54% ± 6.58, p = 0.02). In EM, paired-pulse stimulation elicited a physiologically shaped response, whereas in CM, physiological intracortical inhibition (ICI) between 1 and 3 ms intervals was absent at baseline. On the contrary, increasing intracortical facilitation (ICF) was observed for all interstimulus intervals (ISIs). In CM, cortical excitability was partially reduced after BoNT/A treatment, along with a significant decrease observed in MIDAS score (from 20.7 to 9.8; p = 0.008). The lower motor threshold in CM reflects a higher cortical hyperexcitability. The lack of physiological ICI in CM could indicate sensitisation of the trigeminovascular system. Although reduced, this type of response is still observable after treatment, despite a marked clinical improvement. Our study suggests a long-term alteration of cortical plasticity due to chronic pain.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11634, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079015

RESUMO

To date, very few studies focused their attention on efficacy and safety of recanalisation therapy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with cancer, reporting conflicting results. We retrospectively analysed data from our database of consecutive patients admitted to the Udine University Hospital with AIS that were treated with recanalisation therapy, i.e. intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), mechanical thrombectomy (MT), and bridging therapy, from January 2015 to December 2019. We compared 3-month dependency, 3-month mortality, and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH) occurrence of patients with active cancer (AC) and remote cancer (RC) with that of patients without cancer (WC) undergoing recanalisation therapy for AIS. Patients were followed up for 3 months. Among the 613 AIS patients included in the study, 79 patients (12.9%) had either AC (n = 46; 7.5%) or RC (n = 33; 5.4%). Although AC patients, when treated with IVT, had a significantly increased risk of 3-month mortality [odds ratio (OR) 6.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.42-20.07, p = 0.001] than WC patients, stroke-related deaths did not differ between AC and WC patients (30% vs. 28.8%, p = 0.939). There were no significant differences between AC and WC patients, when treated with MT ± IVT, regarding 3-month dependency, 3-month mortality and SICH. Functional independence, mortality, and SICH were similar between RC and WC patients. In conclusion, recanalisation therapy might be used in AIS patients with nonmetastatic AC and with RC. Further studies are needed to explore the outcome of AIS patients with metastatic cancer undergoing recanalisation therapy.

10.
J Neurol ; 268(11): 4296-4302, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983550

RESUMO

Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is a hereditary disorder characterized by paroxysmal attacks of ataxia, vertigo and nausea, due to mutations in the CACNA1A gene, which encodes for α1 subunit of the P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (CaV2.1). Other manifestations may be associated to CACNA1A mutations, such as migraine and epilepsy. The correlation between episodic ataxia and epilepsy is often underestimated and misdiagnosed. Clinical presentation of EA2 varies among patients and within the same family, and the same genetic mutation can lead to different clinical phenotypes. We herewith describe an Italian family presenting with typical EA2 and, in two of the family members (patients II.3 and III.1), epileptic seizures. The sequencing revealed a heterozygous deletion of 6 nucleotides in exon 28 of CACNA1A gene, present in all affected patients. Evidence suggests that mutations of CACNA1A, conferring a loss/reduction of CaV2.1 function, lead to an increase of thalamocortical excitation that contributes to epileptiform discharges. Our description highlights intra-family variability of EA2 phenotype and suggests that mutations in the CACNA1A gene should be suspected in individuals with focal or generalized epilepsy, associated with a family history of episodic ataxia.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar , Epilepsia , Nistagmo Patológico , Ataxia/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Humanos
11.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038932

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few and contradictory data are available regarding intraoperative seizures during surgery for low-grade gliomas. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible risk factors for the occurrence of IOS. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 155 patients affected by low-grade gliomas and tumor-related epilepsy, who underwent surgery in our Department, between 2007 and 2018. A statistical analysis was performed by means of univariate and multivariate regression to evaluate any possible correlation between seizure occurrence and several demographic, clinical, neurophysiological, and histopathological features. RESULTS: Intraoperative seizure occurred in 39 patients (25.16%) with a total of 62 seizure events recorded. Focal seizures were the prevalent seizure type: among them, 39 seizures did not show motor signs, being those with only electrographic and/or with cognitive features the most represented subtypes. Twenty-six seizures occurring during surgery were not spontaneous: direct cortical stimulation with Penfield paradigm was the most prevalent evoking factor. The univariate analysis showed that the following prognostic factors were statistically associated with the occurrence of intraoperative seizure: the awake technique (P = 0.01) and the interictal epileptiform discharges detected on the baseline electrocorticography (ECoG) (P < 0.001). After controlling for confounding factors with multivariate analysis, the awake surgery and the epileptic ECoG pattern kept statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The awake surgery procedure and the epileptic ECoG pattern are risk factors for intraoperative seizure. ECoG is mandatory to detect electrographic seizures or seizures without motor signs.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014000

