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1.
J Mol Diagn ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669230

RESUMO

Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is routinely used to detect minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. The absolute quantification with droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) could reduce the inherent variability of qPCR. We established a duplex ddPCR assay using the Europe against Cancer (EAC) primer/probe system for BCR-ABL1 and ABL1 and compared the results with qPCR. cDNA samples (n = 230) from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia were analyzed using both procedures. A second, commercially developed ddPCR assay for BCR-ABL1 was also evaluated. ABL1 and BCR-ABL1 transcript levels were similar with all assays, but the proportion of deep molecular responses was lower with ddPCR than with qPCR. The EAC ddPCR assay had a false-positive rate of 4% using a cutoff of three BCR-ABL1 copies per duplicate, compared with 2% without cutoff for the commercial ddPCR. The detection rate for molecular response 4.5 was 100, and a shift toward more minimal residual disease was seen in patient samples. In conclusion, using the EAC protocol for BCR-ABL1 quantification with ddPCR is feasible and shows low intra-assay and interassay variation but requires a cutoff that reduces sensitivity. The commercial ddPCR assay is highly sensitive and specific for BCR-ABL1. The use of either ddPCR assay resulted in a shift to lower molecular response classes compared with qPCR aligned to international scale.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(21): 6452-6462, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a predominantly fatal common malignancy with inadequate treatment options. Glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß) is an emerging target in human malignancies including PDAC.Experimental Design: Pancreatic cancer cell lines and patient-derived xenografts were treated with a novel GSK-3 inhibitor 9-ING-41 alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Activation of the DNA damage response pathway and S-phase arrest induced by gemcitabine were assessed in pancreatic tumor cells with pharmacologic inhibition or siRNA depletion of GSK-3 kinases by immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: 9-ING-41 treatment significantly increased pancreatic tumor cell killing when combined with chemotherapy. Inhibition of GSK-3 by 9-ING-41 prevented gemcitabine-induced S-phase arrest suggesting an impact on the ATR-mediated DNA damage response. Both 9-ING-41 and siRNA depletion of GSK-3 kinases impaired the activation of ATR leading to the phosphorylation and activation of Chk1. Mechanistically, depletion or knockdown of GSK-3 kinases resulted in the degradation of the ATR-interacting protein TopBP1, thus limiting the activation of ATR in response to single-strand DNA damage. CONCLUSIONS: These data identify a previously unknown role for GSK-3 kinases in the regulation of the TopBP1/ATR/Chk1 DNA damage response pathway. The data also support the inclusion of patients with PDAC in clinical studies of 9-ING-41 alone and in combination with gemcitabine.

3.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(11): e10659, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559706

RESUMO

CULLIN3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding adaptor gene SPOP is frequently mutated in prostate cancer (PCa). PCa harboring SPOP hotspot mutants (e.g., F133V) are resistant to BET inhibitors because of aberrant elevation of BET proteins. Here, we identified a previously unrecognized mutation Q165P at the edge of SPOP MATH domain in primary and metastatic PCa of a patient. The Q165P mutation causes structural changes in the MATH domain and impairs SPOP dimerization and substrate degradation. Different from F133V hotspot mutant tumors, Q165P mutant patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and organoids were modestly sensitive to the BET inhibitor JQ1. Accordingly, protein levels of AR, BRD4 and downstream effectors such as RAC1 and phosphorylated AKT were not robustly elevated in Q165P mutant cells as in F133V mutant cells. However, NEO2734, a novel dual inhibitor of BET and CBP/p300, is active in both hotspot mutant (F133V) and non-hotspot mutant (Q165P) PCa cells in vitro and in vivo. These data provide a strong rationale to clinically investigate the anti-cancer efficacy of NEO2734 in SPOP-mutated PCa patients.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 6193-6200, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276163

