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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632401

RESUMO

Background: Although the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has dramatically improved in the past decade, it is still compromised by transplant-related mortality (TRM), mainly caused by Graft-vs. -Host Disease (GvHD). Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study to ascertain the potential of serum interleukin-6 (IL6) levels, measured before conditioning and 7 days after allo-HSCT, in predicting acute GvHD, TRM and survival after allo-HSCT with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) based GvHD prophylaxis. Results: Between April 2014 and June 2017, we collected samples from 166 consecutive allo-HSCT patients. By ROC analysis, we identified a threshold of 2.5 pg/ml for pre-transplant IL6 and 16.5 pg/ml for post-transplant IL6. Both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of high baseline IL6 levels to predict worse OS (HR 4.3; p < 0.01) and grade II-IV acute GvHD (HR 1.8; p = 0.04), and of high post-transplant IL6 to identify patients with worse OS (HR 3.3; p < 0.01) and higher risk of grade II-IV (HR 5; p < 0.01) and grade III-IV acute GvHD (HR 10.2; p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, both baseline (HR 6.7; p < 0.01) and post-transplant high IL6 levels (HR 3.5; p = 0.02) predicted higher TRM. Conclusions: IL6 may contribute to the risk stratification of patients at major risk for aGvHD and TRM, potentially providing a window for additional prophylactic or preemptive strategies to improve the quality of life in the early post-transplant phase and the outcome of allo-HSCT.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605823

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) can be curative for patients with hematologic malignancies. The ideal conditioning regimen before allo-HSCT has not been established. We conducted a Phase II study to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of clofarabine and treosulfan as conditioning regimen before allo-HSCT. The primary objective was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) on day +100. Forty-four patients (36 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 5 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 3 with myelodysplastic syndromes) were enrolled. The median patient age was 47 years, and the median duration of follow-up was 27 months. The conditioning regimen was based on clofarabine 40 mg/m2 (days -6 to -2) and treosulfan 14 g/m2 (days -6 to -4). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells were derived from a sibling (n = 22) or a well-matched unrelated donor (n = 22). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of antithymocyte globulin, rituximab, cyclosporine, and a short-course of methotrexate. The regimen allowed for rapid engraftment and a 100-day NRM of 18%, due mainly to bacterial infections. The incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD and chronic GVHD were 16% and 19%, respectively. The rates of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and relapse at 2 years were 51%, 31%, and 50%, respectively. Significantly different outcomes were observed between patients with low-intermediate and patients with high-very high Disease Risk Index (DRI) scores (1-year OS, 78% and 24%, respectively). Our findings show that the use of treosulfan and clofarabine as a conditioning regimen for allo-HSCT is feasible, with a 78% 1-year OS in patients with a low-intermediate DRI score. However, 1-year NRM was 18%, and despite the intensified conditioning regimen, relapse incidence remains a major issue in patients with poor prognostic risk factors.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400502

RESUMO

We performed a nationwide registry-based analysis to describe the clinical outcome of adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-based treatment A total of 441 patients were included in the study. The median age at HSCT was 44 years (range, 18 to 70 years). All 441 patients (100%) received TKI before HSCT (performed between 2005 and 2016). Of these 441 patients, 404 (92%) were in cytologic complete remission (CR), whereas the remaining 37 (8%) had active disease at the time of HSCT. Molecular minimal residual disease (MRD) was negative in 147 patients (36%) at the time of HSCT. The donor was unrelated in 46% of patients. The most prevalent source of stem cells was peripheral blood (70%). The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in 82% of cases (total body irradiation-based in 50%) and included antithymocyte globulin in 51% of patients. With a median follow-up after HSCT of 39.4 months (range, 1 to 145 months), the probability of overall survival (OS) at 1, 2, and 5 years was 69.6%, 61.1% and 50.3%, respectively, with a median OS of 62 months. Progression-free survival (PFS) at 1, 2, and 5 years was 60.2%, 52.1% and 43.7%, respectively. OS and PFS were significantly better in patients who were in CR and MRD-negative at the time of HSCT compared with patients who were in CR but MRD-positive (50% OS not reached versus 36 months; P = .015; 50% PFS not reached versus 26 months, P = .003). The subgroup of MRD-negative patients both at HSCT and at 3 months after HSCT had a better outcome (5-year OS, 70%). Conversely, the 37 patients who underwent a HSCT with active Ph+ ALL had a median OS of 7 months and a median PFS of 5 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was significantly lower in MRD-negative patients (19.5% versus 35.4%; P = .001). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after 1, 2, and 5 years was 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.5% to 22.9%), 20.7% (95% CI, 17% to 24.7%), and 24.1% (95% CI, 20% to 28.5%), respectively. NRM was significantly lower with a modified European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (mEBMT) risk score of 0 to 2 compared with ≥3 (15% versus 25%; P = .016). The median OS for Ph+ ALL patients who underwent a TKI-based treatment followed by an allogeneic HSCT, in recent years at the GITMO centers, was 62 months. Evaluation of the mEBMT risk score can be useful to predict NRM. Our data confirm that HSCT is a potentially curative treatment for Ph+ ALL with an excellent outcome for the subgroup of MRD-negative patients both at HSCT and at 3 months after HSCT (5-year OS, 70%).

