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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(25): 2440-2450, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the national obesity epidemic has been well documented, less is known about obesity at the U.S. state level. Current estimates are based on body measures reported by persons themselves that underestimate the prevalence of obesity, especially severe obesity. METHODS: We developed methods to correct for self-reporting bias and to estimate state-specific and demographic subgroup-specific trends and projections of the prevalence of categories of body-mass index (BMI). BMI data reported by 6,264,226 adults (18 years of age or older) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey (1993-1994 and 1999-2016) were obtained and corrected for quantile-specific self-reporting bias with the use of measured data from 57,131 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fitted multinomial regressions for each state and subgroup to estimate the prevalence of four BMI categories from 1990 through 2030: underweight or normal weight (BMI [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], <25), overweight (25 to <30), moderate obesity (30 to <35), and severe obesity (≥35). We evaluated the accuracy of our approach using data from 1990 through 2010 to predict 2016 outcomes. RESULTS: The findings from our approach suggest with high predictive accuracy that by 2030 nearly 1 in 2 adults will have obesity (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.7 to 50.1), and the prevalence will be higher than 50% in 29 states and not below 35% in any state. Nearly 1 in 4 adults is projected to have severe obesity by 2030 (24.2%; 95% CI, 22.9 to 25.5), and the prevalence will be higher than 25% in 25 states. We predict that, nationally, severe obesity is likely to become the most common BMI category among women (27.6%; 95% CI, 26.1 to 29.2), non-Hispanic black adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 29.9 to 33.4), and low-income adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 30.2 to 33.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that the prevalence of adult obesity and severe obesity will continue to increase nationwide, with large disparities across states and demographic subgroups. (Funded by the JPB Foundation.).


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Mórbida/etnologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1587, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a great need to identify implementation strategies to successfully scale-up public health interventions in order to achieve their intended population impact. The Out-of-school Nutrition and Physical Activity group-randomized trial previously demonstrated improvements in children's vigorous physical activity and the healthfulness of foods and beverages consumed. This implementation study aimed to assess the effects and costs of two training models to scale-up this evidence-based intervention. METHODS: A 3-arm group-randomized trial was conducted to compare effectiveness of in-person and online training models for scaling up the intervention compared to controls. One-third of sites were randomized to the in-person train-the-trainer model: local YMCA facilitators attended a training session and then conducted three learning collaborative meetings and technical assistance. One-third were assigned to the online model, consisting of self-paced monthly learning modules, videos, quizzes, and facilitated discussion boards. Remaining sites served as controls. Fifty-three afterschool sites from three YMCA Associations in different regions of the country completed baseline and follow-up observations using a validated tool of afterschool nutrition and physical activity practices. We used multivariable regression models, accounting for clustering of observations, to assess intervention effects on an aggregate afterschool practice primary outcome, and conducted secondary analyses of nine intervention goals (e.g. serving water). Cost data were collected to determine the resources to implement each training model. RESULTS: Changes in the primary outcome indicate that, on average, sites in the in-person arm achieved 0.44 additional goals compared to controls (95%CI 0.02, 0.86, p = 0.04). Increases in the number of additional goals achieved in sites in the online arm were not significantly greater than control sites (+ 0.28, 95% CI -0.18, 0.73, p = 0.24). Goal-specific improvements were observed for increasing water offered in the in-person arm and fruits and vegetables offered in the online arm. The cost per person trained was $678 for the in-person training model and $336 for the on-line training model. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot trial presents promising findings on implementation strategies for scale-up. It validated the in-person training model as an effective approach. The less expensive online training may be a useful option for geographically disbursed sites where in-person training is challenging. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Although this study does not report the results of a health care intervention on human subjects, it is a randomized trial and was therefore retrospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov on July 4, 2019 in accordance with the BMC guidelines to ensure the complete publication of all results (NCT04009304).

