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2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) and Hispanic/Latinos (HLs) have higher risk of obesity than European Americans, possibly due to differences in environment and lifestyle, but also reflecting differences in genetic background. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into factors contributing to BMI (in kg/m2) and obesity risk (BMI ≥ 30) among ancestry groups, we investigate the role of self-reported ancestry, proportion of genetic African ancestry, and country of birth in 6368 self-identified AA and 7569 HL participants of the New York-based BioMe Biobank. METHODS: AAs and HLs are admixed populations that trace their genetic ancestry to the Americas, Africa, and Europe. The proportion of African ancestry (PAA), quantified using ADMIXTURE, was higher among self-reported AA (median: 87%; IQR: 79-92%) than among HL (26%; 15-41%) participants. Approximately 18% of AA and 59% of HL participants were non-US-born. RESULTS: Because of significant differences between sexes (PPAA*sex interaction = 4.8 × 10-22), we considered women and men separately. Among women, country of birth and genetic ancestry contributed independently to BMI. US-born women had a BMI 1.99 higher than those born abroad (P = 7.7 × 10-25). Every 10% increase in PAA was associated with a BMI 0.29 higher (P = 7.1 × 10-10). After accounting for PAA and country of birth, the contribution of self-reported ancestry was small (P = 0.046). The contribution of PAA to higher BMI was significantly more pronounced among US-born (0.35/10%PAA, P = 0.003) than among non-US-born (0.26/10%PAA, P = 0.01) women (PPAA*sex interaction = 0.004). In contrast, among men, only US-born status influenced BMI. US-born men had a BMI 1.33 higher than non-US-born men, whereas PAA and self-reported ancestry were not associated with BMI. Associations with obesity risk were similar to those observed for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Being US-born is associated with a substantially higher BMI and risk of obesity in both men and women. Genetic ancestry, but not self-reported ancestry, is associated with obesity susceptibility, but only among US-born women in this New York-based population.

3.
Nature ; 570(7762): 514-518, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217584

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have laid the foundation for investigations into the biology of complex traits, drug development and clinical guidelines. However, the majority of discovery efforts are based on data from populations of European ancestry1-3. In light of the differential genetic architecture that is known to exist between populations, bias in representation can exacerbate existing disease and healthcare disparities. Critical variants may be missed if they have a low frequency or are completely absent in European populations, especially as the field shifts its attention towards rare variants, which are more likely to be population-specific4-10. Additionally, effect sizes and their derived risk prediction scores derived in one population may not accurately extrapolate to other populations11,12. Here we demonstrate the value of diverse, multi-ethnic participants in large-scale genomic studies. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study conducted a GWAS of 26 clinical and behavioural phenotypes in 49,839 non-European individuals. Using strategies tailored for analysis of multi-ethnic and admixed populations, we describe a framework for analysing diverse populations, identify 27 novel loci and 38 secondary signals at known loci, as well as replicate 1,444 GWAS catalogue associations across these traits. Our data show evidence of effect-size heterogeneity across ancestries for published GWAS associations, substantial benefits for fine-mapping using diverse cohorts and insights into clinical implications. In the United States-where minority populations have a disproportionately higher burden of chronic conditions13-the lack of representation of diverse populations in genetic research will result in inequitable access to precision medicine for those with the highest burden of disease. We strongly advocate for continued, large genome-wide efforts in diverse populations to maximize genetic discovery and reduce health disparities.

4.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 20: 181-200, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978304

RESUMO

The past decade has seen a technological revolution in human genetics that has empowered population-level investigations into genetic associations with phenotypes. Although these discoveries rely on genetic variation across individuals, association studies have overwhelmingly been performed in populations of European descent. In this review, we describe limitations faced by single-population studies and provide an overview of strategies to improve global representation in existing data sets and future human genomics research via diversity-focused, multiethnic studies. We highlight the successes of individual studies and meta-analysis consortia that have provided unique knowledge. Additionally, we outline the approach taken by the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study to develop best practices for performing genetic epidemiology in multiethnic contexts. Finally, we discuss how limiting investigations to single populations impairs findings in the clinical domain for both rare-variant identification and genetic risk prediction.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745901