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Systemic treatment of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) remains limited to chemotherapy and mitotane. Preliminary evidence suggesting that antitumor immune responses can be elicited in ACC has fostered interest in checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD-1 nivolumab. OBJECTIVE: The primary endpoint was objective response rate according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and safety. DESIGN: Single-arm, multicenter, phase 2 clinical trial with two-stage design. SETTING: Comprehensive cancer center. PATIENTS: Ten adult patients with metastatic ACC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and/or mitotane as well as patients who declined front-line chemotherapy. INTERVENTION: Nivolumab (240 mg) IV every 2 weeks. RESULTS: Ten patients with metastatic ACC were enrolled between March and December 2016. The median number of doses of nivolumab administered was two. Three patients only received one treatment [one died of disease progression, one discontinued due to adverse events (AEs), one withdrew after beginning treatment]. The median PFS was 1.8 months. The median follow-up was 4.5 months (range, 0.1 to 25.6 months). Two patients had stable disease for a duration of 48 and 11 weeks, respectively. One patient had an unconfirmed partial response but discontinued the study due to an AE. Most AEs were grade 1/2. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs were aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase elevations, mucositis, and odynophagia. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab demonstrated modest antitumor activity in patients with advanced ACC. The nivolumab safety profile was consistent with previous clinical experience without any unexpected AEs in this population.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(16): 4898-4906, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061068

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myelofibrosis is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, atypical megakaryocytes, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications, and a risk of evolution to acute leukemia. The JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib provides therapeutic benefit, but the effects are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether targeting AURKA, which has been shown to increase maturation of atypical megakaryocytes, has potential benefit for patients with myelofibrosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with myelofibrosis were enrolled in a phase I study at three centers. The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of alisertib. Correlative studies involved assessment of the effect of alisertib on the megakaryocyte lineage, allele burden, and fibrosis. RESULTS: In addition to being well tolerated, alisertib reduced splenomegaly and symptom burden in 29% and 32% of patients, respectively, despite not consistently reducing the degree of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, alisertib normalized megakaryocytes and reduced fibrosis in 5 of 7 patients for whom sequential marrows were available. Alisertib also decreased the mutant allele burden in a subset of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Given the limitations of ruxolitinib, novel therapies are needed for myelofibrosis. In this study, alisertib provided clinical benefit and exhibited the expected on-target effect on the megakaryocyte lineage, resulting in normalization of these cells and reduced fibrosis in the majority of patients for which sequential marrows were available. Thus, AURKA inhibition should be further developed as a therapeutic option in myelofibrosis.See related commentary by Piszczatowski and Steidl, p. 4868.


Assuntos
Mielofibrose Primária , Aurora Quinase A , Fibrose , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2 , Megacariócitos
6.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 20(8): 1047-1056, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975030

RESUMO

As a kinase at the crossroads of numerous metabolic and cell growth signaling pathways, glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3ß) is a highly desirable therapeutic target in cancer. Despite its involvement in pathways associated with the pathogenesis of several malignancies, no selective GSK-3ß inhibitor has been approved for the treatment of cancer. The regulatory role of GSK-3ß in apoptosis, cell cycle, DNA repair, tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis reflects the therapeutic relevance of this target and provides the rationale for drug combinations. Emerging data on GSK-3ß as a mediator of anticancer immune response also highlight the potential clinical applications of novel selective GSK-3ß inhibitors that are entering clinical studies. This manuscript reviews the preclinical and early clinical results with GSK-3ß inhibitors and delineates the developmental therapeutics landscape for this potentially important target in cancer therapy.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3235, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824826

RESUMO

Deficiencies in DNA repair pathways, including mismatch repair (MMR), have been linked to higher tumor mutation burden and improved response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, the significance of MMR mutations in lung cancer has not been well characterized, and the relevance of other processes, including homologous recombination (HR) and polymerase epsilon (POLE) activity, remains unclear. Here, we analyzed a dataset of lung squamous cell carcinoma samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Variants in DNA repair genes were associated with increased tumor mutation and neoantigen burden, which in turn were linked with greater tumor infiltration by activated T cells. The subset of tumors with DNA repair gene variants but without T cell infiltration exhibited upregulation of TGF-ß and Wnt pathway genes, and a combined score incorporating these genes and DNA repair status accurately predicted immune cell infiltration. Finally, high neoantigen burden was positively associated with genes related to cytolytic activity and immune checkpoints. These findings provide evidence that DNA repair pathway defects and immunomodulatory genes together lead to specific immunophenotypes in lung squamous cell carcinoma and could potentially serve as biomarkers for immunotherapy.

