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1.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2057-2070, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270247

RESUMO

Vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and yellow fever (YF) with live attenuated viruses can rarely cause life-threatening disease. Severe illness by MMR vaccines can be caused by inborn errors of type I and/or III interferon (IFN) immunity (mutations in IFNAR2, STAT1, or STAT2). Adverse reactions to the YF vaccine have remained unexplained. We report two otherwise healthy patients, a 9-yr-old boy in Iran with severe measles vaccine disease at 1 yr and a 14-yr-old girl in Brazil with viscerotropic disease caused by the YF vaccine at 12 yr. The Iranian patient is homozygous and the Brazilian patient compound heterozygous for loss-of-function IFNAR1 variations. Patient-derived fibroblasts are susceptible to viruses, including the YF and measles virus vaccine strains, in the absence or presence of exogenous type I IFN. The patients' fibroblast phenotypes are rescued with WT IFNAR1 Autosomal recessive, complete IFNAR1 deficiency can result in life-threatening complications of vaccination with live attenuated measles and YF viruses in previously healthy individuals.

2.
Retrovirology ; 16(1): 8, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistence of latent, replication-competent provirus is the main impediment towards the cure of HIV infection. One of the critical questions concerning HIV latency is the role of integration site selection in HIV expression. Inhibition of the interaction between HIV integrase and its chromatin tethering cofactor LEDGF/p75 is known to reduce integration and to retarget residual provirus to regions resistant to reactivation. LEDGINs, small molecule inhibitors of the interaction between HIV integrase and LEDGF/p75, provide an interesting tool to study the underlying mechanisms. During early infection, LEDGINs block the interaction with LEDGF/p75 and allosterically inhibit the catalytic activity of IN (i.e. the early effect). When present during virus production, LEDGINs interfere with proper maturation due to enhanced IN oligomerization in the progeny virions (i.e. the late effect). RESULTS: We studied the effect of LEDGINs present during virus production on the transcriptional state of the residual virus. Infection of cells with viruses produced in the presence of LEDGINs resulted in a residual reservoir that was refractory to activation. Integration of residual provirus was less favored near epigenetic markers associated with active transcription. However, integration near H3K36me3 and active genes, both targeted by LEDGF/p75, was not affected. Also in primary cells, LEDGIN treatment induced a reservoir resistant to activation due to a combined early and late effect. CONCLUSION: LEDGINs present a research tool to study the link between integration and transcription, an essential question in retrovirology. LEDGIN treatment during virus production altered integration of residual provirus in a LEDGF/p75-independent manner, resulting in a reservoir that is refractory to activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , HIV-1/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Integração Viral , Latência Viral , Replicação Viral , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Integrase de HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Provírus/fisiologia , Ativação Viral
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841538

RESUMO

Progressive muscle degeneration followed by dilated cardiomyopathy is a hallmark of muscular dystrophy. Stem cell therapy is suggested to replace diseased myofibers by healthy myofibers, although so far, we are faced by low efficiencies of migration and engraftment of stem cells. Chemokines are signalling proteins guiding cell migration and have been shown to tightly regulate muscle tissue repair. We sought to determine which chemokines are expressed in dystrophic muscles undergoing tissue remodelling. Therefore, we analysed the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors in skeletal and cardiac muscles from Sarcoglycan-α null, Sarcoglycan-ß null and immunodeficient Sgcß-null mice. We found that several chemokines are dysregulated in dystrophic muscles. We further show that one of these, platelet-derived growth factor-B, promotes interstitial stem cell migration. This finding provides perspective to an approachable mechanism for improving stem cell homing towards dystrophic muscles.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-sis/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mioblastos/fisiologia , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Sarcoglicanas/genética , Sarcoglicanas/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2389, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787394

RESUMO

To fulfill a productive infection cycle the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) relies on host-cell factors. Interference with these co-factors holds great promise in protecting cells against HIV infection. LEDGF/p75, encoded by the PSIP1 gene, is used by the integrase (IN) protein in the pre-integration complex of HIV to bind host-cell chromatin facilitating proviral integration. LEDGF/p75 depletion results in defective HIV replication. However, as part of its cellular function LEDGF/p75 tethers cellular proteins to the host-cell genome. We used site-specific editing of the PSIP1 locus using CRISPR/Cas to target the aspartic acid residue in position 366 and mutated it to asparagine (D366N) to disrupt the interaction with HIV IN but retain LEDGF/p75 cellular function. The resulting cell lines demonstrated successful disruption of the LEDGF/p75 HIV-IN interface without affecting interaction with cellular binding partners. In line with LEDGF/p75 depleted cells, D366N cells did not support HIV replication, in part due to decreased integration efficiency. In addition, we confirm the remaining integrated provirus is more silent. Taken together, these results support the potential of site-directed CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knock-in to render cells more resistant to HIV infection and provides an additional strategy to protect patient-derived T-cells against HIV-1 infection as part of cell-based therapy.