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cell functions are modulated by polymorphic killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Among 13 human KIR genes, which vary by presence and copy number, KIR3DL3 is ubiquitously present in every individual across diverse populations. No ligand or function is known for KIR3DL3, but limited knowledge of expression suggests involvement in reproduction, likely during placentation. With 157 human alleles, KIR3DL3 is also highly polymorphic and we show heterozygosity exceeds that of HLA-B in many populations. The external domains of catarrhine primate KIR3DL3 evolved as a conserved lineage distinct from other KIR. Accordingly, and in contrast to other KIR, we show the focus of natural selection does not correspond exclusively to known ligand binding sites. Instead, a strong signal for diversifying selection occurs in the D1 Ig domain at a site involved in receptor aggregation, which we show is polymorphic in humans worldwide, suggesting differential ability for receptor aggregation. Meanwhile in the cytoplasmic tail, the first of two inhibitory tyrosine motifs (ITIM) is conserved, whereas independent genomic events have mutated the second ITIM of KIR3DL3 alleles in all great apes. Together, these findings suggest that KIR3DL3 binds a conserved ligand, and a function requiring both receptor aggregation and inhibitory signal attenuation. In this model KIR3DL3 resembles other NK cell inhibitory receptors having only one ITIM, which interact with bivalent downstream signaling proteins through dimerization. Due to the extensive conservation across species, selection, and other unusual properties, we consider elucidating the ligand and function of KIR3DL3 to be a pressing question.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506572

RESUMO

The varying frequencies of pharmacogenetic alleles between populations have important implications for the impact of these alleles in different populations. Current population grouping methods to communicate these patterns are insufficient as they are inconsistent and fail to reflect the global distribution of genetic variability. To facilitate and standardize the reporting of variability in pharmacogenetic allele frequencies, we present seven geographically-defined groups: American, Central/South Asian, East Asian, European, Near Eastern, Oceanian, and Sub-Saharan African, and two admixed groups: African American/Afro-Caribbean and Latino. These nine groups are defined by global autosomal genetic structure and based on data from large-scale sequencing initiatives. We recognize that broadly grouping global populations is an oversimplification of human diversity and does not capture complex social and cultural identity. However, these groups meet a key need in pharmacogenetics research by enabling consistent communication of the scale of variability in global allele frequencies and are now used by PharmGKB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(52): 13324-13329, 2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530665

RESUMO

Skin pigmentation is under strong directional selection in northern European and Asian populations. The indigenous KhoeSan populations of far southern Africa have lighter skin than other sub-Saharan African populations, potentially reflecting local adaptation to a region of Africa with reduced UV radiation. Here, we demonstrate that a canonical Eurasian skin pigmentation gene, SLC24A5, was introduced to southern Africa via recent migration and experienced strong adaptive evolution in the KhoeSan. To reconstruct the evolution of skin pigmentation, we collected phenotypes from over 400 ≠Khomani San and Nama individuals and high-throughput sequenced candidate pigmentation genes. The derived causal allele in SLC24A5, p.Ala111Thr, significantly lightens basal skin pigmentation in the KhoeSan and explains 8 to 15% of phenotypic variance in these populations. The frequency of this allele (33 to 53%) is far greater than expected from colonial period European gene flow; however, the most common derived haplotype is identical among European, eastern African, and KhoeSan individuals. Using four-population demographic simulations with selection, we show that the allele was introduced into the KhoeSan only 2,000 y ago via a back-to-Africa migration and then experienced a selective sweep (s = 0.04 to 0.05 in ≠Khomani and Nama). The SLC24A5 locus is both a rare example of intense, ongoing adaptation in very recent human history, as well as an adaptive gene flow at a pigmentation locus in humans.