3.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(12): 2037-2045, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness and impact on childhood obesity of installation of chilled water dispensers ("water jets") on school lunch lines and to compare water jets' cost, reach, and impact on water consumption with three additional strategies. METHODS: The Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study(CHOICES) microsimulation model estimated the cost-effectiveness of water jets on US childhood obesity cases prevented in 2025. Also estimated were the cost, number of children reached, and impact on water consumption of the installation of water jets and three other strategies. RESULTS: Installing water jets on school lunch lines was projected to reach 29.6 million children (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 29.4 million-29.8 million), cost $4.25 (95% UI: $2.74-$5.69) per child, prevent 179,550 cases of childhood obesity in 2025 (95% UI: 101,970-257,870), and save $0.31 in health care costs per dollar invested (95% UI: $0.15-$0.55). In the secondary analysis, installing cup dispensers next to existing water fountains was the least costly but also had the lowest population reach. CONCLUSIONS: Installating water jet dispensers on school lunch lines could also save almost half of the dollars needed for implementation via a reduction in obesity-related health care costs. School-based interventions to promote drinking water may be relatively inexpensive strategies for improving child health.

4.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(10): 1177-1187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of and stakeholder perspectives on a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) policy that would not allow SSB purchases in Maine, US. DESIGN: A cost-effectiveness simulation model combined with stakeholder interviews. SETTING: Maine, US. PARTICIPANTS: Microsimulation of the Maine population in 2015 and interviews with stakeholders (n = 14). Study conducted from 2013 to 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health care cost savings, net costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from 2017 to 2027. Stakeholder positions on policies. Retail SSB cost and implementation cost data were collected. ANALYSIS: Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost-Effectiveness Study project microsimulation model with uncertainty analysis to estimate cost-effectiveness. Thematic stakeholder interview coding. RESULTS: Over 10 years, the SSB and SNAP policies were projected to reduce health care costs by $78.3 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], $31.7 million-$185 million) and $15.3 million (95% UI, $8.32 million-$23.9 million), respectively. The SSB and SNAP policies were projected to save 3,560 QALYs (95% UI, 1,447-8,361) and 749 QALYs (95% UI, 415-1,168), respectively. Stakeholders were more supportive of SSB taxes than the SNAP policy because of equity concerns associated with the SNAP policy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Cost-effectiveness analysis provided evidence of potential health improvement and cost savings to state-level stakeholders weighing broader implementation considerations.

5.
Prev Med Rep ; 15: 100940, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367511

RESUMO

Many children are not sufficiently physically active. This study uses a quasi-experimental design to evaluate whether participation in a before-school physical activity program called Build Our Kids' Success (BOKS) increases physical activity. Participants (n = 426) were students in Fall, 2016 enrolled in BOKS programming and matched non-BOKS control students from the same grades (Kindergarten-6) and schools in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Analyses conducted in 2017 examined differences between children in BOKS versus controls in total daily steps, minutes of moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), vigorous (VPA), and total physical activity (TPA) assessed via Fitbit Charge HR™ monitors. Additional analyses compared physical activity on program days and non-program days. Students (mean age = 8.6 y; 47% female, 58% White, Non-Hispanic) wore monitors an average of 21.7 h/day on 3.2 days during the school week. Compared with controls, on BOKS days, BOKS participants accumulated more steps (1147, 95% confidence interval (CI): 583-1712, P < 0.001), MVPA minutes (13.4, 95% CI: 6.6-20.3, P < 0.001), and VPA minutes (4.0, 95% CI: 1.2-6.7, P = 0.005). Across all school days, BOKS participants accumulated more total steps than controls (716, 95% CI: 228-1204, P = 0.004). Compared to days without BOKS programming, on BOKS days, BOKS participants accumulated more steps (1153; 95% CI: 841-1464, P < 0.001) and daily minutes of MVPA (8.8, 95% CI: 5.3-12.2, P < 0.001), VPA (3.0, 95% CI: 1.6-4.5, P < 0.001), and TPA (20.8, 95% CI: 13.6-28.1, P < 0.001). BOKS programming promotes engagement in additional accumulated steps during the school week and physical activity on days that students participate. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03403816, available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03403816?term=NCT03403816&rank=1.