5.
Nephron ; 141(2): 133-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554218

RESUMO

Mutations in the CTNS gene encoding the lysosomal membrane cystine transporter cystinosin are the cause of cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. More than 140 CTNS mutations have been reported worldwide. Recent studies have discovered that cystinosin exerts other key cellular functions beyond cystine transport such as regulation of oxidative state, lysosomal dynamics and autophagy. Here, we review the different mutations described in the CTNS gene and the geographical distribution of incidence. In addition, the characteristics of the various mutations in relation to the functions of cystinosin needs to be further elucidated. In this review, we highlight the functional consequences of the different mutations in correlation with the clinical phenotypes. Moreover, we propose how this understanding would be fundamental for the development of new technologies through targeted gene therapy, holding promises for a possible cure of the kidney and extra-renal phenotypes of cystinosis.

6.
J Virus Erad ; 4(3): 170-173, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050679

RESUMO

Objectives: Elite controllers (EC) are a rare group of individuals living with HIV-1 who naturally control HIV-1 replication to levels below the limit of detection without antiretroviral therapy (ART) and rarely progress to AIDS. The mechanisms contributing to this control remain incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we have assessed whether cellular host factors could modulate HIV-1 replication post-entry in a controller-discordant couple living with HIV-1. Methods: CD4 T cells from a controller-discordant couple, one partner being an EC and the other an HIV-1 progressor (PR), and healthy controls (HC) were isolated, activated and infected with VSV-G pseudotyped yellow fluorescent protein-encoding single-round HIV-1 virus (HIV-YFP). Viral reverse transcripts, 2-LTR circles and integrated proviral HIV-1 DNA were monitored by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and integration sites were analysed. We further measured LEDGF/p75 and p21 mRNA expression levels by qPCR. Results: Infection of activated CD4 T cells with HIV-YFP was reduced in EC compared with the PR partner, and HC. Evaluation of viral DNA forms suggested a block after entry and during the early steps of HIV-1 reverse transcription in EC. The integration site distribution pattern in EC, PR and HC was similar. The p21 expression in CD4 T cells of EC was elevated compared with the PR or HC, in line with previous work. Conclusions: Our study suggests a reduced permissiveness to HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells from EC due to a block of HIV-1 replication after entry and before integration that might contribute to the EC phenotype in our patient.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200080, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995936

RESUMO

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on cellular proteins, so-called cofactors, to complete its replication cycle. In search for new therapeutic targets we identified the DNA and RNA binding protein Y-box-binding Protein 1 (YB-1) as a cofactor supporting early and late steps of HIV replication. YB-1 depletion resulted in a 10-fold decrease in HIV-1 replication in different cell lines. Dissection of the replication defects revealed that knockdown of YB-1 is associated with a 2- to 5-fold decrease in virion production due to interference with the viral RNA metabolism. Using single-round virus infection experiments we demonstrated that early HIV-1 replication also depends on the cellular YB-1 levels. More precisely, using quantitative PCR and an in vivo nuclear import assay with fluorescently labeled viral particles, we showed that YB-1 knockdown leads to a block between reverse transcription and nuclear import of HIV-1. Interaction studies revealed that YB-1 associates with integrase, although a direct interaction with HIV integrase could not be unambiguously proven. In conclusion, our results indicate that YB-1 affects multiple stages of HIV replication. Future research on the interaction between YB-1 and the virus will reveal whether this protein qualifies as a new antiviral target.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10604, 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006567