8.
Oncologist ; 24(6): 820-828, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tissue tumor mutational burden (TMB) has emerged as a potential biomarker predicting response to anti-programmed cell death-1 protein receptor (PD-1)/programmed cell death-1 protein ligand (PD-L1) therapy, but few studies have explored using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) TMB in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 patients with NSCLC with ctDNA testing were retrospectively evaluated from a single institution, along with a validation cohort from a second institution. ctDNA TMB was derived using the number of detected mutations over the DNA sequencing length. RESULTS: Higher ctDNA TMB was significantly correlated with smoking history (p < .05, chi-squared test). Among patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (n = 20), higher ctDNA TMB was significantly correlated with shorter progressive free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS; 45 vs. 355 days; hazard ratio [HR], 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-24.6; p < .01, and OS 106 days vs. not reached; HR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-27.1; p < .01, respectively). In a small independent validation cohort (n = 12), there was a nonsignificant numerical difference for higher ctDNA TMB predicting shorter OS but not PFS. ctDNA TMB was not correlated with RECIST tumor burden estimation in the subset of patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that higher ctDNA TMB, at the current commercial sequencing length, reflects worse clinical outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Biomarkers to identify patients who will respond to immune checkpoint blockade are critical. Tissue tumor mutational burden (TMB) has emerged as a viable biomarker to predict response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, but few studies have explored the meaning and potential clinical significance of noninvasive, blood-based TMB. Here, we investigated circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) TMB and present data demonstrating that current ctDNA TMB may reflect tumor burden and that ctDNA panels with a greater number of mutations may be necessary to more accurately reflect tissue TMB.

9.
Oncol Lett ; 16(5): 6437-6444, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405781

RESUMO

Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), a serine/threonine protein kinase, has been implicated as a potential therapeutic target in human cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate aberrant expression of GSK-3ß as a potential biomarker in human breast and head and neck cancers. Nuclear/cytosolic fractionation, immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining was used to study the expression of GSK-3ß in human breast and head and neck cancer. Aberrant nuclear accumulation of GSK-3ß in five human breast cancer cell lines was demonstrated and in 89/128 (70%) human breast carcinomas, whereas no detectable expression of GSK-3ß was found in benign breast tissue. Nuclear GSK-3ß expression was associated with HER-2 positive tumors (P=0.02) and non-triple negative breast carcinomas (P=0.0001), although nuclear GSK-3ß was observed in some samples across all breast cancer subtypes. Aberrant nuclear expression of GSK-3ß was found in 11/15 (73%) squamous cell head and neck carcinomas, whereas weak or no detectable expression of GSK-3ß was found in benign salivary gland and other benign head and neck tissues. These results support the hypothesis that aberrant nuclear GSK-3ß may represent a potential target for the clinical treatment of human breast and squamous cell carcinoma.

10.
Oncotarget ; 9(27): 18985-18996, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721177

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors produce modest responses in metastatic breast cancer, however, combination approaches may improve responses. A single arm pilot study was designed to determine the overall response rate (ORR) of durvalumab and tremelimumab, and evaluate immunogenomic dynamics in metastatic endocrine receptor (ER) positive or triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Simon two-stage design indicated at least four responses from the first 18 patients were needed to proceed with the second stage. T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and immune-gene expression profiling were conducted at baseline and two months, whole exome sequencing was conducted at baseline. Eighteen evaluable patients were accrued (11 ER-positive; seven TNBC). Only three patients had a response (ORR = 17%), thus the study did not proceed to the second stage. Responses were only observed in patients with TNBC (ORR = 43%). Responders versus non-responders had upregulation of CD8, granzyme A, and perforin 1 gene expression, and higher mutational and neoantigen burden. Patients with TNBC had an oligoclonal shift of the most abundant TCR-beta clonotypes compared to those with ER-positive disease, p = 0.004. We conclude responses are low in unselected metastatic breast cancer, however, higher rates of clinical benefit were observed in TNBC. Immunogenomic dynamics may help identify phenotypes most likely to respond to immunotherapy.

