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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197272

RESUMO

Mammograms contain information that predicts breast cancer risk. We developed two novel mammogram-based breast cancer risk measures based on image brightness (Cirrocumulus) and texture (Cirrus). Their risk prediction when fitted together, and with an established measure of conventional mammographic density (Cumulus), is not known. We used three studies consisting of: 168 interval cases and 498 matched controls; 422 screen-detected cases and 1,197 matched controls; and 354 younger-diagnosis cases and 944 controls frequency-matched for age at mammogram. We conducted conditional and unconditional logistic regression analyses of individually- and frequency-matched studies, respectively. We estimated measure-specific risk gradients as the change in odds per standard deviation of controls after adjusting for age and body mass index (OPERA) and calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). For interval, screen-detected and younger-diagnosis cancer risks, the best fitting models (OPERAs [95% confidence intervals]) involved: Cumulus (1.81 [1.41 to 2.31]) and Cirrus (1.72 [1.38 to 2.14]); Cirrus (1.49 [1.32 to 1.67]) and Cirrocumulus (1.16 [1.03 to 1.31]); and Cirrus (1.70 [1.48 to 1.94]) and Cirrocumulus (1.46 [1.27 to 1.68]), respectively. The AUCs were: 0.73 [0.68 to 0.77], 0.63 [0.60 to 0.66], and 0.72 [0.69 to 0.75], respectively. Combined, our new mammogram-based measures have twice the risk gradient for screen-detected and younger-diagnosis breast cancer (P<10-12 ), have at least the same discriminatory power as the current polygenic risk score, and are more correlated with causal factors than conventional mammographic density. Discovering more information about breast cancer risk from mammograms could help enable risk-based personalised breast screening.

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is detrimental to child health but its association with risk of cancer has seldom been investigated. Maternal smoking induces widespread and long-lasting DNA methylation changes, which we study here for association with risk of cancer in adulthood. METHODS: Eight prospective case-control studies nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study were used to assess associations between maternal-smoking-associated methylation marks in blood and risk of several cancers: breast (n = 406 cases), colorectal (n = 814), gastric (n = 166), kidney (n = 139), lung (n = 327), prostate (n = 847) and urothelial (n = 404) cancer and B-cell lymphoma (n = 426). We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between cancer and five methylation scores calculated as weighted averages for 568, 19, 15, 28 and 17 CpG sites. Models were adjusted for confounders, including personal smoking history (smoking status, pack-years, age at starting and quitting) and methylation scores for personal smoking. RESULTS: All methylation scores for maternal smoking were strongly positively associated with risk of urothelial cancer. Risk estimates were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for smoking history, other potential confounders and methylation scores for personal smoking. Potential negative associations were observed with risk of lung cancer and B-cell lymphoma. No associations were observed for other cancers. CONCLUSIONS: We found that methylation marks of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking are associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential for using DNA methylation to investigate the impact of early-life, unmeasured exposures on later-life cancer risk.