5.
Nat Med ; 25(2): 234-241, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664781

RESUMO

ß-thalassemia is caused by ß-globin gene mutations resulting in reduced (ß+) or absent (ß0) hemoglobin production. Patient life expectancy has recently increased, but the need for chronic transfusions in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and iron chelation impairs quality of life1. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation represents the curative treatment, with thalassemia-free survival exceeding 80%. However, it is available to a minority of patients and is associated with morbidity, rejection and graft-versus-host disease2. Gene therapy with autologous HSCs modified to express ß-globin represents a potential therapeutic option. We treated three adults and six children with ß0 or severe ß+ mutations in a phase 1/2 trial ( NCT02453477 ) with an intrabone administration of HSCs transduced with the lentiviral vector GLOBE. Rapid hematopoietic recovery with polyclonal multilineage engraftment of vector-marked cells was achieved, with a median of 37.5% (range 12.6-76.4%) in hematopoietic progenitors and a vector copy number per cell (VCN) of 0.58 (range 0.10-1.97) in erythroid precursors at 1 year, in absence of clonal dominance. Transfusion requirement was reduced in the adults. Three out of four evaluable pediatric participants discontinued transfusions after gene therapy and were transfusion independent at the last follow-up. Younger age and persistence of higher VCN in the repopulating hematopoietic cells are associated with better outcome.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Talassemia beta/genética , Talassemia beta/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361500

RESUMO

Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study evaluated clinical and morphological practices of TA-TMA diagnosis in EBMT centers. Two questionnaires, one for transplant physician and one for morphologist, and also a set of electronic blood slides from 10 patients with TA-TMA and 10 control patients with various erythrocyte abnormalities, were implemented for evaluation. Seventeen EBMT centers participated in the study. Regarding criteria used for TA-TMA diagnosis, centers reported as follows: 41% of centers used the International Working Group (IWG) criteria, 41% used "overall TA-TMA" criteria and 18% used physician's decision. The threshold of schistocytes to establish TA-TMA diagnosis in the participating centers was significantly associated with morphological results of test cases evaluations (p = 0.002). The mean number of schistocytes reported from blood slide analyses were 4.3 ± 4.5% for TA-TMA cases (range 0-19.6%, coefficient of variation (CV) 0.7) and 1.3 ± 1.6% for control cases (range 0-8.3%, CV 0.8). Half of the centers reported schistocyte levels below 4% for 7/10 TA-TMA cases. The intracenter variability was low, indicating differences in the institutional practices of morphological evaluation. In conclusion, the survey identified the need for the standardization of TA-TMA morphological diagnosis.

7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456531

RESUMO

Adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency disease (ADA-SCID) is a primary immune deficiency characterized by mutations in the ADA gene resulting in accumulation of toxic compounds affecting multiple districts. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched donor and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy are the preferred options for definitive treatment. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is used to manage the disease in the short term, while a decreased efficacy is reported in the medium-long term. To date, eight cases of lymphomas have been described in ADA-SCID patients. Here we report the first case of plasmablastic lymphoma occurring in a young adult with ADA-SCID on long-term ERT, which turned out to be Epstein-Barr virus associated. The patient previously received infusions of genetically modified T cells. A cumulative analysis of the eight published cases of lymphoma from 1992 to date, and the case here described, reveals a high mortality (89%). The most common form is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which predominantly occurs in extra nodal sites. Seven cases occurred in patients on ERT and two after haploidentical HSCT. The significant incidence of immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders and poor survival of patients developing this complication highlight the priority in finding a prompt curative treatment for ADA-SCID.