Assuntos
Antiporters/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Adulto , África Austral , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Alelos , Antiporters/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Demografia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1713-1720, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311373

RESUMO

The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Ancestry and Diversity Working Group highlights the need to develop guidance on race, ethnicity, and ancestry (REA) data collection and use in clinical genomics. We present quantitative and qualitative evidence to characterize: (1) acquisition of REA data via clinical laboratory requisition forms, and (2) information disparity across populations in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) at clinically relevant sites ascertained from annotations in ClinVar. Our requisition form analysis showed substantial heterogeneity in clinical laboratory ascertainment of REA, as well as marked incongruity among terms used to define REA categories. There was also striking disparity across REA populations in the amount of information available about clinically relevant variants in gnomAD. European ancestral populations constituted the majority of observations (55.8%), allele counts (59.7%), and private alleles (56.1%) in gnomAD at 550 loci with "pathogenic" and "likely pathogenic" expert-reviewed variants in ClinVar. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing and supporting programs to increase diversity in genome sequencing and clinical genomics, as well as measuring uncertainty around population-level datasets that are used in variant interpretation. Finally, we suggest the need for a standardized REA data collection framework to be developed through partnerships and collaborations and adopted across clinical genomics.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common but complex disease with racial/ethnic differences in prevalence, morbidity, and response to therapies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to perform an analysis of genetic ancestry to identify new loci that contribute to asthma susceptibility. METHODS: We leveraged the mixed ancestry of 3902 Latinos and performed an admixture mapping meta-analysis for asthma susceptibility. We replicated associations in an independent study of 3774 Latinos, performed targeted sequencing for fine mapping, and tested for disease correlations with gene expression in the whole blood of more than 500 subjects from 3 racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant admixture mapping peak at 18q21 in Latinos (P = 6.8 × 10-6), where Native American ancestry was associated with increased risk of asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34; P = .002) and European ancestry was associated with protection (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96; P = .008). Our findings were replicated in an independent childhood asthma study in Latinos (P = 5.3 × 10-3, combined P = 2.6 × 10-7). Fine mapping of 18q21 in 1978 Latinos identified a significant association with multiple variants 5' of SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2) in Mexicans, whereas a single rare variant in the same window was the top association in Puerto Ricans. Low versus high SMAD2 blood expression was correlated with case status (13.4% lower expression; OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.12-7.28; P < .001). In addition, lower expression of SMAD2 was associated with more frequent exacerbations among Puerto Ricans with asthma. CONCLUSION: Ancestry at 18q21 was significantly associated with asthma in Latinos and implicated multiple ancestry-informative noncoding variants upstream of SMAD2 with asthma susceptibility. Furthermore, decreased SMAD2 expression in blood was strongly associated with increased asthma risk and increased exacerbations.

12.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 8(10): 3255-3267, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131328

RESUMO

The emergence of very large cohorts in genomic research has facilitated a focus on genotype-imputation strategies to power rare variant association. These strategies have benefited from improvements in imputation methods and association tests, however little attention has been paid to ways in which array design can increase rare variant association power. Therefore, we developed a novel framework to select tag SNPs using the reference panel of 26 populations from Phase 3 of the 1000 Genomes Project. We evaluate tag SNP performance via mean imputed r2 at untyped sites using leave-one-out internal validation and standard imputation methods, rather than pairwise linkage disequilibrium. Moving beyond pairwise metrics allows us to account for haplotype diversity across the genome for improve imputation accuracy and demonstrates population-specific biases from pairwise estimates. We also examine array design strategies that contrast multi-ethnic cohorts vs. single populations, and show a boost in performance for the former can be obtained by prioritizing tag SNPs that contribute information across multiple populations simultaneously. Using our framework, we demonstrate increased imputation accuracy for rare variants (frequency < 1%) by 0.5-3.1% for an array of one million sites and 0.7-7.1% for an array of 500,000 sites, depending on the population. Finally, we show how recent explosive growth in non-African populations means tag SNPs capture on average 30% fewer other variants than in African populations. The unified framework presented here will enable investigators to make informed decisions for the design of new arrays, and help empower the next phase of rare variant association for global health.

13.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 53: 98-104, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125792

RESUMO

Hispanic/Latino (H/L) populations, although linked by culture and aspects of shared history, reflect the complexity of history and migration influencing the Americas. The original settlement by indigenous Americans, followed by postcolonial admixture from multiple continents, has yielded localized genetic patterns. In addition, numerous H/L populations appear to have signatures of pre-colonization and post-colonization bottlenecks, indicating that tens of millions of H/Ls may harbor signatures of founder effects today. Based on both population and medical genetic findings we highlight the extreme differentiation across the Americas, providing evidence for why H/Ls should not be considered a single population in modern human genetics. We highlight the need for additional sampling of understudied H/L groups, and ramifications of these findings for genomic medicine in one-tenth of the world's population.