3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038280

RESUMO

Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory state characterized by continued secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Experimental and epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating adipokines may be associated with the development of obesity-related cancers, but it is unclear if these associations are causal or confounded. We examined potential causal associations of specific adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, soluble leptin receptor [sOB-R] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) with five obesity-related cancers (colorectal, pancreatic, renal cell carcinoma [RCC], ovarian and endometrial) using Mendelian randomization (MR) methods. We used summary-level data from large genetic consortia for 114 530 cancer cases and 245 284 controls. We constructed genetic instruments using 18 genetic variants for adiponectin, 2 for leptin and 4 for both sOB-R and PAI-1 (P value for inclusion<5 × 10-8 ). Causal estimates were obtained using two-sample MR methods. In the inverse-variance weighted models, we found an inverse association between adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio per 1 µg/mL increment in adiponectin concentration: 0.90 [95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.97]; P = .01); but, evidence of horizontal pleiotropy was detected and the association was not present when this was taken into consideration. No association was found for adiponectin and risks of pancreatic cancer, RCC, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer. Leptin, sOB-R and PAI-1 were also similarly unrelated to risk of obesity-related cancers. Despite the large sample size, our MR analyses do not support causal effects of circulating adiponectin, leptin, sOB-R and PAI-1 concentrations on the development of five obesity-related cancers.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in four novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In nine known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered nine genes that have not been previously reported, whereas four genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < 0.01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 158, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation-based biological age (DNAm age) is an important biomarker for adult health. Studies in specific age ranges have found widely varying results about its genetic and environmental causes of variation. However, these studies are not able to provide a comprehensive view of the causes of variation over the lifespan. RESULTS: In order to investigate the genetic and environmental causes of DNAm age variation across the lifespan, we pooled genome-wide DNA methylation data for 4217 people aged 0-92 years from 1871 families. DNAm age was calculated using the Horvath epigenetic clock. We estimated familial correlations in DNAm age for monozygotic (MZ) twin, dizygotic (DZ) twin, sibling, parent-offspring, and spouse pairs by cohabitation status. Genetic and environmental variance components models were fitted and compared. We found that twin pair correlations were - 0.12 to 0.18 around birth, not different from zero (all P > 0.29). For all pairs of relatives, their correlations increased with time spent living together (all P < 0.02) at different rates (MZ > DZ and siblings > parent-offspring; P < 0.001) and decreased with time spent living apart (P = 0.02) at similar rates. These correlation patterns were best explained by cohabitation-dependent shared environmental factors, the effects of which were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 1.66) times greater for MZ pairs than for DZ and sibling pairs, and the latter were 2.03 (95% CI 1.13 to 9.47) times greater than for parent-offspring pairs. Genetic factors explained 13% (95% CI - 10 to 35%) of variation (P = 0.27). Similar results were found for another two epigenetic clocks, suggesting that our observations are robust to how DNAm age is measured. In addition, results for the other clocks were consistent with there also being a role for prenatal environmental factors in determining their variation. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in DNAm age is mostly caused by environmental factors, including those shared to different extents by relatives while living together and whose effects persist into old age. The equal environment assumption of the classic twin study might not hold for epigenetic aging.

9.
Med J Aust ; 213(9): 411-417, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare treatments for localised prostate cancer for men diagnosed in private and public health services in Victoria. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of Victorian Cancer Registry data linked to population-based administrative health datasets. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: 29 325 Victorian men diagnosed with prostate cancer during 2011-2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of men in private and public health services receiving radical prostatectomy (with or without curative radiation therapy) or curative external beam radiation therapy alone within 12 months of diagnosis. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, tumour classification and comorbidity, men diagnosed in private health services received radical treatment more frequently than men diagnosed in public health services (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.49). The proportion of private patients who underwent radical prostatectomy was larger than that for public patients (44% v 28%; OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 2.13-2.44) and the proportion of private patients who received curative external beam radiation therapy alone (excluding brachytherapy) was smaller (9% v 19%; OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.42-0.49). These differences were apparent for all International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) tumour grades. The magnitude of the difference for prostatectomy was greater for men aged 70 years or more; for radiation therapy alone, it was larger for those diagnosed before age 70. The differences between private and public services narrowed during 2011-2017 for men with ISUP grade 1 disease, but not ISUP grade 2-5 tumours. CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer treatment choices differ substantially between men diagnosed in private and public health services in Victoria. These differences are not explained by disease severity or comorbidity.

10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(10): 2145-2151, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936592

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Using the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, we examined the associations of occupation, household, transport, and leisure physical activity with pain interference with normal work and muscle pain after activity. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 7655 working and 11,766 nonworking participants. Physical activity was assessed using the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Pain interference was assessed with the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey version 2.0, and muscle pain after activity was assessed using the 12-item Somatic and Psychological Health Report. Ordered logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and restricted cubic splines were used to graphically represent the shape of associations. RESULTS: All physical activity domain-pain outcome associations were nonlinear. Compared with participants who reported the lowest level of activity, participants who reported the median level of transport physical activity (10 MET·h·wk) reported less pain interference (workers: OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.77-0.97]; nonworkers: OR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.79-0.97]) and muscle pain after activity (workers: OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.70-0.95]; nonworkers: OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.77-0.95]). Higher levels of leisure time activity (20 MET·h·wk) were associated with less pain interference in nonworkers (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.98) and muscle pain after activity in workers (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.80). Workers who reported the median level of household activity (16 MET·h·wk) had increased pain interference (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32) and muscle pain after activity (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.42) than did those who reported the least household activity. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between domain-specific physical activity and pain outcomes were not uniform. Within the transport and leisure domains, physical activity was inversely associated with pain-related outcomes, whereas household physical activity was positively associated with pain scores within the working sample.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943407