6.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 118(8): 1425-1437, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Afterschool interventions have been found to improve the nutritional quality of snacks served. However, there is limited evidence on how these interventions affect children's snacking behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the impact of an afterschool intervention focused at the school district, site, family, and child levels on dietary consumption of foods and beverages served at snack. DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a group-randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Data were collected from 400 children at 20 afterschool sites in Boston, MA before (fall 2010) and after (spring 2011) intervention implementation. INTERVENTION: The Out-of-School Nutrition and Physical Activity intervention aimed to promote fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and water, while limiting sugary drinks and trans fats. Researchers worked with district foodservice staff to change snack foods and beverages. Teams of afterschool staff participated in three 3-hour learning collaborative sessions to build skills and created action plans for changing site practices. The intervention included family and child nutrition education. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Research assistants observed dietary snack consumption using a validated measure on 2 days per site at baseline and follow-up. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: This study used multivariable regression models, accounting for clustering of observations, to assess the intervention effect, and conducted post-hoc stratified analyses by foodservice type. RESULTS: Children in intervention sites had greater decreases in consumption of juice (-0.61 oz/snack, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.12), beverage calories (-29.1 kcal/snack, 95% CI -40.2 to 18.0), foods with trans fats (-0.12 servings/snack, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.04), total calories (-47.7 kcal/snack, 95% CI -68.2 to -27.2), and increases in consumption of whole grains (0.10 servings/snack, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.18) compared to controls. In post-hoc analyses, sites with on-site foodservice had significant improvements for all outcomes (P<0.001), with no effect for sites with satellite foodservice. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that an afterschool intervention can improve children's dietary snack consumption, particularly at sites with on-site foodservice.


Assuntos
/métodos , Serviços de Alimentação , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Lanches , Bebidas , Boston , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Verduras
7.
N Engl J Med ; 377(22): 2145-2153, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the current obesity epidemic has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about long-term risks of adult obesity for a given child at his or her present age and weight. We developed a simulation model to estimate the risk of adult obesity at the age of 35 years for the current population of children in the United States. METHODS: We pooled height and weight data from five nationally representative longitudinal studies totaling 176,720 observations from 41,567 children and adults. We simulated growth trajectories across the life course and adjusted for secular trends. We created 1000 virtual populations of 1 million children through the age of 19 years that were representative of the 2016 population of the United States and projected their trajectories in height and weight up to the age of 35 years. Severe obesity was defined as a body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 35 or higher in adults and 120% or more of the 95th percentile in children. RESULTS: Given the current level of childhood obesity, the models predicted that a majority of today's children (57.3%; 95% uncertainly interval [UI], 55.2 to 60.0) will be obese at the age of 35 years, and roughly half of the projected prevalence will occur during childhood. Our simulations indicated that the relative risk of adult obesity increased with age and BMI, from 1.17 (95% UI, 1.09 to 1.29) for overweight 2-year-olds to 3.10 (95% UI, 2.43 to 3.65) for 19-year-olds with severe obesity. For children with severe obesity, the chance they will no longer be obese at the age of 35 years fell from 21.0% (95% UI, 7.3 to 47.3) at the age of 2 years to 6.1% (95% UI, 2.1 to 9.9) at the age of 19 years. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our simulation models, childhood obesity and overweight will continue to be a major health problem in the United States. Early development of obesity predicted obesity in adulthood, especially for children who were severely obese. (Funded by the JPB Foundation and others.).


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Crescimento , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pediatrics ; 140(5)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness and population impact of the national implementation of the Study of Technology to Accelerate Research (STAR) intervention for childhood obesity. METHODS: In the STAR cluster-randomized trial, 6- to 12-year-old children with obesity seen at pediatric practices with electronic health record (EHR)-based decision support for primary care providers and self-guided behavior-change support for parents had significantly smaller increases in BMI than children who received usual care. We used a microsimulation model of a national implementation of STAR from 2015 to 2025 among all pediatric primary care providers in the United States with fully functional EHRs to estimate cost, impact on obesity prevalence, and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The expected population reach of a 10-year national implementation is ∼2 million children, with intervention costs of $119 per child and $237 per BMI unit reduced. At 10 years, assuming maintenance of effect, the intervention is expected to avert 43 000 cases and 226 000 life-years with obesity at a net cost of $4085 per case and $774 per life-year with obesity averted. Limiting implementation to large practices and using higher estimates of EHR adoption improved both cost-effectiveness and reach, whereas decreasing the maintenance of the intervention's effect worsened the former. CONCLUSIONS: A childhood obesity intervention with electronic decision support for clinicians and self-guided behavior-change support for parents may be more cost-effective than previous clinical interventions. Effective and efficient interventions that target children with obesity are necessary and could work in synergy with population-level prevention strategies to accelerate progress in reducing obesity prevalence.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador , Intervenção Médica Precoce/economia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício/tendências , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Prev Med ; 95 Suppl: S17-S27, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773710

