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1.
Int J Cancer ; 152(2): 239-248, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082445

RESUMO

Pleiotropy, which consists of a single gene or allelic variant affecting multiple unrelated traits, is common across cancers, with evidence for genome-wide significant loci shared across cancer and noncancer traits. This feature is particularly relevant in multiple myeloma (MM) because several susceptibility loci that have been identified to date are pleiotropic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel pleiotropic variants involved in MM risk using 28 684 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from GWAS Catalog that reached a significant association (P < 5 × 10-8 ) with their respective trait. The selected SNPs were analyzed in 2434 MM cases and 3446 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). The 10 SNPs showing the strongest associations with MM risk in InterLymph were selected for replication in an independent set of 1955 MM cases and 1549 controls from the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium and 418 MM cases and 147 282 controls from the FinnGen project. The combined analysis of the three studies identified an association between DNAJB4-rs34517439-A and an increased risk of developing MM (OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.13-1.32, P = 4.81 × 10-7 ). rs34517439-A is associated with a modified expression of the FUBP1 gene, which encodes a multifunctional DNA and RNA-binding protein that it was observed to influence the regulation of various genes involved in cell cycle regulation, among which various oncogenes and oncosuppressors. In conclusion, with a pleiotropic scan approach we identified DNAJB4-rs34517439 as a potentially novel MM risk locus.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Oncogenes , Alelos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36445035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); but the evidence for the association is inconsistent across molecular subtypes of the disease. METHODS: We pooled data on BMI, tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) status, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and Jass classification types for 11,872 CRC cases and 11,013 controls from 11 observational studies. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for covariables. RESULTS: Higher BMI was associated with increased CRC risk (OR per 5 kg/m2, 1.18, 95%CI: 1.15-1.22). The positive association was stronger for men than women, but similar across tumor subtypes defined by individual molecular markers. In analyses by Jass type, higher BMI was associated with elevated CRC risk for types 1-4 cases but not for type 5 CRC cases (considered familial-like/Lynch syndrome MSI-H, CIMP-low/negative, BRAF-wildtype, KRAS-wildtype, OR, 1.04, 95%CI: 0.90-1.20). This pattern of associations for BMI and Jass types was consistent by sex and design of contributing studies (cohort or case-control). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous reports with fewer study participants, we found limited evidence of heterogeneity for the association between BMI and CRC risk according to molecular subtype, suggesting that obesity influences nearly all major pathways involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The null association observed for the Jass type 5 suggests that BMI is not a risk factor for the development of CRC for individuals with Lynch syndrome.

3.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(20): 1157-1170, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are associated with higher breast cancer risk in observational studies, but ascribing causality is difficult. Mendelian randomisation (MR) assesses causality by simulating randomised trial groups using genotype. We assessed whether lifelong physical activity or sedentary time, assessed using genotype, may be causally associated with breast cancer risk overall, pre/post-menopause, and by case-groups defined by tumour characteristics. METHODS: We performed two-sample inverse-variance-weighted MR using individual-level Breast Cancer Association Consortium case-control data from 130 957 European-ancestry women (69 838 invasive cases), and published UK Biobank data (n=91 105-377 234). Genetic instruments were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated in UK Biobank with wrist-worn accelerometer-measured overall physical activity (nsnps=5) or sedentary time (nsnps=6), or accelerometer-measured (nsnps=1) or self-reported (nsnps=5) vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: Greater genetically-predicted overall activity was associated with lower breast cancer overall risk (OR=0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 0.83 per-standard deviation (SD;~8 milligravities acceleration)) and for most case-groups. Genetically-predicted vigorous activity was associated with lower risk of pre/perimenopausal breast cancer (OR=0.62; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.87,≥3 vs. 0 self-reported days/week), with consistent estimates for most case-groups. Greater genetically-predicted sedentary time was associated with higher hormone-receptor-negative tumour risk (OR=1.77; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.92 per-SD (~7% time spent sedentary)), with elevated estimates for most case-groups. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses examining pleiotropy (including weighted-median-MR, MR-Egger). CONCLUSION: Our study provides strong evidence that greater overall physical activity, greater vigorous activity, and lower sedentary time are likely to reduce breast cancer risk. More widespread adoption of active lifestyles may reduce the burden from the most common cancer in women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 82: 102295, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer risk have been inconclusive; we aimed to investigate the association of Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) with risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We used data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study including 33,690 men and women aged 40-69 years at recruitment in 1990-1994. A total of 258 incident cases of pancreatic cancer was identified over an average of 23.7 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression, with age as the underlying time metric, adjusting for potential confounders including sex, height, country of birth, education, socio-economic position, physical activity, energy intake, smoking status, pack-years smoking, years since quitting smoking, and alcohol intake. RESULTS: A healthier diet as assessed by the AHEI-2010 was associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer [HRQuartile4 vs Quartile1 = 0.58; 95%CI 0.40 - 0.85; p for trend 0.003]. Weaker but consistent evidence was observed for the other indexes [DII® HRQuartile4 vs Quartile1 = 1.30; 95%CI 0.82 - 2.06; p for trend 0.1], [MDS HRCategory3 vs Category1 = 0.79; 95%CI 0.49 - 1.26; p for trend 0.06]. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthier diet, as assessed by the AHEI-2010, may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer.