8.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(4): 410-416, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330406

RESUMO

Febrile neutropenia and sepsis are common and life-threatening complications in hematological diseases. This study was performed retrospectively in 514 patients treated for febrile neutropenia at our institute, to investigate the clinical usefulness of a molecular tool, LightCycler® SeptiFast test (SF), to promptly recognize pathogens causing sepsis in hematological patients. We collected 1837 blood samples of 514 consecutive hematological patients. The time of processing is short. Overall, 757 microorganisms in 663 episodes were detected by molecular test and standard blood cultures (BC): 73.6% Gram-positive bacteria, 23.9% Gram-negative bacteria, and 2.5% fungal species. This large analysis demonstrated a significant episode-to episode agreement (71.9%) between the two methods, higher in negative samples (89.14%), and a specificity of 75.89%. Clinical variables that gave a statistically significant contribution to their concordance were absolute neutrophil count, ongoing antimicrobial therapy, timing of test execution, and organ localization of infection. The large analysis highlights the potential of molecular-based assays directly performed on blood samples, especially if implementing the detection of antibiotic resistance genes, which was lacking in the used study.

9.
Blood ; 131(2): 247-262, 2018 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986344

RESUMO

The use of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has revolutionized haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), allowing safe infusion of unmanipulated T cell-replete grafts. PT-Cy selectively eliminates proliferating alloreactive T cells, but whether and how it affects natural killer (NK) cells and their alloreactivity is largely unknown. Here we characterized NK cell dynamics in 17 patients who received unmanipulated haploidentical grafts, containing high numbers of mature NK cells, according to PT-Cy-based protocols in 2 independent centers. In both series, we documented robust proliferation of donor-derived NK cells immediately after HSCT. After infusion of Cy, a marked reduction of proliferating NK cells was evident, suggesting selective purging of dividing cells. Supporting this hypothesis, proliferating NK cells did not express aldehyde dehydrogenase and were killed by Cy in vitro. After ablation of mature NK cells, starting from day 15 after HSCT and favored by the high levels of interleukin-15 present in patients' sera, immature NK cells (CD62L+NKG2A+KIR-) became highly prevalent, possibly directly stemming from infused hematopoietic stem cells. Importantly, also putatively alloreactive single KIR+ NK cells were eliminated by PT-Cy and were thus decreased in numbers and antileukemic potential at day 30 after HSCT. As a consequence, in an extended series of 99 haplo-HSCT with PT-Cy, we found no significant difference in progression-free survival between patients with or without predicted NK alloreactivity (42% vs 52% at 1 year, P = NS). Our data suggest that the majority of mature NK cells infused with unmanipulated grafts are lost upon PT-Cy administration, blunting NK cell alloreactivity in this transplantation setting.

10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(4): ofx215, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226172

RESUMO

Background: Infections and graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) still represent major, not easily predictable complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). Both conditions have been correlated to altered enteric microbiome profiles during the peritransplant period. The main objective of this study was to identify possible early microbiome-based markers useful in pretransplant risk stratification. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 96 consecutive patients at the beginning of the pretransplant conditioning regimen (T0) and at 10 (T1) and 30 (T2) days following transplant. When significant in univariate analysis, the identified microbiome markers were used in multivariate regression analyses, together with other significant clinical variables for allo-HSCT-related risk stratification. Four main outcomes were addressed: (1) septic complications, (2) GvHD, (3) relapse of the underlying disease, and (4) mortality. Results: The presence of >5% proinflammatory Enterobacteriaceae at T0 was the only significant marker for the risk of microbiologically confirmed sepsis. Moreover, ≤10% Lachnospiraceae at T0 was the only significant factor for increased risk of overall mortality, including death from both infectious and noninfectious causes.Finally, a low bacterial alpha-diversity (Shannon index ≤ 1.3) at T1 was the only variable significantly correlating with an increased risk of GvHD within 30 days. Conclusions: Microbiome markers can be useful in the very early identification of patients at risk for major transplant-related complications, offering new tools for individualized preemptive or therapeutic strategies to improve allo-HSCT outcomes.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(20): 2268-2278, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520526