RESUMO

Participation in recommended levels of physical activity promotes a healthy body weight and reduced chronic disease risk. To inform investment in prevention initiatives, we simulate the national implementation, impact on physical activity and childhood obesity and associated cost-effectiveness (versus the status quo) of six recommended strategies that can be applied throughout childhood to increase physical activity in US school, afterschool and childcare settings. In 2016, the Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) systematic review process identified six interventions for study. A microsimulation model estimated intervention outcomes 2015-2025 including changes in mean MET-hours/day, intervention reach and cost per person, cost per MET-hour change, ten-year net costs to society and cases of childhood obesity prevented. First year reach of the interventions ranged from 90,000 youth attending a Healthy Afterschool Program to 31.3 million youth reached by Active School Day policies. Mean MET-hour/day/person increases ranged from 0.05 MET-hour/day/person for Active PE and Healthy Afterschool to 1.29 MET-hour/day/person for the implementation of New Afterschool Programs. Cost per MET-hour change ranged from cost saving to $3.14. Approximately 2500 to 110,000 cases of children with obesity could be prevented depending on the intervention implemented. All of the six interventions are estimated to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents in the US population and prevent cases of childhood obesity. Results do not include other impacts of increased physical activity, including cognitive and behavioral effects. Decision-makers can use these methods to inform prioritization of physical activity promotion and obesity prevention on policy agendas.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 13: E97, 2016 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine collection, analysis, and reporting of data on child height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), particularly at the state and local levels, are needed to monitor the childhood obesity epidemic, plan intervention strategies, and evaluate the impact of interventions. Child BMI surveillance systems operated by the US government do not provide state or local data on children across a range of ages. The objective of this study was to describe the extent to which state governments conduct child BMI surveillance. METHODS: From August through December 2014, we conducted a structured telephone survey with state government administrators to learn about state surveillance of child BMI. We also searched websites of state health and education agencies for information about state surveillance. RESULTS: State agency administrators in 48 states and Washington, DC, completed telephone interviews (96% response rate). Based on our interviews and Internet research, we determined that 14 states collect child BMI data in a manner consistent with standard definitions of public health surveillance. CONCLUSION: The absence of child BMI surveillance systems in most states limits the ability of public health practitioners and policymakers to develop and evaluate responses to the childhood obesity epidemic. Greater investment in surveillance is needed to identify the most effective and cost-effective childhood obesity interventions.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Governo Estadual , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Empregados do Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Telefone , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA Pediatr ; 170(2): 155-62, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26641557

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Millions of children attend after-school programs in the United States. Increasing physical activity levels of program participants could have a broad effect on children's health. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) Initiative in increasing children's physical activity levels in existing after-school programs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cluster-randomized controlled trial with matched program pairs. Baseline data were collected September 27 through November 12, 2010, with follow-up data collected April 25 through May 27, 2011. The dates of our analysis were March 11, 2014, through August 18, 2015. The setting was 20 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts. All children 5 to 12 years old in participating programs were eligible for study inclusion. INTERVENTIONS: Ten programs participated in a series of three 3-hour learning collaborative workshops, with additional optional opportunities for training and technical assistance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Change in number of minutes and bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and sedentary activity and change in total accelerometer counts between baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Participants with complete data were 402 racially/ethnically diverse children, with a mean age of 7.7 years. Change in the duration of physical activity opportunities offered to children during program time did not differ between conditions (-1.2 minutes; 95% CI, -14.2 to 12.4 minutes; P = .87). Change in moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes accumulated by children during program time did not differ significantly by intervention status (-1.0; 95% CI, -3.3 to 1.3; P = .40). Total minutes per day of vigorous physical activity (3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-4.7; P < .001), vigorous physical activity minutes in bouts (4.1; 95% CI, 2.7-5.6; P < .001), and total accelerometer counts per day (16,894; 95% CI, 5101-28,686; P = .01) increased significantly during program time among intervention participants compared with control participants. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although programs participating in the OSNAP Initiative did not allot significantly more time for physical activity, they successfully made existing time more vigorously active for children receiving the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01396473.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atividade Motora , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Acelerometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 34(11): 1932-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26526252