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18852, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344807

RESUMO

Observational studies have shown higher folate consumption to be associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Understanding whether and how genetic risk factors interact with folate could further elucidate the underlying mechanism. Aggregating functionally relevant genetic variants in set-based variant testing has higher power to detect gene-environment (G × E) interactions and may provide information on the underlying biological pathway. We investigated interactions between folate consumption and predicted gene expression on colorectal cancer risk across the genome. We used variant weights from the PrediXcan models of colon tissue-specific gene expression as a priori variant information for a set-based G × E approach. We harmonized total folate intake (mcg/day) based on dietary intake and supplemental use across cohort and case-control studies and calculated sex and study specific quantiles. Analyses were performed using a mixed effects score tests for interactions between folate and genetically predicted expression of 4839 genes with available genetically predicted expression. We pooled results across 23 studies for a total of 13,498 cases with colorectal tumors and 13,918 controls of European ancestry. We used a false discovery rate of 0.2 to identify genes with suggestive evidence of an interaction. We found suggestive evidence of interaction with folate intake on CRC risk for genes including glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 1 (GSTA1; p = 4.3E-4), Tonsuko Like, DNA Repair Protein (TONSL; p = 4.3E-4), and Aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA: p = 4.5E-4). We identified three genes involved in preventing or repairing DNA damage that may interact with folate consumption to alter CRC risk. Glutathione is an antioxidant, preventing cellular damage and is a downstream metabolite of homocysteine and metabolized by GSTA1. TONSL is part of a complex that functions in the recovery of double strand breaks and AGA plays a role in lysosomal breakdown of glycoprotein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Risco , Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Risco , NF-kappa B/genética
6.
Leukemia ; 36(12): 2835-2844, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273105

RESUMO

Lymphoma risk is elevated for relatives with common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes, suggesting shared genetic susceptibility across subtypes. To evaluate the extent of mutual heritability among NHL subtypes and discover novel loci shared among subtypes, we analyzed data from eight genome-wide association studies within the InterLymph Consortium, including 10,629 cases and 9505 controls. We utilized Association analysis based on SubSETs (ASSET) to discover loci for subsets of NHL subtypes and evaluated shared heritability across the genome using Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) and polygenic risk scores. We discovered 17 genome-wide significant loci (P < 5 × 10-8) for subsets of NHL subtypes, including a novel locus at 10q23.33 (HHEX) (P = 3.27 × 10-9). Most subset associations were driven primarily by only one subtype. Genome-wide genetic correlations between pairs of subtypes varied broadly from 0.20 to 0.86, suggesting substantial heterogeneity in the extent of shared heritability among subtypes. Polygenic risk score analyses of established loci for different lymphoid malignancies identified strong associations with some NHL subtypes (P < 5 × 10-8), but weak or null associations with others. Although our analyses suggest partially shared heritability and biological pathways, they reveal substantial heterogeneity among NHL subtypes with each having its own distinct germline genetic architecture.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Humanos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Risco , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Células Germinativas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 5019752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36312896

