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1.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 76, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620196

RESUMO

The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is one of the most frequently used screening instrument for hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and potential alcohol dependence in primary health care (PHC) and other settings worldwide. It has been translated into many languages and adapted and modified for use in some countries, following formal adaptation procedures and validation studies. In the Russian Federation, the AUDIT has been used in different settings and by different health professionals, including addiction specialists (narcologists). In 2017, it was included as a screening instrument in the national guidelines of routine preventive health checks at the population-level (dispanserization). However, various Russian translations of the AUDIT are known to be in use in different settings and, so far, little is known about the empirical basis and validation of the instrument in Russia-a country, which is known for its distinct drinking patterns and their detrimental impact on health. The present contribution is the summary of two systematic reviews that were carried out to inform a planned national validation study of the AUDIT in Russia.Two systematic searches were carried out to 1) identify all validation efforts of the AUDIT in Russia and to document all reported problems encountered, and 2) identify all globally existing Russian translations of the AUDIT and document their differences and any reported issues in their application. The qualitative narrative synthesis of all studies that met the inclusion criteria of the first search highlighted the absence of any large-scale rigorous validation study of the AUDIT in primary health care in Russia, while a document analysis of all of the 122 Russian translations has revealed 61 unique versions, most of which contained inconsistencies and signaled obvious application challenges of the test.The results clearly signal the need for a validation study of the Russian AUDIT.

2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(9): 640-652E, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475601

RESUMO

Objective: To identify gaps in national stroke guidelines that could be bridged to enhance the quality of stroke care services in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We systematically searched medical databases and websites of medical societies and contacted international organizations. Country-specific guidelines on care and control of stroke in any language published from 2010 to 2020 were eligible for inclusion. We reviewed each included guideline for coverage of four key components of stroke services (surveillance, prevention, acute care and rehabilitation). We also assessed compliance with the eight Institute of Medicine standards for clinical practice guidelines, the ease of implementation of guidelines and plans for dissemination to target audiences. Findings: We reviewed 108 eligible guidelines from 47 countries, including four low-income, 24 middle-income and 19 high-income countries. Globally, fewer of the guidelines covered primary stroke prevention compared with other components of care, with none recommending surveillance. Guidelines on stroke in low- and middle-income countries fell short of the required standards for guideline development; breadth of target audience; coverage of the four components of stroke services; and adaptation to socioeconomic context. Fewer low- and middle-income country guidelines demonstrated transparency than those from high-income countries. Less than a quarter of guidelines encompassed detailed implementation plans and socioeconomic considerations. Conclusion: Guidelines on stroke in low- and middle-income countries need to be developed in conjunction with a wider category of health-care providers and stakeholders, with a full spectrum of translatable, context-appropriate interventions.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Austrália , Isquemia Encefálica , Canadá , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(7): 496-505, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248222

RESUMO

Objective: To validate a Russian-language version of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Methods: We invited 2173 patients from 21 rural and urban primary health-care centres in nine Russian regions to participate in the study (143 declined and eight were excluded). In a standardized interview, patients who had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months provided information on their sociodemographic characteristics and completed the Russian AUDIT, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to identify problem drinking and alcohol use disorders. We assessed the feasibility of administering the test, its internal consistency and its ability to predict hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders in primary health care in the Russian Federation. Findings: Of the 2022 patients included in the study, 1497 were current drinkers with Russian AUDIT scores. The test was internally consistent with good psychometric properties (Cronbach's α : 0.842) and accurately predicted alcohol use disorders and other outcomes (area under the curve > 75%). A three-item short form of the test correlated well with the full instrument and had similar predictive power (area under the curve > 80%). We determined sex-specific thresholds for all outcomes, as non-specific thresholds resulted in few women being identified. Conclusion: With the validated Russian AUDIT, there is no longer a barrier to introducing screening and brief interventions into primary health care in the Russian Federation to supplement successful alcohol control policies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , População Urbana
4.
Addiction ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109685

