Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 800
Filtrar
1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680343

RESUMO

Prospective validation of risk models is needed to assess their clinical utility, particularly over the longer term. We evaluated the performance of six commonly used breast cancer risk models (IBIS, BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BRCAPRO-BCRAT, BCRAT, and iCARE-lit). 15-year risk scores were estimated using lifestyle factors and family history measures from 7608 women in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who were aged 50-65 years and unaffected at commencement of follow-up two (conducted in 2003-2007), of whom 351 subsequently developed breast cancer. Risk discrimination was assessed using the C-statistic and calibration using the expected/observed number of incident cases across the spectrum of risk by age group (50-54, 55-59, 60-65 years) and family history of breast cancer. C-statistics were higher for BOADICEA (0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.62) and IBIS (0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.61) than the other models (p-difference ≤ 0.04). No model except BOADICEA calibrated well across the spectrum of 15-year risk (p-value < 0.03). The performance of BOADICEA and IBIS was similar across age groups and for women with or without a family history. For middle-aged Australian women, BOADICEA and IBIS had the highest discriminatory accuracy of the six risk models, but apart from BOADICEA, no model was well-calibrated across the risk spectrum.

2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 887, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the association between circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and incidence of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: This study examined a random sample of 2651 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who had 25(OH)D concentrations measured from dried blood spots collected in 1990-1994. Participants who underwent total hip replacement for osteoarthritis between January 2001 and December 2018 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in relation to 25(OH)D concentrations, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Eighty-six men and eighty-seven women had a total hip replacement for osteoarthritis. Compared with men in the lowest (1st) quartile of 25(OH)D concentration, the HR for total hip replacement was 2.32 (95% CI 1.05, 5.13) for those in the 2nd quartile, 2.77 (95% CI 1.28, 6.00) for those in the 3rd quartile, and 1.73 (95% CI 0.75, 4.02) for those in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D concentrations (p for trend 0.02). There was little evidence of an association in women. CONCLUSIONS: Higher circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with an increased risk of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis in men but not in women. Although the underlying mechanism warrants further investigation, our findings highlight the need to determine the optimal levels of circulating 25(OH)D to reduce the risk of hip osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Osteoartrite do Quadril , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Quadril/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
3.
J Transl Genet Genom ; 5: 200-217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622145

RESUMO

Aim: Recessive genetic variation is thought to play a role in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Runs of homozygosity (ROH), defined based on long, continuous segments of homozygous SNPs, can be used to estimate both measured and unmeasured recessive genetic variation. We sought to examine genome-wide homozygosity and NHL risk. Methods: We used data from eight genome-wide association studies of four common NHL subtypes: 3061 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 3814 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2784 follicular lymphoma (FL), and 808 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, as well as 9374 controls. We examined the effect of homozygous variation on risk by: (1) estimating the fraction of the autosome containing runs of homozygosity (FROH); (2) calculating an inbreeding coefficient derived from the correlation among uniting gametes (F3); and (3) examining specific autosomal regions containing ROH. For each, we calculated beta coefficients and standard errors using logistic regression and combined estimates across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: We discovered positive associations between FROH and CLL (ß = 21.1, SE = 4.41, P = 1.6 × 10-6) and FL (ß = 11.4, SE = 5.82, P = 0.02) but not DLBCL (P = 1.0) or MZL (P = 0.91). For F3, we observed an association with CLL (ß = 27.5, SE = 6.51, P = 2.4 × 10-5). We did not find evidence of associations with specific ROH, suggesting that the associations observed with FROH and F3 for CLL and FL risk were not driven by a single region of homozygosity. Conclusion: Our findings support the role of recessive genetic variation in the etiology of CLL and FL; additional research is needed to identify the specific loci associated with NHL risk.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19787, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611289

RESUMO

Breast cancer metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer. Identification of germline variants associated with survival in aggressive types of breast cancer may inform understanding of breast cancer progression and assist treatment. In this analysis, we studied the associations between germline variants and breast cancer survival for patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis. We used data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) including 1062 women of European ancestry with metastatic breast cancer, 606 of whom died of breast cancer. We identified two germline variants on chromosome 1, rs138569520 and rs146023652, significantly associated with breast cancer-specific survival (P = 3.19 × 10-8 and 4.42 × 10-8). In silico analysis suggested a potential regulatory effect of the variants on the nearby target genes SDE2 and H3F3A. However, the variants showed no evidence of association in a smaller replication dataset. The validation dataset was obtained from the SNPs to Risk of Metastasis (StoRM) study and included 293 patients with metastatic primary breast cancer at diagnosis. Ultimately, larger replication studies are needed to confirm the identified associations.