RESUMO

The kynurenine pathway is implicated in aging, longevity, and immune regulation, but longitudinal studies and assessment of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are lacking. We investigated tryptophan (Trp) and downstream kynurenine metabolites and their associations with age and change over time in four cohorts using comprehensive, targeted metabolomics. The study included 1574 participants in two cohorts with repeated metabolite measurements (mean age at baseline 58 years ± 8 SD and 62 ± 10 SD), 3161 community-dwelling older adults (age range 71-74 years), and 109 CSF donors (mean age 73 years ± 7 SD). In the first two cohorts, age was associated with kynurenine (Kyn), quinolinic acid (QA), and the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (KTR), and inversely with Trp. Consistent with these findings, Kyn, QA, and KTR increased over time, whereas Trp decreased. Similarly, QA and KTR were higher in community-dwelling older adults of age 74 compared to 71, whereas Trp was lower. Kyn and QA were more strongly correlated with age in the CSF compared to serum and increased in a subset of participants with repeated CSF sampling (n = 33) over four years. We assessed associations with frailty and mortality in two cohorts. QA and KTR were most strongly associated with mortality and frailty. Our study provides robust evidence of changes in tryptophan and kynurenine metabolism with human aging and supports links with adverse health outcomes. Our results suggest that aging activates the inflammation and stress-driven kynurenine pathway systemically and in the brain, but we cannot determine whether this activation is harmful or adaptive. We identified a relatively stronger age-related increase of the potentially neurotoxic end-product QA in brain.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Cinurenina , Humanos , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Ácido Quinolínico , Envelhecimento
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(10): 1777-1788, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206742

RESUMO

Rare pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-susceptibility genes and known common susceptibility variants do not fully explain the familial aggregation of breast cancer. To investigate plausible genetic models for the residual familial aggregation, we studied 17,425 families ascertained through population-based probands, 86% of whom were screened for pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, and TP53 via gene-panel sequencing. We conducted complex segregation analyses and fitted genetic models in which breast cancer incidence depended on the effects of known susceptibility genes and other unidentified major genes and a normally distributed polygenic component. The proportion of familial variance explained by the six genes was 46% at age 20-29 years and decreased steadily with age thereafter. After allowing for these genes, the best fitting model for the residual familial variance included a recessive risk component with a combined genotype frequency of 1.7% (95% CI: 0.3%-5.4%) and a penetrance to age 80 years of 69% (95% CI: 38%-95%) for homozygotes, which may reflect the combined effects of multiple variants acting in a recessive manner, and a polygenic variance of 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94%-1.65), which did not vary with age. The proportion of the residual familial variance explained by the recessive risk component was 40% at age 20-29 years and decreased with age thereafter. The model predicted age-specific familial relative risks consistent with those observed by large epidemiological studies. The findings have implications for strategies to identify new breast cancer-susceptibility genes and improve disease-risk prediction, especially at a young age.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Penetrância , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer Res Commun ; 2(4): 211-219, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303815