RESUMO

Purpose Disease relapse remains a major challenge to successful outcomes in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Donor natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity in HCT can control leukemic relapse, but capturing alloreactivity in HLA-matched HCT has been elusive. HLA expression on leukemia cells-upregulated in the post-HCT environment-signals for NK cell inhibition via inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors and interrupts their antitumor activity. We hypothesized that varied strengths of inhibition among subtypes of the ubiquitous KIR3DL1 and its cognate ligand, HLA-B, would titrate NK reactivity against acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods By using an algorithm that was based on polymorphism-driven expression levels and specificities, we predicted and tested inhibitory and cytotoxic NK potential on the basis of KIR3DL1/HLA-B subtype combinations in vitro and evaluated their impact in 1,328 patients with AML who underwent HCT from 9/10 or 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors. Results Segregated by KIR3DL1 subtype, NK cells demonstrated reproducible patterns of strong, weak, or noninhibition by target cells with defined HLA-B subtypes, which translated into discrete cytotoxic hierarchies against AML. In patients, KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations that were predictive of weak inhibition or noninhibition were associated with significantly lower relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; P = .004) and overall mortality (HR, 0.84; P = .030) compared with strong inhibition combinations. The greatest effects were evident in the high-risk group of patients with all KIR ligands (relapse: HR, 0.54; P < .001; and mortality: HR, 0.74; P < .008). Beneficial effects of weak and noninhibiting KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations were separate from and additive to the benefit of donor activating KIR2DS1. Conclusion Consideration of KIR3DL1-mediated inhibition in donor selection for HLA-matched HCT may achieve superior graft versus leukemia effects, lower risk for relapse, and an increase in survival among patients with AML.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Receptores KIR3DL1/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes Imunológicos de Citotoxicidade , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores KIR/genética , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Receptores KIR3DL1/genética , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(9): 1580-1582, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522344

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant-related thrombotic microangiopathy (HSCT-TMA) is a severe complication whose pathophysiology is unknown. We describe 6 patients in which the disease was associated with complement regulatory gene abnormalities received from their respective donors. It is suggested that mutated and transplanted monocyte-derived cells are responsible for production of abnormal proteins, complement dysregulation, and, ultimately, for the disease. This observation might have important drawbacks as far as HSCT-TMA pathophysiology and treatment are concerned.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Mutação , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/genética , Adolescente , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/imunologia , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/patologia , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/terapia , Anemia Falciforme/imunologia , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/imunologia , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 22(12): 2250-2255, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697585

RESUMO

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients. Twenty-nine patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), mainly grade III-IV, and 15 had concomitant cytomegalovirus reactivation. The median absolute CD3+ lymphocyte count was 207 cells/µL. We reported the following clinical manifestations: fever in 43 patients, skin rash in 22, hepatitis in 19, diarrhea in 24, encephalitis in 10, BM suppression in 18, and delayed engraftment in 11. Antiviral pharmacologic treatment was administered to 37 patients; nonetheless, the mortality rate was relatively high in this population (overall survival [OS] at 1 year, 38% ± 7%). A better OS was significantly associated with a CD3+ cell count ≥200/µL at the time of HHV-6 reactivation (P = .0002). OS was also positively affected by the absence of acute GVHD grade III-IV (P = .03) and by complete disease remission (P = .03), but was not significantly influenced by steroid administration, time after alloSCT, type of antiviral prophylaxis, plasma viral load, or organ involvement. Although HHV-6 detection typically occurred early after alloSCT, better T cell immune reconstitution seems to have the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Our findings provide new insight into the interplay between HHV-6 and the transplanted immune system.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 6/fisiologia , Infecções por Roseolovirus/etiologia , Transplante Haploidêntico/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Citomegalovirus , Exantema Súbito/virologia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Herpesvirus Humano 6/imunologia , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Haploidêntico/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Ativação Viral , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/etiologia , Viroses/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hematol Oncol ; 34(3): 154-60, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25469485