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe as well as its associations with income and experiences of distress related to the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional on-line survey conducted between 24 April and 22 July 2020. SETTING: Twenty-one European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 964 adults reporting past-year drinking. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in alcohol consumption were measured by asking respondents about changes over the previous month in their drinking frequency, the quantity they consumed and incidence of heavy episodic drinking events. Individual indicators were combined into an aggregated consumption-change score and scaled to a possible range of -1 to +1. Using this score as the outcome, multi-level linear regressions tested changes in overall drinking, taking into account sampling weights and baseline alcohol consumption [Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C)] and country of residence serving as random intercept. Similar models were conducted for each single consumption-change indicator. FINDINGS: The aggregated consumption-change score indicated an average decrease in alcohol consumption of -0.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.18, -0.10]. Statistically significant decreases in consumption were found in all countries, except Ireland (-0.08, 95% CI = -0.17, 0.01) and the United Kingdom (+0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.17). Decreases in drinking were mainly driven by a reduced frequency of heavy episodic drinking events (-0.17, 95% CI = -0.20, -0.14). Declines in consumption were less marked among those with low- or average incomes and those experiencing distress. CONCLUSIONS: On average, alcohol consumption appears to have declined during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. Both reduced availability of alcohol and increased distress may have affected consumption, although the former seems to have had a greater impact in terms of immediate effects.

7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(10): 683-697H, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177758

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines for the management of depression globally. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of existing guidelines for the management of depression in adults with major depressive or bipolar disorder. For each identified guideline, we assessed compliance with measures of guideline development quality (such as transparency in guideline development processes and funding, multidisciplinary author group composition, systematic review of comparative efficacy research) and implementation (such as quality indicators). We compared guidelines from low- and middle-income countries with those from high-income countries. Findings: We identified 82 national and 13 international clinical practice guidelines from 83 countries in 27 languages. Guideline development processes and funding sources were explicitly specified in a smaller proportion of guidelines from low- and middle-income countries (8/29; 28%) relative to high-income countries (35/58; 60%). Fewer guidelines (2/29; 7%) from low- and middle-income countries, relative to high-income countries (22/58; 38%), were authored by a multidisciplinary development group. A systematic review of comparative effectiveness was conducted in 31% (9/29) of low- and middle-income country guidelines versus 71% (41/58) of high-income country guidelines. Only 10% (3/29) of low- and middle-income country and 19% (11/58) of high-income country guidelines described plans to assess quality indicators or recommendation adherence. Conclusion: Globally, guideline implementation is inadequately planned, reported and measured. Narrowing disparities in the development and implementation of guidelines in low- and middle-income countries is a priority. Future guidelines should present strategies to implement recommendations and measure feasibility, cost-effectiveness and impact on health outcomes.

8.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 180, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050933

RESUMO

This narrative review was conducted to synthesize and summarize available up-to-date evidence on current health status, including both non-communicable diseases and infectious diseases, of migrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union countries in the Russian Federation. Epidemiological and sociological studies with one or more determinants of the health, as well as relevant qualitative studies characterizing risk factors, well-being indicators, and lifestyles of migrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union countries in Russia published from 2004 to 2019 in Russian and English languages were included in the review. Despite significant limitations of the available research literature in the field, some patterns in migrants' health in Russia and issues that need to be addressed were identified. In particular, the syndemic epidemics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, additively increasing negative health consequences, including cardiovascular diseases and chronic digestive system diseases, high rates of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, respiratory diseases and a growing percentage of new tuberculosis cases among migrants from the former Soviet Union countries are all of great concern. Possibly, the burden of these co-occurring morbidities is linked to commonly reported issues among this population group, such as poor nutrition and living conditions, high prevalence of unskilled manual labour, non-compliance with sanitary norms, lack of basic vaccinations, lack of basic knowledge about safe sexual practices and risky sexual behaviour, low healthcare seeking behaviour and limited access to health care. Importantly, these findings may urge the government to increase efforts and promote international collaboration in combating the threat of infectious diseases. Additionally, it was found that migrants had higher levels of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, and those who stayed in the receiving country 5 years or more had a higher level of somatic pathology than those whose stay was less than 5 years. In order to ensure an adequate health system response and fulfil the main Universal Health Coverage principle of "leaving no one behind", a robust monitoring system of the health status of refugees and migrants and an integrated legal framework for the standardized and more inclusive routine care for this population in Russia is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , U.R.S.S./etnologia
9.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 55(6): 624-630, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728707

RESUMO

AIMS: To adapt and validate the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for use in the Russian Federation and countries with Russian-speaking populations by. METHODS: Systematic review of past use and validation of the Russian-language AUDIT. Interviews to be conducted with experts to identify problems encountered in the use of existing Russian-language AUDIT versions. A pilot study using a revised translation of the Russian-language AUDIT that incorporates country-specific drinking patterns in the Russian Federation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The systematic review identified over 60 different Russian-language AUDIT versions without systematic validation studies. The main difficulties encountered with the use of the AUDIT in the Russian Federation were related to the lack of:A revised version of the Russian-language AUDIT was created based on the pilot studies, and was validated in primary healthcare facilities in all regions in 2019/2020.