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 200 susceptibility loci for breast cancer, but these variants explain less than a fifth of the disease risk. Although gene-environment interactions have been proposed to account for some of the remaining heritability, few studies have empirically assessed this. Methods: We obtained genotype and risk factor data from 46,060 cases and 47,929 controls of European ancestry from population-based studies within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). We built gene expression prediction models for 4,864 genes with a significant (P<0.01) heritable component using the transcriptome and genotype data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We leveraged predicted gene expression information to investigate the interactions between gene-centric genetic variation and 14 established risk factors in association with breast cancer risk, using a mixed-effects score test. Results: After adjusting for number of tests using Bonferroni correction, no interaction remained statistically significant. The strongest interaction observed was between the predicted expression of the C13orf45 gene and age at first full-term pregnancy (PGXE=4.44×10-6). Conclusion: In this transcriptome-informed genome-wide gene-environment interaction study of breast cancer, we found no strong support for the role of gene expression in modifying the associations between established risk factors and breast cancer risk. Impact: Our study suggests a limited role of gene-environment interactions in breast cancer risk.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(11): 1533-1544, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36210504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Known risk alleles for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) account for approximately 40% of the heritability for EOC. Copy number variants (CNVs) have not been investigated as EOC risk alleles in a large population cohort. METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphism array data from 13 071 EOC cases and 17 306 controls of White European ancestry were used to identify CNVs associated with EOC risk using a rare admixture maximum likelihood test for gene burden and a by-probe ratio test. We performed enrichment analysis of CNVs at known EOC risk loci and functional biofeatures in ovarian cancer-related cell types. RESULTS: We identified statistically significant risk associations with CNVs at known EOC risk genes; BRCA1 (PEOC = 1.60E-21; OREOC = 8.24), RAD51C (Phigh-grade serous ovarian cancer [HGSOC] = 5.5E-4; odds ratio [OR]HGSOC = 5.74 del), and BRCA2 (PHGSOC = 7.0E-4; ORHGSOC = 3.31 deletion). Four suggestive associations (P < .001) were identified for rare CNVs. Risk-associated CNVs were enriched (P < .05) at known EOC risk loci identified by genome-wide association study. Noncoding CNVs were enriched in active promoters and insulators in EOC-related cell types. CONCLUSIONS: CNVs in BRCA1 have been previously reported in smaller studies, but their observed frequency in this large population-based cohort, along with the CNVs observed at BRCA2 and RAD51C gene loci in EOC cases, suggests that these CNVs are potentially pathogenic and may contribute to the spectrum of disease-causing mutations in these genes. CNVs are likely to occur in a wider set of susceptibility regions, with potential implications for clinical genetic testing and disease prevention.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Feminino , Humanos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Alelos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 59, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation in blood may reflect adverse exposures accumulated over the lifetime and could therefore provide potential improvements in the prediction of cancer risk. A substantial body of research has shown associations between epigenetic aging and risk of disease, including cancer. Here we aimed to study epigenetic measures of aging and lifestyle-related factors in association with risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Using data from four prospective case-control studies nested in three cohorts of European ancestry participants, including a total of 1,655 breast cancer cases, we calculated three methylation-based measures of lifestyle factors (body mass index [BMI], tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) and seven measures of epigenetic aging (Horvath-based, Hannum-based, PhenoAge and GrimAge). All measures were regression-adjusted for their respective risk factors and expressed per standard deviation (SD). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional or unconditional logistic regression and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted by age at blood draw, time from blood sample to diagnosis, oestrogen receptor-positivity status and tumour stage. RESULTS: None of the measures of epigenetic aging were associated with risk of breast cancer in the pooled analysis: Horvath 'age acceleration' (AA): OR per SD = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.95-1.10; AA-Hannum: OR = 1.03, 95%CI:0.95-1.12; PhenoAge: OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.94-1.09 and GrimAge: OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.94-1.12, in models adjusting for white blood cell proportions, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. The BMI-adjusted predictor of BMI was associated with breast cancer risk, OR per SD = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.01-1.17. The results for the alcohol and smoking methylation-based predictors were consistent with a null association. Risk did not appear to substantially vary by age at blood draw, time to diagnosis or tumour characteristics. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that methylation-based measures of aging, smoking or alcohol consumption were associated with risk of breast cancer. A methylation-based marker of BMI was associated with risk and may provide insights into the underlying associations between BMI and breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Envelhecimento/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 80: 102241, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of early-life growth pattern and body size on follicular lymphoma (FL) risk and survival is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gestational age, growth during childhood, body size, changes in body shape over time, and FL risk and survival. METHODS: We conducted a population-based family case-control study and included 706 cases and 490 controls. We ascertained gestational age, growth during childhood, body size and body shape using questionnaires and followed-up cases (median=83 months) using record linkage with national death records. We used a group-based trajectory modeling approach to identify body shape trajectories from ages 5-70. We examined associations with FL risk using unconditional logistic regression and used Cox regression to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause and FL-specific mortality among cases. RESULTS: We found no association between gestational age, childhood height and FL risk. We observed a modest increase in FL risk with being obese 5 years prior to enrolment (OR=1.43, 95 %CI=0.99-2.06; BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and per 5-kg/m2 increase in BMI 5 years prior to enrolment (OR=1.14, 95 %CI=0.99-1.31). The excess risk for obesity 5 years prior to enrolment was higher for ever-smokers (OR=2.00, 95 %CI=1.08-3.69) than never-smokers (OR=1.14, 95 %CI=0.71-1.84). We found no association between FL risk and BMI at enrolment, BMI for heaviest lifetime weight, the highest categories of adult weight or height, trouser size, body shape at different ages or body shape trajectory. We also observed no association between all-cause or FL-specific mortality and excess adiposity at or prior to enrolment. CONCLUSION: We observed a weak association between elevated BMI and FL risk, and no association with all-cause or FL-specific mortality, consistent with previous studies. Future studies incorporating biomarkers are needed to elucidate possible mechanisms underlying the role of body composition in FL etiology.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018819