RESUMO

Currently cell therapy is considered as an experimental strategy to assist the healing process following simulated vaginal birth injury in rats, boosting the functional and morphologic recovery of pelvic floor muscles and nerves. However, the optimal administration route and dose still need to be determined. Mesangioblasts theoretically have the advantage that they can differentiate in skeletal and smooth muscle. We investigated the fate of mesoangioblasts transduced with luciferase and green fluorescent protein reporter genes (rMABseGFP/fLUC) using bioluminescence, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR in rats undergoing simulated birth injury. rMABseGFP/fLUC were injected locally, intravenously and intra-arterially (common iliacs and aorta). Intra-arterial delivery resulted in the highest amount of rMABseGFP/fLUC in the pelvic organs region and in a more homogeneous distribution over all relevant pelvic organs. Sham controls showed that the presence of the injury is important for recruitment of intra-arterially injected rMABseGFP/fLUC. Injection through the aorta or bilaterally in the common iliac arteries resulted in comparable numbers of rMABseGFP/fLUC in the pelvic organs, yet aortic injection was faster and gave less complications.

10.
Cancer Discov ; 8(5): 616-631, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496663

RESUMO

Leukemia is caused by the accumulation of multiple genomic lesions in hematopoietic precursor cells. However, how these events cooperate during oncogenic transformation remains poorly understood. We studied the cooperation between activated JAK3/STAT5 signaling and HOXA9 overexpression, two events identified as significantly co-occurring in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Expression of mutant JAK3 and HOXA9 led to a rapid development of leukemia originating from multipotent or lymphoid-committed progenitors, with a significant decrease in disease latency compared with JAK3 or HOXA9 alone. Integrated RNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, and Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) revealed that STAT5 and HOXA9 have co-occupancy across the genome, resulting in enhanced STAT5 transcriptional activity and ectopic activation of FOS/JUN (AP1). Our data suggest that oncogenic transcription factors such as HOXA9 provide a fertile ground for specific signaling pathways to thrive, explaining why JAK/STAT pathway mutations accumulate in HOXA9-expressing cells.Significance: The mechanism of oncogene cooperation in cancer development remains poorly characterized. In this study, we model the cooperation between activated JAK/STAT signaling and ectopic HOXA9 expression during T-cell leukemia development. We identify a direct cooperation between STAT5 and HOXA9 at the transcriptional level and identify PIM1 kinase as a possible drug target in mutant JAK/STAT/HOXA9-positive leukemia cases. Cancer Discov; 8(5); 616-31. ©2018 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 517.

11.
Acta Biomater ; 69: 265-276, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398644

RESUMO

Alginate hydrogels are widely used as delivery vehicles due to their ability to encapsulate and release a wide range of cargos in a gentle and biocompatible manner. The release of encapsulated therapeutic cargos can be promoted or stunted by adjusting the hydrogel physiochemical properties. However, the release from such systems is often skewed towards burst-release or lengthy retention. To address this, we hypothesized that the overall magnitude of burst release could be adjusted by combining microgels with distinct properties and release behavior. Microgel suspensions were generated using a process we have termed on-chip polymer blending to yield composite suspensions of a range of microgel formulations. In this manner, we studied how alginate percentage and degradation relate to the release of lentivectors. Whereas changes in alginate percentage had a minimal impact on lentivector release, microgel degradation led to a 3-fold increase, and near complete release, over 10 days. Furthermore, by controlling the amount of degradable alginate present within microgels the relative rate of release can be adjusted. A degradable formulation of microgels was used to deliver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-encoding lentivectors in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and yielded a proangiogenic response in comparison to the same lentivectors delivered in suspension. The utility of blended microgel suspensions may provide an especially appealing platform for the delivery of lentivectors or similarly sized therapeutics. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic therapeutics hold considerable potential for the treatment of diseases and disorders including ischemic cardiovascular diseases. To realize this potential, genetic vectors must be precisely and efficiently delivered to targeted regions of the body. However, conventional methods of delivery do not provide sufficient spatial and temporal control. Here, we demonstrate how alginate microgels provide a basis for developing systems for controlled genetic vector release. We adjust the physiochemical properties of alginate for quicker or slower release, and we demonstrate how combining distinct formulations of microgels can tune the release of the overall composite microgel suspension. These composite suspensions are generated using a straightforward and powerful application of droplet microfluidics which allows for the real-time generation of a composite suspension.