RESUMO

Allogeneic transplantation is the only potentially curative strategy for myelofibrosis, even in the era of new drugs that so far only mitigate symptoms. The choice to proceed to allogeneic transplantation is based on several variables including age, disease phase, degree of splenomegaly, donor availability, comorbidities and iron overload. These factors, along with conditioning regimen and time to transplantation, may influence the outcome of ASCT. We report 14 patients affected by myelofibrosis with a median age of 57 years (range, 41-76) receiving a treosulfan-fludarabine based reduced toxicity conditioning. Patients (pts) received a stem cell transplantation from an HLA identical (n = 10) or matched unrelated donor (n = 4). All pts had a complete myeloablation followed by engraftment and in 12 out of 13 evaluated pts donor chimerism was 100% at 1 month. In most cases a reduction of splenomegaly and a reduction (or resolution) of bone marrow fibrosis was observed. After a median follow-up of 39 months (range, 3-106), the 3-year probability of overall survival and disease free survival was 54 +/- 14% and 46 +/- 14%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 2 years was 39 +/- 15%. Causes of non-relapse mortality were: infection (n = 2), GvHD (n = 2) and haemorrhage (n = 1). We can conclude that a treosulfan and fludarabine based conditioning has a potent myeloablative and anti-disease activity although non-relapse mortality remains high in this challenging clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Mielofibrose Primária/mortalidade , Mielofibrose Primária/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Doadores não Relacionados , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 21(8): 1506-14, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26001696

RESUMO

Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) performed using bone marrow (BM) grafts and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has gained much interest for the excellent toxicity profile after both reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning. We investigated, in a cohort of 40 high-risk hematological patients, the feasibility of peripheral blood stem cells grafts after a treosulfan-melphalan myeloablative conditioning, followed by a PTCy and sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (Sir-PTCy). Donor engraftment occurred in all patients, with full donor chimerism achieved by day 30. Post-HSCT recovery of lymphocyte subsets was broad and fast, with a median time to CD4 > 200/µL of 41 days. Cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15% and 7.5%, respectively, and were associated with a significant early increase in circulating regulatory T cells at day 15 after HSCT, with values < 5% being predictive of subsequent GVHD occurrence. The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 1 year were 12% and 17%, respectively. With a median follow-up for living patients of 15 months, the estimated 1-year overall and disease-free survival (DFS) was 56% and 48%, respectively. Outcomes were more favorable in patients who underwent transplantation in complete remission (1-year DFS 71%) versus patients who underwent transplantation with active disease (DFS, 34%; P = .01). Overall, myeloablative haploidentical HSCT with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and Sir-PTCy is a feasible treatment option: the low rates of GVHD and NRM as well as the favorable immune reconstitution profile pave the way for a prospective comparative trial comparing BM and PBSC in this specific transplantation setting.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Agonistas Mieloablativos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/métodos , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 50(1): 80-4, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19125385

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyse our experience of early discharge 2 days after high-dose melphalan (HDM) (Day-1) followed by peripheral blood stem cell re-infusion (Day-0) and re-admission on Day +5 in patients with hematological diseases or solid tumors. From 2000 to November 2005, seven patients received tandem Melphalan 200 mg/m(2) HDM with peripheral blood stem cells transplantation (PBSC-T), 130 a single HDM, for a total of 144 procedures. In 123 of them, patients were discharged on Day +1 for re-admission on Day +5 or earlier in the event of complications. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not used. Patients were hospitalised in positive-pressure reverse isolation room during the neutropenic period. Of the 123 procedures eligible for our mixed inpatient-outpatient management regimen, six (5%) required early re-admission for complications. Full engraftment was achieved in all cases. Median time to neutrophil count >0.5 x 10(9)/microL and >1 x 10(9)/microL were 12 and 14 days, respectively. Median time to platelet recovery (>20 x 10(9)/microL) was 13 days. Severe extra-hematological toxicities occurred in 78 (63%) patients: all had oral mucositis and five had associated diarrhoea. During hospitalisation, 94/123 (76%) experienced febrile neutropenia, 20/94 (21%) had documented infection and 74/94 (79%) were considered fever of unknown origin. Median fever duration was 1 day (range 0-11). Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 6 days (range 3-26). Median time to discharge (from Day 0) was 16 days (range 11-57). There was no mortality by on Day +100. Our experience of early discharge after HDM and PBSC-T with re-admission on Day +5 is safe and feasible with acceptable frequency of hematological and extra-hematological toxicities. The regimen allows reduced hospital stay and hence cost savings.


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Hematológicas/cirurgia , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Alta do Paciente , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infusões Parenterais , Masculino , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/economia , Fatores de Tempo
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