RESUMO

Little is known regarding the potential relationship between clonal hematopoiesis (CH) of indeterminate potential (CHIP), which is the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells with somatic mutations, and risk of prostate cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer death of men worldwide. We evaluated the association of age-related CHIP with overall and aggressive prostate cancer risk in two large whole-exome sequencing studies of 75 047 European ancestry men, including 7663 prostate cancer cases, 2770 of which had aggressive disease, and 3266 men carrying CHIP variants. We found that CHIP, defined by over 50 CHIP genes individually and in aggregate, was not significantly associated with overall (aggregate HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.76-1.13, P = 0.46) or aggressive (aggregate OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.92-1.41, P = 0.22) prostate cancer risk. CHIP was weakly associated with genetic risk of overall prostate cancer, measured using a polygenic risk score (OR = 1.05 per unit increase, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10, P = 0.01). CHIP was not significantly associated with carrying pathogenic/likely pathogenic/deleterious variants in DNA repair genes, which have previously been found to be associated with aggressive prostate cancer. While findings from this study suggest that CHIP is likely not a risk factor for prostate cancer, it will be important to investigate other types of CH in association with prostate cancer risk.

14.
Eur J Cancer ; 173: 178-193, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predict Breast (www.predict.nhs.uk) is an online prognostication and treatment benefit tool for early invasive breast cancer. The aim of this study was to incorporate the prognostic effect of progesterone receptor (PR) status into a new version of PREDICT and to compare its performance to the current version (2.2). METHOD: The prognostic effect of PR status was based on the analysis of data from 45,088 European patients with breast cancer from 49 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for PR status. Data from a New Zealand study of 11,365 patients with early invasive breast cancer were used for external validation. Model calibration and discrimination were used to test the model performance. RESULTS: Having a PR-positive tumour was associated with a 23% and 28% lower risk of dying from breast cancer for women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative and ER-positive breast cancer, respectively. The area under the ROC curve increased with the addition of PR status from 0.807 to 0.809 for patients with ER-negative tumours (p = 0.023) and from 0.898 to 0.902 for patients with ER-positive tumours (p = 2.3 × 10-6) in the New Zealand cohort. Model calibration was modest with 940 observed deaths compared to 1151 predicted. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of the prognostic effect of PR status to PREDICT Breast has led to an improvement of model performance and more accurate absolute treatment benefit predictions for individual patients. Further studies should determine whether the baseline hazard function requires recalibration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Receptores de Progesterona , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Progesterona , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
15.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2022 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee intake may lower prostate cancer risk and progression, but postdiagnosis outcomes by caffeine metabolism genotype are not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between coffee intake, caffeine metabolism genotype, and survival in a large, multicenter study of men with prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from The PRACTICAL Consortium database for 5727 men with prostate cancer from seven US, Australian, and European studies were included. The cases included had data available for the CYP1A2 -163C>A rs762551 single-nucleotide variant associated with caffeine metabolism, coffee intake, and >6 mo of follow-up. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models across pooled patient-level data were used to compare the effect of coffee intake (categorized as low [reference], high, or none/very low) in relation to overall survival (OS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), with stratified analyses conducted by clinical disease risk and genotype. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: High coffee intake appeared to be associated with longer PCSS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-1.08; p = 0.18) and OS (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.77-1.07; p = 0.24), although results were not statistically significant. In the group with clinically localized disease, high coffee intake was associated with longer PCSS (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.98; p = 0.040), with comparable results for the group with advanced disease (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.69-1.23; p = 0.6). High coffee intake was associated with longer PCSS among men with the CYP1A2 AA (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93; p = 0.017) but not the AC/CC genotype (p = 0.8); an interaction was detected (p = 0.042). No associations with OS were observed in subgroup analyses (p > 0.05). Limitations include the nominal statistical significance and residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee intake was associated with longer PCSS among men with a CYP1A2 -163AA (*1F/*1F) genotype, a finding that will require further replication. PATIENT SUMMARY: It is likely that coffee intake is associated with longer prostate cancer-specific survival in certain groups, but more research is needed to fully understand which men may benefit and why.