6.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 394, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In previous studies using Illumina Infinium methylation arrays, we have identified DNA methylation marks associated with cancer predisposition and progression. In the present study, we have sought to find appropriate technology to both technically validate our data and expand our understanding of DNA methylation in these genomic regions. Here, we aimed to assess the repeatability of methylation measures made using QIAseq targeted methyl panel and to compare them with those obtained from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 (HM450K) assay. We included in the analysis high molecular weight DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) and DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE). RESULTS: The repeatability of QIAseq-methylation measures was assessed at 40 CpGs, using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The mean ICCs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.72 (0.62-0.81), 0.59 (0.47-0.71) and 0.80 (0.73-0.88) for WB, FFPE and both sample types combined, respectively. For technical replicates measured using QIAseq and HM450K, the mean ICCs (95% CI) were 0.53 (0.39-0.68), 0.43 (0.31-0.56) and 0.70 (0.59-0.80), respectively. Bland-Altman plots indicated good agreement between QIAseq and HM450K measurements. These results demonstrate that the QIAseq targeted methyl panel produces reliable and reproducible methylation measurements across the 40 CpGs that were examined.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Genômica , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Inclusão em Parafina
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported information may not accurately capture smoking exposure. We aimed to evaluate whether smoking-associated DNA methylation markers improve urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) risk prediction. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between blood-based methylation and UCC risk using two matched case-control samples: 404 pairs from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) and 440 pairs from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohort. Results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. We developed methylation-based predictors of UCC and evaluated their prediction accuracy on two replication data sets using the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The meta-analysis identified associations (P < 4.7 × 10-5) for 29 of 1,061 smoking-associated methylation sites, but these were substantially attenuated after adjustment for self-reported smoking. Nominally significant associations (P < 0.05) were found for 387 (36%) and 86 (8%) of smoking-associated markers without/with adjustment for self-reported smoking, respectively, with same direction of association as with smoking for 387 (100%) and 79 (92%) markers. A Lasso-based predictor was associated with UCC risk in one replication data set in MCCS [N = 134; odds ratio per SD (OR) = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.00-1.90] after confounder adjustment; AUC = 0.66, compared with AUC = 0.64 without methylation information. Limited evidence of replication was found in the second testing data set in WHI (N = 440; OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.91-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: Combination of smoking-associated methylation marks may provide some improvement to UCC risk prediction. Our findings need further evaluation using larger data sets. IMPACT: DNA methylation may be associated with UCC risk beyond traditional smoking assessment and could contribute to some improvements in stratification of UCC risk in the general population.

8.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10-8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10-5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some-but not all-metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., -0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10-5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10-3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI-the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.

9.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(4): pkab056, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377935

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC, but large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking. Methods: A total of 9789 CRC cases and 11 231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmonized smoking variables across studies and derived sex study-specific quartiles of pack-years of smoking for analysis. Four somatic colorectal tumor markers were assessed individually and in combination, including BRAF mutation, KRAS mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and risk of CRC subtypes by molecular characteristics, adjusting for age, sex, and study. All statistical tests were 2-sided and adjusted for Bonferroni correction. Results: Heavier smoking was associated with higher risk of CRC overall and stratified by individual markers (P trend < .001). The associations differed statistically significantly between all molecular subtypes, which was the most statistically significant for CIMP and BRAF. Compared with never-smokers, smokers in the fourth quartile of pack-years had a 90% higher risk of CIMP-positive CRC (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.60 to 2.26) but only 35% higher risk for CIMP-negative CRC (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.49; P difference = 2.1 x 10-6). The association was also stronger in tumors that were CIMP positive, MSI high, or KRAS wild type when combined (P difference < .001). Conclusion: Smoking was associated with differential risk of CRC subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Heavier smokers had particularly higher risk of CRC subtypes that were CIMP positive and MSI high in combination, suggesting that smoking may be involved in the development of colorectal tumors via the serrated pathway.

10.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 86, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15). RESULTS: Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.