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the users' satisfaction degree for the diagnostic, therapeutic and assistance services for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia (FVG), a self-compiled anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to ALS patients and their caregivers. The questionnaire explored 41 different issues covering the following areas: (a) access to diagnostic pathway and communication among patients, families and health professionals; (b) quality of disease monitoring and effectiveness of interventions aimed at mitigating ALS symptoms; (c) easiness of access to assistive devices (e.g. wheelchair, ankle-foot-orthosis) and home assistance; (d) patient' choices sharing and health professionals empathy. The same issues were proposed both to patients and carers, appropriately adapting the questions, during the period between June and December 2019. The answers were categorised according to criticality level. Median with interquartile range of the numeric variables and percentages of the categorical variables and of the answers to questions were calculated. The mean percentage of satisfied users was 72.8%, considering all the areas. Pain treatment and easiness of access to ambulance transport were the most positive aspects (95.7% and 92.5% of satisfied respondents, respectively), while information about possible enrolment in clinical trials and about possible registration to the regional ALS association were the most critical issues (30.9% and 43.4% of satisfied users). Although the satisfaction level of ALS patients and their caregivers for the services provided resulted generally good, there were some areas that have to be improved. For this purpose, enhancement of multidisciplinary collaboration, sharing of points of view from users and different practitioners and rising awareness among healthcare professionals through clinical audits could be useful. Further research is needed to identify a wider range of users' unexplored unmet needs.

13.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 51(3): 233-242, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of benign EEG variants (BEVs) in the sleep-wake cycle among 1163 consecutive patients. METHODS: Prospective, observational EEG study using the 10-20 system with systematically two additional anterior-temporal electrodes. Depending on clinical indications, other electrodes were added. REM sleep identification was based on its characteristic EEG grapho-elements and rapid eye movements, clearly detectable with the additional anterior-temporal and fronto-polar electrodes due to eye proximity. The video-EEG monitoring duration was between 24hours and eight days. RESULTS: We identified 710 patients (61%) with BEVs. Positive occipital sharp transients of sleep (POSTs) were observed in 36.4% of participants, mu rhythm in 22.4%, lambda waves in 16.7%, wicket spikes (WS) in 15%, 14- and 6-Hz positive bursts in 8.3%, benign sporadic sleep spikes (BSSS) in 3.3%, rhythmic mid-temporal theta burst of drowsiness (RMTD) in 2.15%, midline theta rhythm in 2.1% and six-Hz spike and wave (SW) bursts in 0.1%. WS and RMTD were present during wakefulness, NREM (14.1%, 1.3%, respectively) and REM sleep (3.3%, 1.1%, respectively). Mu rhythm was also observed during NREM (1.5%) and REM sleep (7.7%). Fourteen- and 6-Hz positive bursts were present during NREM (4.5%) and REM sleep (6.5%). BSSS and six-Hz SW bursts were only observed during NREM sleep. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of BEVs is much higher than current estimates. POSTs and WS can no longer be considered as unusual patterns but physiological patterns of NREM sleep. RMTD and mu rhythm may be observed during NREM and REM sleep.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Sono REM , Eletrodos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono , Fases do Sono , Vigília
16.
Seizure ; 87: 30-38, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677402