16.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-28, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35837679

RESUMO

Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is the precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which has become the most common type of oesophageal cancer in many Western populations. Existing evidence on diet and risk of BE predominantly comes from case-control studies, which are subject to recall bias in measurement of diet. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of diet, including macronutrients, carotenoids, food groups, specific food items, beverages, and dietary scores, on risk of BE in over 20,000 participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Diet at baseline (1990-94) was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. The outcome was BE diagnosed between baseline and follow-up (2007-10). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [CIs] for diet in relation to risk of BE. Intakes of leafy vegetables and fruit were inversely associated with risk of BE (highest versus lowest quartile: OR=0.59; CI: 0.38-0.94; p-trend=0.02 and OR=0.58; CI: 0.37-0.93; p-trend=0.02 respectively), as were dietary fibre and carotenoids. Stronger associations were observed for food than the nutrients found in them. Positive associations were observed for discretionary food (OR=1.54; CI: 0.97-2.44; p-trend=0.04) and total fat intake (OR per 10g/d=1.11; CI: 1.00-1.23), the association for fat was less robust in sensitivity analyses. No association was observed for meat, protein, dairy, or diet scores. Diet is a potential modifiable risk factor for BE. Public health and clinical guidelines that incorporate dietary recommendations could contribute to reduction in risk of BE and, thereby, oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

17.
EJHaem ; 3(1): 109-120, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846225

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological cancer and causes significant mortality and morbidity. Knowledge regarding modifiable risk factors for MM remains limited. This analysis of an Australian population-based case-control family study investigates whether smoking or alcohol consumption is associated with risk of MM and related diseases. Incident cases (n = 789) of MM were recruited via cancer registries in Victoria and New South Wales. Controls (n = 1,113) were either family members of cases (n = 696) or controls recruited for a similarly designed study of renal cancers (n = 417). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression. Heavy intake (>20 g ethanol/day) of alcohol had a lower risk of MM compared with nondrinkers (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93), and there was an inverse dose-response relationship for average daily alcohol intake (OR per 10 g ethanol per day = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.99); there was no evidence of an interaction with sex. There was no evidence of an association with MM risk for smoking-related exposures (p > 0.18). The associations between smoking and alcohol with MM are similar to those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Further research into potential underlying mechanisms is warranted.