RESUMO

Policy makers seeking to reduce childhood obesity must prioritize investment in treatment and primary prevention. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of seven interventions high on the obesity policy agenda: a sugar-sweetened beverage excise tax; elimination of the tax subsidy for advertising unhealthy food to children; restaurant menu calorie labeling; nutrition standards for school meals; nutrition standards for all other food and beverages sold in schools; improved early care and education; and increased access to adolescent bariatric surgery. We used systematic reviews and a microsimulation model of national implementation of the interventions over the period 2015-25 to estimate their impact on obesity prevalence and their cost-effectiveness for reducing the body mass index of individuals. In our model, three of the seven interventions--excise tax, elimination of the tax deduction, and nutrition standards for food and beverages sold in schools outside of meals--saved more in health care costs than they cost to implement. Each of the three interventions prevented 129,000-576,000 cases of childhood obesity in 2025. Adolescent bariatric surgery had a negligible impact on obesity prevalence. Our results highlight the importance of primary prevention for policy makers aiming to reduce childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Adolescente , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Prev Med ; 49(1): 102-11, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26094231

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The childhood obesity epidemic continues in the U.S., and fiscal crises are leading policymakers to ask not only whether an intervention works but also whether it offers value for money. However, cost-effectiveness analyses have been limited. This paper discusses methods and outcomes of four childhood obesity interventions: (1) sugar-sweetened beverage excise tax (SSB); (2) eliminating tax subsidy of TV advertising to children (TV AD); (3) early care and education policy change (ECE); and (4) active physical education (Active PE). METHODS: Cost-effectiveness models of nationwide implementation of interventions were estimated for a simulated cohort representative of the 2015 U.S. population over 10 years (2015-2025). A societal perspective was used; future outcomes were discounted at 3%. Data were analyzed in 2014. Effectiveness, implementation, and equity issues were reviewed. RESULTS: Population reach varied widely, and cost per BMI change ranged from $1.16 (TV AD) to $401 (Active PE). At 10 years, assuming maintenance of the intervention effect, three interventions would save net costs, with SSB and TV AD saving $55 and $38 for every dollar spent. The SSB intervention would avert disability-adjusted life years, and both SSB and TV AD would increase quality-adjusted life years. Both SSB ($12.5 billion) and TV AD ($80 million) would produce yearly tax revenue. CONCLUSIONS: The cost effectiveness of these preventive interventions is greater than that seen for published clinical interventions to treat obesity. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of childhood obesity interventions can provide decision makers with information demonstrating best value for the money.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Televisão , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 49(1): 135-47, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26094234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Child care facilities influence diet and physical activity, making them ideal obesity prevention settings. The purpose of this study is to quantify the health and economic impacts of a multi-component regulatory obesity policy intervention in licensed U.S. child care facilities. METHODS: Two-year costs and BMI changes resulting from changes in beverage, physical activity, and screen time regulations affecting a cohort of up to 6.5 million preschool-aged children attending child care facilities were estimated in 2014 using published data. A Markov cohort model simulated the intervention's impact on changes in the U.S. population from 2015 to 2025, including short-term BMI effects and 10-year healthcare expenditures. Future outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses simulated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) around outcomes. RESULTS: Regulatory changes would lead children to watch less TV, get more minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity, and consume fewer sugar-sweetened beverages. Within the 6.5 million eligible population, national implementation could reach 3.69 million children, cost $4.82 million in the first year, and result in 0.0186 fewer BMI units (95% UI=0.00592 kg/m(2), 0.0434 kg/m(2)) per eligible child at a cost of $57.80 per BMI unit avoided. Over 10 years, these effects would result in net healthcare cost savings of $51.6 (95% UI=$14.2, $134) million. The intervention is 94.7% likely to be cost saving by 2025. CONCLUSIONS: Changing child care regulations could have a small but meaningful impact on short-term BMI at low cost. If effects are maintained for 10 years, obesity-related healthcare cost savings are likely.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/economia , Saúde da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/tendências , Modelos Econômicos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
15.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 115(3): 426-32, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25596895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interest in evaluating and improving children's diets in afterschool settings has grown, necessitating the development of feasible yet valid measures for capturing children's intake in such settings. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the criterion validity and cost of three unobtrusive visual estimation methods compared with a plate-weighing method: direct onsite observation using a 4-category rating scale and offsite rating of digital photographs taken onsite using 4- and 10-category scales. DESIGN: Researchers observed and photographed 174 total snack meals consumed across 2 days at each program. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were 111 children in first through sixth grades attending four afterschool programs in Boston, MA, during December 2011. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Visual estimates of consumption were compared to weighed estimates (the criterion measure) using intraclass correlations. RESULTS: All three methods were highly correlated with the criterion measure, ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 for total calories consumed, 0.86 to 0.94 for consumption of prepackaged beverages, 0.90 to 0.93 for consumption of fruits/vegetables, and 0.92 to 0.96 for consumption of grains. For water, which was not preportioned, coefficients ranged from 0.47 to 0.52. The photographic methods also demonstrated excellent interrater reliability: 0.84 to 0.92 for the 4-point and 0.92 to 0.95 for the 10-point scale. The costs of the methods for estimating intake ranged from $0.62 per observation for the onsite direct visual method to $0.95 per observation for the criterion measure. CONCLUSIONS: Feasible, inexpensive methods can validly and reliably measure children's dietary intake in afterschool settings. Improving precision in measures of children's dietary intake can reduce the likelihood of spurious or null findings in future studies.