11.
Anticancer Drugs ; 29(8): 717-724, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846250

RESUMO

Advanced stage neuroblastoma is a very aggressive pediatric cancer with limited treatment options and a high mortality rate. Glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) is a potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. Using immunohistochemical staining, we observed positive GSK-3ß expression in 67% of human neuroblastomas (34 of 51 cases). Chemically distinct GSK-3 inhibitors (AR-A014418, TDZD-8, and 9-ING-41) suppressed the growth of neuroblastoma cells, whereas 9-ING-41, a clinically relevant small-molecule GSK-3ß inhibitor with broad-spectrum preclinical antitumor activity, being the most potent. Inhibition of GSK-3 resulted in a decreased expression of the antiapoptotic molecule XIAP and an increase in neuroblastoma cell apoptosis. Mouse xenograft studies showed that the combination of clinically relevant doses of CPT-11 and 9-ING-41 led to greater antitumor effect than was observed with either agent alone. These data support the inclusion of patients with advanced neuroblastoma in clinical studies of 9-ING-41, especially in combination with CPT-11.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 6(5): 88, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666811

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has evolved at a phenomenal pace in cancer therapeutics. This has primarily been fueled by the much perceived necessity to procure an alternative to current standard of care chemotherapy agents, owing to several concerns such as treatment-related toxicity and poor long-term survival associated with the same. The knowledge of various mechanisms involved in regulation of immune response to cancer cells has served a fundamental role in identifying key molecules through which immune cell activity may be modulated. This in-turn led to the development of immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Presently, lung cancer is among the most enthusiastically investigated targets for treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Encouraging results with initial trials have now translated to attempts directed at further enhancement of outcomes through various strategies. Herein, we shall present a critical assessment of data from pivotal trials that led to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of various immune-checkpoint inhibitors and also discuss novel strategies that may potentially yield outcomes superior to standard of care chemotherapy in patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(12): 2732-2739, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559559

RESUMO

Purpose: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is an aggressive disease that can arise de novo or by transdifferentiation from prostate adenocarcinoma. Alterations in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene are involved in neuroblastoma, lung cancer, and other malignancies, but its role in SCCP has not been documented. We describe a patient with refractory de novo SCCP with ALK F1174C-activating mutation who obtained clinical benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitor.Experimental Design: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to analyze primary and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Prostate cancer databases were queried for alterations in ALK gene, mRNA, and its impact in clinical outcomes. In vitro prostate cell line/organoid models were generated by lentiviral-mediated expression of ALK and ALK F1174C and assessed for response to ALK inhibitors crizotinib and alectinib.Results: NGS analysis of the primary tumor and ctDNA of a 39-year-old patient with refractory SSCP identified ALK F1174C mutation. Treatment with second-generation ALK inhibitor alectinib resulted in radiographic stable disease for over 6 months, symptomatic improvement, and significant molecular response as reflected by declining ctDNA allele fraction. Analysis of prostate cancer datasets showed that ALK amplification was associated with poor outcome. In prostate cancer cells and organoids, ALK F1174C expression enhanced growth and induced expression of the neuroendocrine marker neuron-specific enolase. Alectinib was more effective than crizotinib in inhibiting ALK F1174C-expressing cell growth.Conclusions: These findings implicate ALK-activating mutations in SCCP pathogenesis and suggest the therapeutic potential of targeting ALK molecular alterations in some patients with SCCP. Clin Cancer Res; 24(12); 2732-9. ©2018 AACR.

14.
Oncotarget ; 9(8): 7949-7960, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487705

RESUMO

Mutations in DNA repair genes lead to increased genomic instability and mutation frequency. These mutations represent potential biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy efficacy, as high tumor mutational burden has been associated with increased neo-antigens and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. While mismatch repair mutations have successfully predicted response to anti-PD-1 therapy in colorectal and other cancers, they have not yet been tested for lung cancer, and few have investigated genes from other DNA repair pathways. We utilized TCGA samples to comprehensively immunophenotype lung tumors and analyze the links between DNA repair mutations, neo-antigen and total mutational burden, and tumor immune infiltration. Overall, 73% of lung tumors contained infiltration by at least one T cell subset, with high mutational burden tumors containing significantly increased infiltration by activated CD4 and CD8 T cells. Further, mutations in mismatch repair genes, homologous recombination genes, or POLE accurately predicted increased tumor mutational burden, neo-antigen load, and T cell infiltration. Finally, neo-antigen load correlated with expression of M1-polarized macrophage genes, PD-1, PD-L1, IFNγ, GZMB, and FASLG, among other immune-related genes. Overall, after defining the immune infiltrate in lung tumors, we demonstrate the potential value of utilizing gene mutations from multiple DNA repair pathways as biomarkers for lung cancer immunotherapy.