10.
Int J Drug Policy ; 80: 102636, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417670

RESUMO

Alcohol use has been determined to be one of the main risk factors of, and contributors to, premature mortality in Russia, but no formal analysis of the impact of alcohol control policies has been undertaken so far. The present contribution is a commentary on a policy impact study undertaken by the World Health Organization on the effects of alcohol control measures on mortality and life expectancy in the Russian Federation. As part of the case study, all alcohol control policies in Russia from 1990 to 2018 were examined, and periods with differing policy intensity were distinguished based on the known effectiveness of different measures. Trends in all-cause mortality during these periods, and the shifts in trends between periods, were analysed using interrupted-time series methodology. As predicted, the intensity of alcohol control policies strongly impacted all-cause mortality. The experience of the Russian Federation in reducing the burden of disease caused by alcohol is a strong argument that effective alcohol policies are essential for improving the prospects for long and healthy lives.

11.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 28(5): 393-404, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23645505

RESUMO

Russia has very high mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), with evidence that heavy drinking may play a role. To throw further light on this association we have studied the association of alcohol with predictors of CVD risk including B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Levels of BNP increase primarily in response to abnormal cardiac chamber wall stretch which can occur both as a result of atherosclerosis as well as due to other types of damage to the myocardium. No previous population-based studies have investigated the association with alcohol. We analysed cross-sectional data on drinking behaviour in 993 men aged 25-60 years from the Izhevsk Family Study 2 (IFS2), conducted in the Russian city of Izhevsk in 2008-2009. Relative to non-drinkers, men who drank hazardously had an odds ratio (OR) of being in the top 20 % of the BNP distribution of 4.66 (95 % CI 2.13, 10.19) adjusted for age, obesity, waist-hip ratio, and smoking. Further adjustment for class of hypertension resulted in only slight attenuation of the effect, suggesting that this effect was not secondary to the influence of alcohol on blood pressure. In contrast hazardous drinking was associated with markedly raised ApoA1 and HDL cholesterol levels, but had little impact on levels of ApoB and LDL cholesterol. Similar but less pronounced associations were found in the Belfast (UK) component of the PRIME study conducted in 1991. These findings suggest that the association of heavy drinking with increased risk of cardiovascular disease may be partly due to alcohol-induced non-atherosclerotic damage to the myocardium.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Adulto , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas B/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Addiction ; 108(9): 1579-89, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23692391

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the performance of a range of biomarkers of alcohol consumption in a heavy-drinking population of working-aged Russian men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of men originally sampled at random from a population register. SETTING: Izhevsk, a Russian city with a population of 650 000 people. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1023 men aged 27-59 years living in Izhevsk who took part in a health check examination in 2008-2009. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking behaviours, socio-economic position, anthropometric measurements plus blood levels of alcohol biomarkers [carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and mean cell volume of erythrocytes (MCV)] and hepatitis B and C status. FINDINGS: In the year before interview there was a high prevalence of high-risk alcohol consumption indicated by consumption of non-beverage alcohols (5%), problem drinking behaviours (4.4%) and alcohol consumption exceeding an average 40 g per day (12.6%). All biomarkers were associated strongly with total beverage alcohol consumption even after adjustment for confounders. CDT performed best as an alcohol biomarker, with a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 71% for detecting an average consumption of more than 40 g per day versus less. For all biomarkers sensitivity was considerably lower than specificity. Hazardous drinking patterns per se were not well detected by any of the biomarkers, all with sensitivity below 60%. CONCLUSIONS: In a Russian population with high levels of alcohol consumption, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) might be the most sensitive and specific biomarker for detecting ethanol consumption above 40 g/day. A biomarker reflecting hazardous drinking patterns has yet to be established.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Transferrina/análogos & derivados , Transferrina/metabolismo , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
13.
Addiction ; 108(11): 1905-14, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23692519