RESUMO

THE QUESTION ADDRESSED BY THE STUDY: Are long-term Household Air Pollutions (HAPs) associated with asthma and lung function decline in middle-aged adults, and whether these associations were modified by GST gene variants, ventilation and atopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data on HAPs (heating, cooking, mould, smoking) and asthma were collected in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) at mean ages 43 and 53 years (n=3314). Subsamples had data on lung function (n=897) and GST gene polymorphisms (n=928). Latent class analysis was used to characterise longitudinal patterns of exposure. Regression models assessed associations and interactions. RESULTS: We identified seven longitudinal HAP profiles. Of these, 3 were associated with persistent asthma, greater lung function decline and %reversibility by age 53 years, compared to "least exposed" profile, for who used reverse cycle air conditioning, electric cooking and without smoking. "All gas"(OR:2.64, 95%CI 1.22-5.70), "wood heating/smoking" (2.71, 1.21-6.05) and "wood heating/gas cooking" (2.60, 1.11-6.11) were associated with persistent asthma, greater lung function decline and %reversibility. Participants with GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes were at a higher risk of asthma or greater lung function decline when exposed compared to other genotypes. Exhaust fan use and opening windows frequently could reduce the adverse effects of HAP produced by combustion heating and cooking on current asthma presumably through increasing ventilation. ANSWER TO THE QUESTION: Exposures to wood heating, gas cooking and heating, and tobacco smoke over 10 years increased the risks of persistent asthma, lung function decline and %reversibility, with evidence of interaction by GST genes and ventilation.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936210

RESUMO

Importance: Early menarche and early menopause are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in midlife, but little is known about the association between reproductive life span and the risk of CVD. Objective: To investigate the association between the length of reproductive life span and risk of incident CVD events, while also considering the timing of menarche and menopause. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual-level data were pooled from 12 studies participating in the International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events consortium. Women provided complete information on the timing of menarche and menopause, nonfatal CVD events, and covariates. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for covariates. The association between reproductive life span and CVD was adjusted for age at menarche and age at menopause separately. Analysis began March 2018 and ended December 2019. Exposures: Reproductive life span was calculated by subtracting age at menarche from age at menopause and categorized as younger than 30, 30 to 32, 33 to 35, 36 to 38 (reference group), 39 to 41, 42 to 44, and 45 years or older. Main Outcomes and Measures: First nonfatal CVD event, including coronary heart disease and stroke events. Results: A total of 307 855 women were included. Overall, the mean (SD) ages at menarche, menopause, and reproductive life span were 13.0 (1.5) years, 50.2 (4.4) years, and 37.2 (4.6) years, respectively. Pooled analyses showed that women with a very short reproductive life span (<30 years) were at 1.71 (95% CI, 1.58-1.84) times higher risk of incident CVD events than women with a reproductive life span of 36 to 38 years after adjustment for covariates. This association remained unchanged when adjusted for age at menarche but was attenuated to 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09-1.46) when adjusted for age at menopause. There was a significant interaction between reproductive life span and age at menarche associated with CVD risk (P < .001). Women who had both short reproductive life span (<33 years) and early menarche (age ≤11 years) had the highest risk of CVD (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.76-2.41) compared with those with a reproductive life span of 36 to 38 years and menarche at age 13 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Short reproductive life span was associated with an increased risk of nonfatal CVD events in midlife, and the risk was significantly higher for women with early age at menarche.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958588