14.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(8): 801-810, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993958

RESUMO

Hypomorphic IKBKG mutations in males are typically associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID). Some mutations cause immunodeficiency without EDA (NEMO-ID). The immunological profile associated with these NEMO-ID variants is not fully documented. We present a 2-year-old patient with suspected immunodeficiency in which a hemizygous p.Glu57Lys IKBKG variant was identified. At the age of 1 year, he had an episode of otitis media that evolved into a bilateral mastoiditis (Pseudomonas spp). Hypogammaglobulinemia, specific (polysaccharide) antibody deficiency, and low switched memory B cell subsets were noticed. The mother was heterozygous for the variant but had no signs of incontinentia pigmenti. Patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells produced low amounts of IL-6 after stimulation with IL-1ß, Pam3CSK4, and FSL-1. In patient fibroblasts, IκB-α was degraded normally upon stimulation with IL-1ß or TNF-α. Transduction of wild-type and variant NEMO in NEMO-/- deficient SV40 fibroblasts revealed a slight but significant reduction of IL-6 production upon stimulation with IL-1ß and TNF-α. In conclusion, we demonstrated that p.Glu57Lys leads to specific immunological defects in vitro. No other pathogenic PID variants were identified through whole exome sequencing. As rare polymorphisms have been described in IKBKG and polygenic inheritance remains an option in the presented case, this study emphasizes the need for thorough functional and genetic evaluation when encountering and interpreting suspected disease-causing NEMO-ID variants.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Mutação/genética , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Agamaglobulinemia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Displasia Ectodérmica/diagnóstico , Hemizigoto , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Mastoidite , Otite , Polimorfismo Genético
15.
Circulation ; 136(8): 747-761, 2017 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases remain the predominant cause of death worldwide, with the prevalence of heart failure continuing to increase. Despite increased knowledge of the metabolic alterations that occur in heart failure, novel therapies to treat the observed metabolic disturbances are still lacking. METHODS: Mice were subjected to pressure overload by means of angiotensin-II infusion or transversal aortic constriction. MicroRNA-146a was either genetically or pharmacologically knocked out or genetically overexpressed in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, overexpression of dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) in the murine heart was performed by means of an adeno-associated virus. RESULTS: MicroRNA-146a was upregulated in whole heart tissue in multiple murine pressure overload models. Also, microRNA-146a levels were moderately increased in left ventricular biopsies of patients with aortic stenosis. Overexpression of microRNA-146a in cardiomyocytes provoked cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in vivo, whereas genetic knockdown or pharmacological blockade of microRNA-146a blunted the hypertrophic response and attenuated cardiac dysfunction in vivo. Mechanistically, microRNA-146a reduced its target DLST-the E2 subcomponent of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, a rate-controlling tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme. DLST protein levels significantly decreased on pressure overload in wild-type mice, paralleling a decreased oxidative metabolism, whereas DLST protein levels and hence oxidative metabolism were partially maintained in microRNA-146a knockout mice. Moreover, overexpression of DLST in wild-type mice protected against cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether we show that the microRNA-146a and its target DLST are important metabolic players in left ventricular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/biossíntese , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cardiomegalia/genética , Cardiomegalia/prevenção & controle , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , MicroRNAs/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle
16.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 7: 231-245, 2017 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624199

RESUMO

Retroviral vectors have shown their curative potential in clinical trials correcting monogenetic disorders. However, therapeutic benefits were compromised due to vector-induced dysregulation of cellular genes and leukemia development in a subset of patients. Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins act as cellular cofactors that tether the murine leukemia virus (MLV) pre-integration complex to host chromatin via interaction with the MLV integrase (IN) and thereby define the typical gammaretroviral integration distribution. We engineered next-generation BET-independent (Bin) MLV vectors to retarget their integration to regions where they are less likely to dysregulate nearby genes. We mutated MLV IN to uncouple BET protein interaction and fused it with chromatin-binding peptides. The addition of the CBX1 chromodomain to MLV INW390A efficiently targeted integration away from gene regulatory elements. The retargeted vector produced at high titers and efficiently transduced CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, while fewer colonies were detected in a serial colony-forming assay, a surrogate test for genotoxicity. Our findings underscore the potential of the engineered vectors to reduce the risk of insertional mutagenesis without compromising transduction efficiency. Ultimately, combined with other safety features in vector design, next-generation BinMLV vectors can improve the safety of gammaretroviral vectors for gene therapy.