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and self-reported physical and mental health in a population with a high prevalence of hazardous drinking. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of an age-stratified random sample of a population register. SETTING : The city of Izhevsk, The Russian Federation, 2008-09. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1031 men aged 25-60 years (68% response rate). MEASUREMENTS : Self-reported health was evaluated with the SF12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summaries. Measures of hazardous drinking (based on frequency of adverse effects of alcohol intake including hangover, excessive drunkenness and extended episodes of intoxication lasting 2 or more days) were used in addition to frequency of alcohol consumption and total volume of beverage ethanol per year. Information on smoking and socio-demographic factors were obtained. FINDINGS : Compared with abstainers, those drinking 10-19 litres of beverage ethanol per year had a PCS score 2.66 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76; 4.56] higher. Hazardous beverage drinking was associated with a lower PCS score [mean diff: -2.95 (95% CI = -5.28; -0.62)] and even more strongly with a lower MCS score [mean diff: -4.29 (95% CI = -6.87; -1.70)] compared to non-hazardous drinkers, with frequent non-beverage alcohol drinking being associated with a particularly low MCS score [-7.23 (95% CI = -11.16; -3.29)]. Adjustment for smoking and socio-demographic factors attenuated these associations slightly, but the same patterns persisted. Adjustment for employment status attenuated the associations with PCS considerably. CONCLUSION : Among working-aged male adults in Russia, hazardous patterns of alcohol drinking are associated with poorer self-reported physical health, and even more strongly with poorer self-reported mental health. Physical health appears to be lower in those reporting complete abstinence from alcohol compared with those drinking 10-19 litres per year.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Trials ; 12: 238, 2011 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22053775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Russia has particularly low life expectancy for an industrialised country, with mortality at working ages having fluctuated dramatically over the past few decades, particularly among men. Alcohol has been identified as the most likely cause of these temporal variations. One approach to reducing the alcohol problem in Russia is 'brief interventions' which seek to change views of the personal acceptability of excessive drinking and to encourage self-directed behaviour change. Very few studies to evaluate the efficacy of brief interventions in Russia have been conducted. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a person-centred counselling style which can be adapted to brief interventions in which help is offered in thinking through behaviour in the context of values and goals, to decide whether change is needed, and if so, how it may best be achieved. METHODS: This paper reports on an individually randomised two-armed parallel group exploratory trial. The primary hypothesis is that a brief adaptation of MI will be effective in reducing self-reported hazardous and harmful drinking at 3 months. Participants were drawn from the Izhevsk Family Study II, with eligibility determined based on proxy reports of hazardous and harmful drinking in the past year. All participants underwent a health check, with MI subsequently delivered to those in the intervention arm. Signed consent was obtained from those in the intervention arm only at this point. Both groups were then invited for 3 and 12 month follow ups. The control group did not receive any additional intervention. RESULTS: 441 men were randomised. Of these 61 did not have a health check leaving 190 in each trial arm. Follow up at 3 months was high (97% of those having a health check), and very similar in the two trial arms (183 in the intervention and 187 in the control). No significant differences were detected between the randomised groups in either the primary or the secondary outcomes at three months in the intention to treat analyses. The unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for the effect of MI on hazardous and harmful drinking was 0.77 (0.51, 1.16). An adjusted odds ratio of 0.52 (0.28, 0.94) was obtained in the pre-specified per protocol analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This trial demonstrates that it is possible to engage Russian men who drink hazardously in a brief intervention aimed at reducing alcohol related harm. However the results with respect to the efficacy are equivocal and further, larger-scale trials are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: ISRCTN82405938.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Federação Russa
15.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 46(6): 702-8, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21727097