RESUMO

DNA methylation in peripheral blood is a potential biomarker of gastric cancer risk which could be used for early detection. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Genomic DNA was prepared from blood samples collected a median of 12 years before diagnosis for cases (N=168). Controls (N=163) were matched to cases on sex, year of birth, country of birth and blood sample type using incidence density sampling. Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K Beadchip. Global measures of DNA methylation were defined as the median methylation M-value, calculated for each of 13 CpG subsets representing genomic function, mean methylation and location, and reliability of measurement. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to assess associations between these global measures of methylation and gastric cancer risk, adjusting for Helicobacter pylori and other potential confounders. We tested non-linear associations using quintiles of the global measure distribution. A genome-wide association study of DNA methylation and gastric cancer risk was also conducted (N=484,989 CpGs) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were investigated using the R package DMRcate. We found no evidence of associations with gastric cancer risk for individual CpGs or DMRs (p> 7.6×10-6). No evidence of association was observed with global measures of methylation (Odds ratio (OR) 1.07 per SD of overall median methylation, 95% CI 0.80-1.44, p=0.65). We found no evidence that blood DNA methylation is prospectively associated with gastric cancer risk.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(5): 1252-1266, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher intakes of whole grains and dietary fiber have been associated with lower risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, which are known predisposing factors for cancer. OBJECTIVES: Because the evidence of association with bladder cancer (BC) is limited, we aimed to assess associations with BC risk for intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and dietary fiber. METHODS: We pooled individual data from 574,726 participants in 13 cohort studies, 3214 of whom developed incident BC. HRs, with corresponding 95% CIs, were estimated using Cox regression models stratified on cohort. Dose-response relations were examined using fractional polynomial regression models. RESULTS: We found that higher intake of total whole grain was associated with lower risk of BC (comparing highest with lowest intake tertile: HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98; HR per 1-SD increment: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99; P for trend: 0.023). No association was observed for intake of total refined grain. Intake of total dietary fiber was also inversely associated with BC risk (comparing highest with lowest intake tertile: HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98; HR per 1-SD increment: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.98; P for trend: 0.021). In addition, dose-response analyses gave estimated HRs of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.99) for intake of total whole grain and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.98) for intake of total dietary fiber per 5-g daily increment. When considered jointly, highest intake of whole grains with the highest intake of dietary fiber showed 28% reduced risk (95% CI: 0.54, 0.93; P for trend: 0.031) of BC compared with the lowest intakes, suggesting potential synergism. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intakes of total whole grain and total dietary fiber are associated with reduced risk of BC individually and jointly. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms for these findings.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(11): 979-1000, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851495

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between follicular lymphoma (FL) risk and common modifiable lifestyle factors, specifically smoking, alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and hair dye use. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published prior to 01 January 2020. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Science and the reference lists of original studies and review articles. We used random-effects models to generate meta-estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Twenty-four cohort and ten case-control studies were eligible. Ten articles examined smoking, 11 alcohol, 13 BMI, and four hair dye use and risk of FL. The meta-estimate for current smoking was 1.11 (95% CI 0.92-1.35; I2 = 51%) and there was no significant dose-response per 5-year increase in duration (p-trend = 0.087). Current alcohol intake was inversely associated with FL risk (meta-RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94; I2 = 0%) and there was a significant dose-response per 5 drinks/week increase in intake (p-trend = 0.008). There was no association with 5 kg/m2 increase in early adulthood BMI (meta-RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.91-1.20; I2 = 7%) or being overweight (meta-RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92-1.07; I2 = 0%) or obese (meta-RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.99-1.17; I2 = 0%) as an adult. Hair dye use before 1980 was positively associated with FL risk (meta-RR 1.66, 95% CI 1.22-2.25; I2 = 55%) and no evidence of effect after 1980. CONCLUSION: We found consistent evidence of an inverse association between current alcohol intake and FL risk, and a significant increased risk with hair dye use before 1980. The evidence for smoking is heterogeneous, but most studies did not support an association. Further research is required to understand the mechanisms underlying these associations and the potential for prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tinturas para Cabelo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive versus non-aggressive disease. METHODS: Participants were 5,545 European-ancestry men, including 2,775 non-aggressive and 2,770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency<0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58x10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79x10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P=.02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than non-aggressive cases (carrier frequencies=14.2% versus 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56x10-5). However, this difference was statistically non-significant (P=.18) upon excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI=-1,65 to 0.48, P = 3.71x10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.

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