17.
J Virus Erad ; 3(1): 7-14, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28275453

RESUMO

HIV-1 and HIV-2 originate from two distinct zoonotic transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from primate to human. Although both share similar modes of transmission and can result in the development of AIDS with similar clinical manifestations, HIV-2 infection is generally milder and less likely to progress to AIDS. HIV is currently incurable due to the presence of HIV provirus integrated into the host DNA of long-lived memory cells of the immune system without active replication. As such, the latent virus is immunologically inert and remains insensitive to the administered antiviral drugs targeting active viral replication steps. Recent evidence suggests that persistent HIV replication may occur in anatomical sanctuaries such as the lymphoid tissue due to low drug penetration. At present, different strategies are being evaluated either to completely eradicate the virus from the patient (sterilising cure) or to allow treatment interruption without viral rebound (functional cure). Because HIV-2 is naturally less pathogenic and displays a more latent phenotype than HIV-1, it may represent a valuable model that provides elementary information to cure HIV-1 infection. Insight into the viral and cellular determinants of HIV-2 replication may therefore pave the way for alternative strategies to eradicate HIV-1 or promote viral remission.

19.
Brain Struct Funct ; 222(2): 717-733, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27259586

RESUMO

Novel neuromodulation techniques in the field of brain research, such as optogenetics, prompt to target specific cell populations. However, not every subpopulation can be distinguished based on brain area or activity of specific promoters, but rather on topology and connectivity. A fascinating tool to detect neuronal circuitry is based on the transsynaptic tracer, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). When expressed in neurons, it is transported throughout the neuron, secreted, and taken up by synaptically connected neurons. Expression of a WGA and Cre recombinase fusion protein using a viral vector technology in Cre-dependent transgenic animals allows to trace neuronal network connections and to induce topological transgene expression. In this study, we applied and evaluated this technology in specific areas throughout the whole rodent brain, including the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra, and the motor cortex. Adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) encoding the WGA-Cre fusion protein under control of a CMV promoter were stereotactically injected in Rosa26-STOP-EYFP transgenic mice. After 6 weeks, both the number of transneuronally labeled YFP+/mCherry- cells and the transduced YFP+/mCherry+ cells were quantified in the connected regions. We were able to trace several connections using WGA-Cre transneuronal labeling; however, the labeling efficacy was region-dependent. The observed transneuronal labeling mostly occurred in the anterograde direction without the occurrence of multi-synaptic labeling. Furthermore, we were able to visualize a specific subset of newborn neurons derived from the subventricular zone based on their connectivity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Integrases/genética , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico/métodos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Aglutininas do Germe de Trigo/genética , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Gânglios da Base/citologia , Gânglios da Base/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Córtex Motor/citologia , Córtex Motor/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Condutos Olfatórios/citologia , Condutos Olfatórios/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Tálamo/citologia , Tálamo/metabolismo , Transgenes
20.
Blood Adv ; 1(23): 2088-2104, 2017 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296856

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based gene therapy trials are now moving toward the use of lentiviral vectors (LVs) with success. However, one challenge in the field remains: efficient transduction of HSCs without compromising their stem cell potential. Here we showed that measles virus glycoprotein-displaying LVs (hemagglutinin and fusion protein LVs [H/F-LVs]) were capable of transducing 100% of early-acting cytokine-stimulated human CD34+ (hCD34+) progenitor cells upon a single application. Strikingly, these H/F-LVs also allowed transduction of up to 70% of nonstimulated quiescent hCD34+ cells, whereas conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G)-LVs reached 5% at the most with H/F-LV entry occurring exclusively through the CD46 complement receptor. Importantly, reconstitution of NOD/SCIDγc-/- (NSG) mice with H/F-LV transduced prestimulated or resting hCD34+ cells confirmed these high transduction levels in all myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Remarkably, for resting CD34+ cells, secondary recipients exhibited increasing transduction levels of up to 100%, emphasizing that H/F-LVs efficiently gene-marked HSCs in the resting state. Because H/F-LVs promoted ex vivo gene modification of minimally manipulated CD34+ progenitors that maintained stemness, we assessed their applicability in Fanconi anemia, a bone marrow (BM) failure with chromosomal fragility. Notably, only H/F-LVs efficiently gene-corrected minimally stimulated hCD34+ cells in unfractionated BM from these patients. These H/F-LVs improved HSC gene delivery in the absence of cytokine stimulation while maintaining their stem cell potential. Thus, H/F-LVs will facilitate future clinical applications requiring HSC gene modification, including BM failure syndromes, for which treatment has been very challenging up to now.

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