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the relationship between socio-demographic factors and alcohol drinking patterns identified through a formal analysis of the factor structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score in a population sample of working-age men in Russia. METHODS: In 2008-2009, a sample of 1005 men aged 25-59 years living in Izhevsk, Russia were interviewed and information collected about socio-demographic circumstances. Responses to the AUDIT questions were obtained through a self-completed questionnaire. Latent dimensions of the AUDIT score were determined using confirmatory factor analysis and expressed as standard deviation (SD) units. Structural equation modelling was used to estimate the strength of association of these dimensions with socio-demographic variables. RESULTS: The AUDIT was found to have a two-factor structure: alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Both dimensions were higher in men who were unemployed seeking work compared with those in regular paid employment. For consumption, there was a difference of 0.59 SDs, (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23, 0.88) and for alcohol-related problems one of 0.66 SD (95% CI: 0.31, 1.00). Alcohol-related problems were greater among less educated compared with more educated men (P-value for trend = 0.05), while consumption was not related to education. Similar results were found for associations with an amenity index based on car ownership and central heating. Neither dimension was associated with marital status. While we found evidence that the consumption component of AUDIT was underestimated, this did not appear to explain the associations of this dimension with socio-demographic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Education and amenity index, both measures of socio-economic position, were inversely associated with alcohol-related problems but not with consumption. This discordance suggests that self-reported questions on frequency and volume may be less sensitive markers of socio-economic variation in drinking than are questions about dependence and harm. Further investigation of the validity of the consumption component of AUDIT in Russia is warranted as it appears that the concept of a standard 'drink' as used in the instrument is not understood.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Desemprego , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Escolaridade , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Eur J Public Health ; 20(5): 588-94, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20350932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male life expectancy in the Russian Federation, at 60 years, is the lowest in Europe. Several factors contribute to this situation, but hazardous consumption of alcohol is especially a key factor. METHODS: We undertook a stakeholder analysis in a typical Russian region located on the western side of the Urals. Organizations with a stake in alcohol policy in the region were identified by snowball sampling and information on their position and influence on alcohol policy was elicited from interviews with key informants. Their interests and influence were mapped and their relationships plotted. RESULTS: Twenty-nine stakeholder organizations were identified and 43 interviews were conducted with their staff. The most influential actors were the Federal and regional governments, large beer producers and manufacturers of strong alcohols. However, the majority of organizations that might be expected to play a role in developing or implementing alcohol control policies were almost entirely disengaged and fragmented. No evidence was found of an existing or emerging multi-sectoral coalition for developing alcohol policy to improve health. Organizations that might be expected to contribute to tackling hazardous drinking had little understanding of what might be effective. CONCLUSIONS: While stakeholders with an interest in maintaining or increasing alcohol consumption are engaged and influential, those who might seek to reduce it either take a very narrow perspective or are disengaged from the policy agenda. There is a need to mobilize actors who might contribute to effective policies while challenging those who can block them.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Governo , Política de Saúde , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio , Humanos , Indústrias , Entrevistas como Assunto , Federação Russa
17.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 33(1): 79-85, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19018753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is known that a range of nonbeverage alcohols including eau-de-colognes and medicinal tinctures are consumed by sections of the Russian population. Research conducted in a city in the Urals (2003 to 2005) showed that consumption of such products is associated with very high mortality from a wide range of causes. However, there have been no systematic attempts to investigate the extent to which such products are available in other cities of the Russian Federation. There is particular interest in establishing this following the introduction of new federal regulations in January 2006 aimed at restricting the availability of these products. METHODS: In the first half of 2007, we conducted a survey in 17 cities that spanned the full range of city types in the Russian Federation excluding those in the Far East. In each city, fieldworkers visited pharmacies and other types of retail outlets and purchased samples of nonbeverage alcohols. These were defined as being typically 10 to 15 roubles per bottle, with an ethanol concentration of at least 60% by volume. RESULTS: We were able to purchase samples of nonbeverage alcohols in each of the 17 cities we investigated. The majority of the 271 products included were a cheaper and more affordable source of ethanol than standard Russian vodka. Medicinal tinctures, sold almost exclusively in pharmacies, were particularly common with an average concentration of 78% ethanol by volume. Most importantly, the majority of the products were of a sort that our previous research in 2004 to 2005 had established were drunk by working-age men. CONCLUSIONS: While the 2006 federal regulations introduced in part to reduce the availability and consumption of nonbeverage alcohols may have had some effect on certain classes of nonmedicinal products, up until June 2007 at least, medicinal tinctures as well as some other nonbeverage alcohols that are consumed appear to have been readily available.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Etanol/economia , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cidades/economia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana/tendências
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 8: 69, 2008 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18377650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Russia is one of the very few industrialised countries in the world where life expectancy has been declining. Alcohol has been implicated as a major contributor to the rapid fluctuations observed in male life expectancy since 1985 that have been particularly marked among working-age men. One approach to reducing the alcohol problem in Russia is 'brief interventions' which seek to change views of the personal acceptability of excessive drinking and to encourage self-directed behaviour change. There is limited understanding in Russia of the salience and applicability of Motivational Interviewing (MI), a well-defined brief intervention commonly used to target alcohol-related behaviour, but MI may have important potential for success within the Russian context. METHODS/DESIGN: The study will be an individually randomised two-armed parallel group exploratory trial. The primary hypothesis is that a brief adaptation of MI will be effective in reducing self-reported hazardous drinking at 3 months. The secondary hypothesis is that it will be effective in reducing self-reported past week beverage alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related problems at 3 months and at 12 months. MI will also be effective at 12 months in reducing self-reported hazardous drinking, alcohol dependence and related problems, proxy reported hazardous drinking, and recent alcohol use as indicated by bio-markers. Participants are drawn from the Izhevsk Family Study II, with eligibility determined based on proxy reports of hazardous drinking in the past year. All participants undergo a health check, with MI subsequently delivered to those in the intervention arm. Signed consent is obtained from those in the intervention arm at this point. Both groups are then invited for 3 and 12 month follow ups. The control group will not receive any additional intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN82405938.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/ética , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos , Definição da Elegibilidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Federação Russa
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