14.
J Immunol ; 200(8): 2640-2655, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549179

RESUMO

The functions of human NK cells in defense against pathogens and placental development during reproduction are modulated by interactions of killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) with HLA-A, -B and -C class I ligands. Both receptors and ligands are highly polymorphic and exhibit extensive differences between human populations. Indigenous to southern Africa are the KhoeSan, the most ancient group of modern human populations, who have highest genomic diversity worldwide. We studied two KhoeSan populations, the Nama pastoralists and the ≠Khomani San hunter-gatherers. Comprehensive next-generation sequence analysis of HLA-A, -B, and -C and all KIR genes identified 248 different KIR and 137 HLA class I, which assort into ∼200 haplotypes for each gene family. All 74 Nama and 78 ≠Khomani San studied have different genotypes. Numerous novel KIR alleles were identified, including three arising by intergenic recombination. On average, KhoeSan individuals have seven to eight pairs of interacting KIR and HLA class I ligands, the highest diversity and divergence of polymorphic NK cell receptors and ligands observed to date. In this context of high genetic diversity, both the Nama and the ≠Khomani San have an unusually conserved, centromeric KIR haplotype that has arisen to high frequency and is different in the two KhoeSan populations. Distinguishing these haplotypes are independent mutations in KIR2DL1, which both prevent KIR2DL1 from functioning as an inhibitory receptor for C2+ HLA-C. The relatively high frequency of C2+ HLA-C in the Nama and the ≠Khomani San appears to have led to natural selection against strong inhibitory C2-specific KIR.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 226, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317701

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB), or the delivery prior to 37 weeks of gestation, is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Although twin studies estimate that maternal genetic contributions account for approximately 30% of the incidence of PTB, and other studies reported fetal gene polymorphism association, to date no consistent associations have been identified. In this study, we performed the largest reported genome-wide association study analysis on 1,349 cases of PTB and 12,595 ancestry-matched controls from the focusing on genomic fetal signals. We tested over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for associations with PTB across five subpopulations: African (AFR), the Americas (AMR), European, South Asian, and East Asian. We identified only two intergenic loci associated with PTB at a genome-wide level of significance: rs17591250 (P = 4.55E-09) on chromosome 1 in the AFR population and rs1979081 (P = 3.72E-08) on chromosome 8 in the AMR group. We have queried several existing replication cohorts and found no support of these associations. We conclude that the fetal genetic contribution to PTB is unlikely due to single common genetic variant, but could be explained by interactions of multiple common variants, or of rare variants affected by environmental influences, all not detectable using a GWAS alone.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia
16.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(1): 49-63, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epistasis and gene-environment interactions are known to contribute significantly to variation of complex phenotypes in model organisms. However, their identification in human association studies remains challenging for myriad reasons. In the case of epistatic interactions, the large number of potential interacting sets of genes presents computational, multiple hypothesis correction, and other statistical power issues. In the case of gene-environment interactions, the lack of consistently measured environmental covariates in most disease studies precludes searching for interactions and creates difficulties for replicating studies. RESULTS: In this work, we develop a new statistical approach to address these issues that leverages genetic ancestry, defined as the proportion of ancestry derived from each ancestral population (e.g., the fraction of European/African ancestry in African Americans), in admixed populations. We applied our method to gene expression and methylation data from African American and Latino admixed individuals, respectively, identifying nine interactions that were significant at P<5×10-8. We show that two of the interactions in methylation data replicate, and the remaining six are significantly enriched for low P-values (P<1.8×10-6). CONCLUSION: We show that genetic ancestry can be a useful proxy for unknown and unmeasured covariates in the search for interaction effects. These results have important implications for our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Epistasia Genética/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Fenótipo
17.
Cell ; 171(6): 1340-1353.e14, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29195075