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the typical and atypical clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features of 40 patients with Jeavons syndrome (JS). METHOD: Retrospective analysis from two French tertiary centers. RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled (31 females and 9 males; sex ratio F/M = 3.44; mean age at epilepsy onset: 6.2 ± 3.4 years [range: 1-15 years]). A positive family history of generalized genetic epilepsy was reported by 13 patients (32.5 %). Eyelid myoclonias with or without absence were the seizure onset in 29 patients (72.5 %), and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 11 (27.5 %). Over the course of the disease, all had absences. Intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders were reported in 14 (35 %) and 18 patients (45 %), respectively. Focal EEG abnormalities were observed in 65 % of patients, with a posterior (57.7 %) or anterior (30 %) distribution. Generalized EEG discharges were identified in 37 patients (92.5 %). Epileptiform abnormalities were activated during NREM sleep and increased upon awakening. Response to intermittent light stimulation (ILS) was observed in 34 patients (85 %), with an unusual pattern of epileptiform abnormalities at the same frequency of the flashes in 20 patients. Patients with all seizure types were more likely to have this response (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: JS is a lifelong genetic epileptic syndrome with onset in childhood, female preponderance, and a positive family history of epilepsy in one-third of the cases. Focal EEG abnormalities are frequent. Response to ILS appears different from other photosensitive syndromes, with an unusual pattern of photo-induced abnormal synchronization. Intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders are not rare.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada , Pálpebras , Mioclonia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões
18.
Neurol Sci ; 42(6): 2173-2178, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report clinical and electroneuromyographic (ENMG) characteristics of patients affected by severe COVID-19 infection, evaluated for muscular weakness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ENMGs performed for evaluation of diffuse weakness in patients who could not be discharged from semi-intensive care COVID unit because of difficulties in ventilation weaning were reviewed. Patients with severe COVID-19 infection who had undergone endotracheal intubation and able to co-operate were considered. ENMG protocol was focused on neurophysiological items that excluded or confirmed critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), myopathy (CIM), or polyneuromyopathy (CIPM). Standardized clinical evaluation was performed using Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score. RESULTS: Eight patients were included in the study. All presented known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), and none of them had history of underlying neuromuscular disorders. ENMG findings were normal in two patients, while only two patients had an altered MRC sum score (< 48). Neuromuscular involvement was diagnosed in 6/8 patients (75%): 2 had CIP, 1 had possible CIM, 1 had CIPM, while 1 patient, with clinically evident weakness but equivocal ENMG findings, was classified as ICU-AW. Finally, 1 patient was diagnosed with acute demyelinating neuropathy. Patients with neuromuscular involvement were those with longer intubation duration and higher levels of IL-6 at admission. CONCLUSION: Neuromuscular complications are frequent in severe COVID-19 and cannot be excluded by MRC sum scores above 48. Standardized ENMG is helpful in guiding diagnosis when clinical evaluation is not reliable or possible. Elevated IL-6 at admission may be a predictor biomarker of ICU-AW in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Musculares , Polineuropatias , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/complicações , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Polineuropatias/complicações , Polineuropatias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Neurology ; 96(16): 754-766, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical characteristics, management, and outcome of neurologic immune-related adverse events (n-irAEs) of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: Systematic review of the literature following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 694 articles were identified. Two hundred fifty-six articles, with 428 individual patients, met the inclusion criteria. Reports regarding neuromuscular disorders (319/428, 75%) were more frequent than those on CNS disorders (109/428, 25%). The most common n-irAEs reports were myositis (136/428, 32%), Guillain-Barré syndrome and other peripheral neuropathies (94/428, 22%), myasthenic syndromes (58/428, 14%), encephalitis (56/428, 13%), cranial neuropathies (31/428, 7%), meningitis (13/428, 3%), CNS demyelinating diseases (8/428, 2%), and myelitis (7/428, 2%). Other CNS disorders were detected in 25/428 (6%) patients. Compared with the whole sample, myasthenic syndromes were significantly more Ab positive (33/56, 59%; p < 0.001). Anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 was more frequent in myasthenic syndromes (50/58, 86%; p = 0.005) and less common in meningitis (2/13, 15%; p < 0.001) and cranial neuropathies (13/31, 42%; p = 0.005). Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 ICIs were more frequent in meningitis (8/13, 62%; p < 0.001) and less common in encephalitis (2/56, 4%; p = 0.009) and myositis (12/136, 9%; p = 0.01). Combination of different ICIs was more frequent in cranial neuropathies (12/31, 39%; p = 0.005). Melanoma was more frequent in patients with peripheral neuropathies (64/94, 68%; p = 0.003) and less common in encephalitis (19/56, 34%; p = 0.001). The highest mortality rate was reached in myasthenic syndromes (28%). CONCLUSION: Considering the increasing use of ICI therapy in the forthcoming future, this information can be valuable in assisting neurologists and oncologists in early n-irAEs diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos
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