18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies had limited power to assess the associations of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) with clinically relevant prostate cancer as a primary endpoint, and the association of genetically predicted IGF-I with aggressive prostate cancer is not known. We aimed to investigate the associations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 concentrations with overall, aggressive and early-onset prostate cancer. METHODS: Prospective analysis of biomarkers using the Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset (up to 20 studies, 17 009 prostate cancer cases, including 2332 aggressive cases). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression. For IGF-I, two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was undertaken using instruments identified using UK Biobank (158 444 men) and outcome data from PRACTICAL (up to 85 554 cases, including 15 167 aggressive cases). Additionally, we used colocalization to rule out confounding by linkage disequilibrium. RESULTS: In observational analyses, IGF-I was positively associated with risks of overall (OR per 1 SD = 1.09: 95% CI 1.07, 1.11), aggressive (1.09: 1.03, 1.16) and possibly early-onset disease (1.11: 1.00, 1.24); associations were similar in MR analyses (OR per 1 SD = 1.07: 1.00, 1.15; 1.10: 1.01, 1.20; and 1.13; 0.98, 1.30, respectively). Colocalization also indicated a shared signal for IGF-I and prostate cancer (PP4: 99%). Men with higher IGF-II (1.06: 1.02, 1.11) and IGFBP-3 (1.08: 1.04, 1.11) had higher risks of overall prostate cancer, whereas higher IGFBP-1 was associated with a lower risk (0.95: 0.91, 0.99); these associations were attenuated following adjustment for IGF-I. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the role of IGF-I in the development of prostate cancer, including for aggressive disease.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors have been shown to be differentially associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER-negative breast cancer. However, their associations with intrinsic-like subtypes are less clear. METHODS: Analyses included up to 23,353 cases, and 71,072 controls pooled from 31 population-based case-control or cohort studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium across 16 countries on 4 continents. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association between reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer by intrinsic-like subtypes (luminal A-like, luminal B-like, luminal B-HER2-like, HER2-enriched-like, and triple-negative) and by invasiveness. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Compared to nulliparous women, parous women had a lower risk of luminal A-like, luminal B-like, luminal B-HER2-like and HER2-enriched-like disease. This association was apparent only after approximately 10 years since last birth and became stronger with increasing time (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49 to 0.71; and OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.46; for multiparous women with luminal A-like tumors 20-<25 years after last birth and 45-<50 years after last birth, respectively). In contrast, parous women had a higher risk of triple-negative breast cancer right after their last birth (for multiparous women: OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 2.02 to 4.83) that was attenuated with time but persisted for decades (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.79 to 1.34, for multiparous women 25 to < 30 years after last birth). Older age at first birth (P-heterogeneity<.001 for triple-negative compared to luminal-A like) and breastfeeding (P-heterogeneity<.001 for triple-negative compared to luminal-A like) were associated with lower risk of triple-negative but not with other disease subtypes. Younger age at menarche was associated with higher risk of all subtypes; older age at menopause was associated with higher risk of luminal A-like but not triple-negative breast cancer. Associations for in situ tumors were similar to luminal A-like. CONCLUSION: This large and comprehensive study demonstrates a distinct reproductive risk factor profile for triple-negative breast cancer compared to other subtypes, with implications for the understanding of disease etiology and risk prediction.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681690

RESUMO

The association between smoking and alcohol consumption and follicular lymphoma (FL) incidence and clinical outcome is uncertain. We conducted a population-based family case-control study (709 cases: 490 controls) in Australia. We assessed lifetime history of smoking and recent alcohol consumption and followed-up cases (median = 83 months). We examined associations with FL risk using unconditional logistic regression and with all-cause and FL-specific mortality of cases using Cox regression. FL risk was associated with ever smoking (OR = 1.38, 95%CI = 1.08-1.74), former smoking (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.05-1.77), smoking initiation before age 17 (OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.06-2.05), the highest categories of cigarettes smoked per day (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.04-2.01), smoking duration (OR = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.07-2.18) and pack-years (OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.10-2.22). For never smokers, FL risk increased for those exposed indoors to >2 smokers during childhood (OR = 1.84, 95%CI = 1.11-3.04). For cases, current smoking and the highest categories of smoking duration and lifetime cigarette exposure were associated with elevated all-cause mortality. The hazard ratio for current smoking and FL-specific mortality was 2.97 (95%CI = 0.91-9.72). We found no association between recent alcohol consumption and FL risk, all-cause or FL-specific mortality. Our study showed consistent evidence of an association between smoking and increased FL risk and possibly also FL-specific mortality. Strengthening anti-smoking policies and interventions may reduce the population burden of FL.

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