Assuntos
Creches , Ingestão de Alimentos , Lanches , Bebidas , Boston , Criança , Serviços de Alimentação , Frutas , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 11: 145, 2014 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25429898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and physical activity interventions have been effective in creating environmental changes in afterschool programs. However, accurate assessment can be time-consuming and expensive as initiatives are scaled up for optimal population impact. This study aims to determine the criterion validity of a simple, low-cost, practitioner-administered observational measure of afterschool physical activity, nutrition, and screen time practices and child behaviors. METHODS: Directors from 35 programs in three cities completed the Out-of-School Nutrition and Physical Activity Observational Practice Assessment Tool (OSNAP-OPAT) on five days. Trained observers recorded snacks served and obtained accelerometer data each day during the same week. Observations of physical activity participation and snack consumption were conducted on two days. Correlations were calculated to validate weekly average estimates from OSNAP-OPAT compared to criterion measures. Weekly criterion averages are based on 175 meals served, snack consumption of 528 children, and physical activity levels of 356 children. RESULTS: OSNAP-OPAT validly assessed serving water (r = 0.73), fruits and vegetables (r = 0.84), juice >4oz (r = 0.56), and grains (r = 0.60) at snack; sugary drinks (r = 0.70) and foods (r = 0.68) from outside the program; and children's water consumption (r = 0.56) (all p <0.05). Reports of physical activity time offered were correlated with accelerometer estimates (minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity r = 0.59, p = 0.02; vigorous physical activity r = 0.63, p = 0.01). The reported proportion of children participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity was correlated with observations (r = 0.48, p = 0.03), as were reports of computer (r = 0.85) and TV/movie (r = 0.68) time compared to direct observations (both p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: OSNAP-OPAT can assist researchers and practitioners in validly assessing nutrition and physical activity environments and behaviors in afterschool settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Phase 1 of this measure validation was conducted during a study registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01396473.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Atividade Motora , Estado Nutricional , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Bebidas , Criança , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frutas , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário , Lanches , Televisão , Fatores de Tempo , Verduras , Jogos de Vídeo
17.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 11: E205, 2014 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412028