15.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 48(4)2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In up to 57% of patients, it is diagnosed at an advanced stage and the 5-year survival rate ranges between 10%-16%. There has been a significant amount of research using machine learning to generate tools using patient data to improve outcomes. METHODS: This narrative review is based on research material obtained from PubMed up to Nov 2017. The search terms include "artificial intelligence," "machine learning," "lung cancer," "Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)," "diagnosis" and "treatment." RESULTS: Recent studies support the use of computer-aided systems and the use of radiomic features to help diagnose lung cancer earlier. Other studies have looked at machine learning (ML) methods that offer prognostic tools to doctors and help them in choosing personalized treatment options for their patients based on molecular, genetics and histological features. Combining artificial intelligence approaches into health care may serve as a beneficial tool for patients with NSCLC, and this review outlines these benefits and current shortcomings throughout the continuum of care. CONCLUSION: We present a review of the various applications of ML methods in NSCLC as it relates to improving diagnosis, treatment and outcomes.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Previsões , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 144(5): 945-954, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468438

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ENESTfreedom is evaluating treatment-free remission (TFR) following frontline nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase. Following our primary analysis at 48 weeks, we here provide an updated 96-week analysis. METHODS: Attempting TFR required ≥ 3 years of nilotinib, a molecular response of MR4.5 [BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0.0032% on the International Scale (BCR-ABL1IS)], and sustained deep molecular response (DMR) during a 1-year consolidation phase. Patients restarted nilotinib following loss of major molecular response (MMR; BCR-ABL1IS ≤ 0.1%). RESULTS: Ninety-six weeks after stopping treatment (3.6-year median prior nilotinib duration), 93 of 190 patients (48.9%) remained in TFR. Of 88 patients who restarted nilotinib following loss of MMR, 87 regained MMR and 81 regained MR4.5 by the data cut-off. Ninety-six-week TFR rates were 61.3, 50.0, and 28.6% in patients with low, intermediate, and high Sokal risk scores at diagnosis, respectively. Patients consistently in MR4.5 during consolidation had higher TFR rates (50.6%) than patients with ≥ 1 assessment without MR4.5 during consolidation (35.0%). In a landmark analysis, 96-week TFR rates for patients with MR4.5, MR4 (BCR-ABL1IS ≤ 0.01%) but not MR4.5, and MMR but not MR4 at TFR week 12 were 82.6, 23.1, and 0%, respectively. There were no reports of disease progression or death due to CML; overall adverse event frequency decreased following TFR. Within the follow-up period, TFR did not adversely affect disease outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the feasibility and durability of TFR following frontline nilotinib and emphasize the importance of sustained DMR for TFR.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1023, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348685

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is emerging as a promising option for lung cancer treatment. Various endothelial adhesion molecules, such as integrin and selectin, as well as various cellular barrier molecules such as desmosome and tight junctions, regulate T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. However, little is known regarding how these molecules affect immune cells in patients with lung cancer. We demonstrated for the first time that overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular barrier molecule genes was linked to differential infiltration of particular immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer. Overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecule genes is associated with significantly lower infiltration of activated CD4 and CD8 T-cells, but higher infiltration of activated B-cells and regulatory T-cells. In contrast, overexpression of desmosome genes was correlated with significantly higher infiltration of activated CD4 and CD8 T-cells, but lower infiltration of activated B-cells and regulatory T-cells in lung adenocarcinoma. This inverse relation of immune cells aligns with previous studies of tumor-infiltrating B-cells inhibiting T-cell activation. Although overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecule or cellular barrier molecule genes alone was not predictive of overall survival in our sample, these genetic signatures may serve as biomarkers of immune exclusion, or resistance to T-cell mediated immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Desmossomos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
18.
Eur Urol ; 73(5): 648-652, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275833