RESUMO

Approximately 15 genes have been directly associated with skin pigmentation variation in humans, leading to its characterization as a relatively simple trait. However, by assembling a global survey of quantitative skin pigmentation phenotypes, we demonstrate that pigmentation is more complex than previously assumed, with genetic architecture varying by latitude. We investigate polygenicity in the KhoeSan populations indigenous to southern Africa who have considerably lighter skin than equatorial Africans. We demonstrate that skin pigmentation is highly heritable, but known pigmentation loci explain only a small fraction of the variance. Rather, baseline skin pigmentation is a complex, polygenic trait in the KhoeSan. Despite this, we identify canonical and non-canonical skin pigmentation loci, including near SLC24A5, TYRP1, SMARCA2/VLDLR, and SNX13, using a genome-wide association approach complemented by targeted resequencing. By considering diverse, under-studied African populations, we show how the architecture of skin pigmentation can vary across humans subject to different local evolutionary pressures.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele , África , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Elife ; 62017 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895531

RESUMO

Achieving confidence in the causality of a disease locus is a complex task that often requires supporting data from both statistical genetics and clinical genomics. Here we describe a combined approach to identify and characterize a genetic disorder that leverages distantly related patients in a health system and population-scale mapping. We utilize genomic data to uncover components of distant pedigrees, in the absence of recorded pedigree information, in the multi-ethnic BioMe biobank in New York City. By linking to medical records, we discover a locus associated with both elevated genetic relatedness and extreme short stature. We link the gene, COL27A1, with a little-known genetic disease, previously thought to be rare and recessive. We demonstrate that disease manifests in both heterozygotes and homozygotes, indicating a common collagen disorder impacting up to 2% of individuals of Puerto Rican ancestry, leading to a better understanding of the continuum of complex and Mendelian disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colágeno/epidemiologia , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágenos Fibrilares/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Linhagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Hispano-Americanos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/etnologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46398, 2017 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429804

RESUMO

A primary goal of The Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA) is to develop an 'African Diaspora Power Chip' (ADPC), a genotyping array consisting of tagging SNPs, useful in comprehensively identifying African specific genetic variation. This array is designed based on the novel variation identified in 642 CAAPA samples of African ancestry with high coverage whole genome sequence data (~30× depth). This novel variation extends the pattern of variation catalogued in the 1000 Genomes and Exome Sequencing Projects to a spectrum of populations representing the wide range of West African genomic diversity. These individuals from CAAPA also comprise a large swath of the African Diaspora population and incorporate historical genetic diversity covering nearly the entire Atlantic coast of the Americas. Here we show the results of designing and producing such a microchip array. This novel array covers African specific variation far better than other commercially available arrays, and will enable better GWAS analyses for researchers with individuals of African descent in their study populations. A recent study cataloging variation in continental African populations suggests this type of African-specific genotyping array is both necessary and valuable for facilitating large-scale GWAS in populations of African ancestry.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 635-649, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28366442

RESUMO

The vast majority of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are performed in Europeans, and their transferability to other populations is dependent on many factors (e.g., linkage disequilibrium, allele frequencies, genetic architecture). As medical genomics studies become increasingly large and diverse, gaining insights into population history and consequently the transferability of disease risk measurement is critical. Here, we disentangle recent population history in the widely used 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, with an emphasis on populations underrepresented in medical studies. To examine the transferability of single-ancestry GWASs, we used published summary statistics to calculate polygenic risk scores for eight well-studied phenotypes. We identify directional inconsistencies in all scores; for example, height is predicted to decrease with genetic distance from Europeans, despite robust anthropological evidence that West Africans are as tall as Europeans on average. To gain deeper quantitative insights into GWAS transferability, we developed a complex trait coalescent-based simulation framework considering effects of polygenicity, causal allele frequency divergence, and heritability. As expected, correlations between true and inferred risk are typically highest in the population from which summary statistics were derived. We demonstrate that scores inferred from European GWASs are biased by genetic drift in other populations even when choosing the same causal variants and that biases in any direction are possible and unpredictable. This work cautions that summarizing findings from large-scale GWASs may have limited portability to other populations using standard approaches and highlights the need for generalized risk prediction methods and the inclusion of more diverse individuals in medical genomics.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Américas , Genética Médica , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Projeto Genoma Humano , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial
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