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children's dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received program-provided snacks during after-school time. Our study objective was to determine how different sources of snacks affect children's snack consumption in after-school settings. METHODS: We recorded snacks served to and brought in by 298 children in 18 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts, on 5 program days in April and May 2011. We measured children's snack consumption on 2 program days using a validated observation protocol. We then calculated within-child change-in-change models to estimate the effect of nonprogram snacks on children's dietary intake after school. RESULTS: Nonprogram snacks contained more sugary beverages and candy than program-provided snacks. Having a nonprogram snack was associated with significantly higher consumption of total calories (+114.7 kcal, P < .001), sugar-sweetened beverages (+0.5 oz, P = .01), desserts (+0.3 servings, P < .001), and foods with added sugars (+0.5 servings; P < .001) during the snack period. CONCLUSION: On days when children brought their own after-school snack, they consumed more salty and sugary foods and nearly twice as many calories than on days when they consumed only program-provided snacks. Policy strategies limiting nonprogram snacks or setting nutritional standards for them in after-school settings should be explored further as a way to promote child health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Lanches , Bebidas , Boston , Doces , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
Prev Med ; 66: 159-66, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Afterschool programs can be health-promoting environments for children. Written policies positively influence nutrition and physical activity (PA) environments, but effective strategies for building staff capacity to write such policies have not been evaluated. This study measures the comprehensiveness of written nutrition, PA, and screen time policies in afterschool programs and assesses impact of the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) intervention on key policies. METHODS: Twenty afterschool programs in Boston, MA participated in a group-randomized, controlled trial from September 2010 to June 2011. Intervention program staff attended learning collaboratives focused on practice and policy change. The Out-of-School Time (OST) Policy Assessment Index evaluated written policies. Inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the measure and impact of the intervention on written policies were assessed. RESULTS: The measure demonstrated moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (Spearman's r=0.53 to 0.97) and construct validity. OSNAP was associated with significant increases in standards-based policy statements surrounding snacks (+2.6, p=0.003), beverages (+2.3, p=0.008), screen time (+0.8, p=0.046), family communication (+2.2, p=0.002), and a summary index of OSNAP goals (+3.3, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: OSNAP demonstrated success in building staff capacity to write health-promoting policy statements. Future research should focus on determining policy change impact on practices.


Assuntos
Exercício , Política de Saúde , Política Nutricional , Formulação de Políticas , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Boston , Fortalecimento Institucional , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/normas
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 43(3 Suppl 2): S136-42, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22898163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Providing drinking water to U.S. children during school meals is a recommended health promotion strategy and part of national nutrition policy. Urban school systems have struggled with providing drinking water to children, and little is known about how to ensure that water is served, particularly in afterschool settings. PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote water as the beverage of choice in afterschool programs. DESIGN: The Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Initiative (OSNAP) used a community-based collaboration and low-cost strategies to provide water after school. A group RCT was used to evaluate the intervention. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2011. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Twenty afterschool programs in Boston were randomized to intervention or control (delayed intervention). INTERVENTION: Intervention sites participated in learning collaboratives focused on policy and environmental changes to increase healthy eating, drinking, and physical activity opportunities during afterschool time (materials available at www.osnap.org). Collaboration between Boston Public Schools Food and Nutrition Services, afterschool staff, and researchers established water-delivery systems to ensure children were served water during snack time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Average ounces of water served to children per day was recorded by direct observation at each program at baseline and 6-month follow-up over 5 consecutive school days. Secondary measures directly observed included ounces of other beverages served, other snack components, and water-delivery system. RESULTS: Participation in the intervention was associated with an increased average volume of water served (+3.6 ounces/day; p=0.01) during snack. On average, the intervention led to a daily decrease of 60.9 kcals from beverages served during snack (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the OSNAP intervention, including strategies to overcome structural barriers and collaboration with key actors, can increase offerings of water during afterschool snack. OSNAP appears to be an effective strategy to provide water in afterschool settings that can be helpful in implementing new U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines regarding water availability during lunch and afterschool snack.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Lanches , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Boston , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Marketing Social , Estatística como Assunto
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