RESUMO

Current immunotherapy has limited efficacy on metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We therefore sought to improve the antitumor ability of mCRPC patient-derived CD8+ T-cells by the endowment of specificity to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and insensitivity to immunosuppressant molecule transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) under the control of herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase. CD8+ T-cells were collected by leukapheresis and cultured in a Food and Drug Administration-approved Cell Processing Work Station. We developed a chimeric antigen receptor retroviral construct using an anti-PSMA chimeric immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor(ζ) gene (PZ1) and dominant negative TGF-ß type II receptor (TßRIIDN), that could induce CD8+ T-cells to be PSMA reactive and insensitive to TGF-ß. Cr51 release assay was performed on PC-3 and PC-3-PSMA. The further antitumor functions of PSMA-specific, TGF-ß insensitive CD8+ T-cells was evaluated using an immunodeficient RAG-1-/- mouse model. We found PSMA-specific, TGF-ß insensitive CD8+ T-cells from mCRPC were expanded with strong expression of PZ1 and thymidine kinase genes, and their growth was not suppressed by TGF-ß. The survival of these cells decreased sharply after treatment with ganciclovir. Treatment of PSMA-specific TGF-ß, insensitive CD8+ T-cells was associated with 61.58% specific lysis on PC-3-PSMA, and significantly suppressed PC3-PSMA tumor compared with the PC3 tumor. A large amount of tumor apoptosis and CD8+ T-cell infiltration were found only in the PC3-PSMA tumor. This study verified that PSMA-specific, TGF-ß insensitive CD8+ T-cells derived from mCRPC patients could be successfully expanded and used to overcome the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor microenvironment to control PSMA-expressing PC in vitro and in vivo. This may provide a promising approach for men with mCRPC who fail androgen deprivation therapy. PATIENT SUMMARY: We investigated the role of a novel chimeric antigen receptor T-immunotherapy based on autologous metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer patient-derived prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-specific, transforming growth factor-ß insensitive CD8+ T-cells on PSMA-positive prostate cancer. We found that this chimeric antigen receptor T-cells could kill PSMA-positive prostate cancer specifically. The results suggest that this novel immunotherapy treatment is a potential new approach for men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(8): 1785-1794, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212781

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have unique toxicities and response kinetics compared with cytotoxic and gene-targeted anticancer agents. We investigated the impact of innovative/accelerated immunotherapy drug development/approval models on the accuracy of safety and efficacy assessments by searching the FDA website. Initial phase I trials for each agent were reviewed and safety and efficacy data compared with that found in later trials leading to regulatory approvals of the same agents. As of June 2017, the FDA approved six checkpoint inhibitors for a variety of cancer types. All checkpoint inhibitors received a priority review status and access to at least two additional FDA special access programs, more often breakthrough therapy designation and accelerated approval. Median clinical development time (investigational new drug application to approval) was 60.77 months [avelumab had the shortest timeline (52.33 months)]. Response rates during early phase I trials (median = 16%) are higher than for phase I trials of other agents (with the exception of gene-targeted agents tested with a biomarker). Doses approved were usually not identical to doses recommended on phase I trials. Approximately 50% of types of immune-related and 43% of types of clinically relevant toxicities from later trials were identified in early-phase trials. Even so, treatment-related mortality remains exceedingly low in later studies (0.33% of patients). In conclusion, efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be reasonably predicted from the dose-finding portion of phase I trials, indicating that the fast-track development of these agents is safe and justified. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1785-94. ©2017 AACR.

20.
Oncologist ; 23(4): 410-421, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242279

RESUMO

The emergence of immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment in recent years. Inhibitors of immune checkpoints, including antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed cell death protein 1, and programmed death ligand 1, have demonstrated notable efficacy in certain advanced cancers. Unfortunately, many patients do not benefit from these therapies and either exhibit primary resistance to treatment or develop acquired mechanisms of resistance after initially responding to therapy. Here, we review the genomic and immune traits that may promote resistance to T-cell-mediated immunotherapy, with a focus on identifying potential biomarkers that could eventually be used in the clinical setting to guide treatment selection. We summarize the clinical evidence for these markers and discuss how current understanding of resistance mechanisms can inform future studies and aid clinical decision-making in order to derive maximum benefit from immunotherapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Immunotherapy has rapidly progressed as a treatment modality for multiple cancers, but it is still unclear which patients are likely to benefit from these therapies. Studies of resistance mechanisms have only recently started to identify biomarkers that can help predict patient outcomes. This review summarizes the available clinical data in regard to immunotherapy resistance, with a focus on molecular biomarkers that may be useful in guiding clinical decision-making. It discusses possible applications of these biomarkers and highlights opportunities for further clinical discovery.

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