11.
Dis Esophagus ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409990

RESUMO

We examined demographic and lifestyle risk factors for incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus (BE) in an Australian cohort of 20,975 participants aged 40-63 at recruitment (1990-1994). Information on GERD and BE was collected between 2007 and 2010. GERD symptoms were defined as self-reported heartburn or acid regurgitation. BE was defined as endoscopically confirmed columnar-lined esophagus. Risk factors for developing GERD symptoms, BE diagnosis, age at symptom onset, and age at BE diagnosis were quantified using regression. During a mean follow-up of 15.8 years, risk of GERD symptoms was 7.5% (n = 1,318) for daily, 7.5% (n = 1,333) for 2-6 days/week, and 4.3% (n = 751) for 1 day/week. There were 210 (1.0%) endoscopically diagnosed BE cases, of whom 141 had histologically confirmed esophageal intestinal metaplasia. Female sex, younger age, lower socioeconomic position (SEP) and educational attainment, and former smoking were associated with higher GERD risk. Male sex and smoking were associated with earlier GERD symptom onset. Men, older participants, those with higher SEP, and former smokers were at higher BE risk. There was some evidence higher SEP was associated with earlier BE diagnosis. GERD and BE had different demographic risk factors but shared similar lifestyle factors. Earlier GERD symptom onset for men and smokers might have contributed to higher BE risk. The SEP patterns observed for GERD and BE suggest potential inequity in access to care. These findings would be important in the development of clinical risk prediction models for early detection of BE.

12.
J Nutr ; 151(10): 2908-2916, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional epidemiology research using self-reported dietary intake is prone to measurement error. Objective methods are being explored to overcome this limitation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine 1) the association between plasma markers related to inflammation and derive marker scores for dietary patterns [Mediterranean dietary score (MDS), energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DIITM), Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI)] and 2) the associations of these marker scores with mortality. METHODS: Weighted marker scores were derived from the cross-sectional association between 30 plasma markers and each dietary score (assessed using food-frequency questionnaires) using linear regression for 770 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (aged 50-82 y). Prospective associations between marker scores and mortality (n = 249 deaths) were assessed using Cox regression (median follow-up: 14.4 y). RESULTS: The MDS, E-DII, and AHEI were associated (P < 0.05) with 9, 14, and 11 plasma markers, respectively. Healthier diets (higher MDS and AHEI, and lower anti-inflammatory, E-DII) were associated with lower concentrations of kynurenines, neopterin, IFN-γ, cytokines, and C-reactive protein. Five of 6 markers common to the 3 dietary scores were components of the kynurenine pathway. The 3 dietary-based marker scores were highly correlated (Spearman ρ: -0.74, -0.82, and 0.93). Inverse associations (for 1-SD increment) were observed with all-cause mortality for the MDS marker score (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72-0.98) and the AHEI marker score (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), whereas a positive association was observed with the E-DII marker score (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.39). The same magnitude of effect was not observed for the respective dietary patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Markers involved in inflammation-related processes are associated with dietary quality, including a substantial overlap between markers associated with the MDS, the E-DII, and the AHEI, especially kynurenines. Unfavorable marker scores, reflecting poorer-quality diets, were associated with increased mortality.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1807-1815, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socio-economic inequalities in colon cancer survival exist in high-income countries, but the reasons are unclear. We assessed the mediating effects of stage at diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment (surgery and intravenous chemotherapy) on survival from colon cancer. METHODS: We identified 2,203 people aged 15 to 79 years with first primary colon cancer diagnosed in Victoria, Australia, between 2008 and 2011. Colon cancer cases were identified through the Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR), and clinical information was obtained from hospital records. Deaths till December 31, 2016 (n = 807), were identified from Victorian and national death registries. Socio-economic disadvantage was based on residential address at diagnosis. For stage III disease, we decomposed its total effect into direct and indirect effects using interventional mediation analysis. RESULTS: Socio-economic inequalities in colon cancer survival were not explained by stage and were greater for men than women. For men with stage III disease, there were 161 [95% confidence interval (CI), 67-256] additional deaths per 1,000 cases in the 5 years following diagnosis for the most disadvantaged compared with the least disadvantaged. The indirect effects through comorbidities and intravenous chemotherapy explained 6 (95% CI, -10-21) and 15 (95% CI, -14-44) per 1,000 of these additional deaths, respectively. Surgery did not explain the observed gap in survival. CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantaged men have lower survival from stage III colon cancer that is only modestly explained by having comorbidities or not receiving chemotherapy after surgery. IMPACT: Future studies should investigate the potential mediating role of factors occurring beyond the first year following diagnosis, such as compliance with surveillance for recurrence and supportive care services.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1408-1417, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs. RESULTS: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepcidinas/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13805, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226613

RESUMO

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Carbono/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vitaminas/sangue
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070516

RESUMO

We investigated aberrant DNA methylation (DNAm) changes and the contribution of ageing-associated methylomic drift and age acceleration to early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC) carcinogenesis. Genome-wide DNAm profiling using the Infinium HM450K on 97 EOCRC tumour and 54 normal colonic mucosa samples was compared with: (1) intermediate-onset CRC (IOCRC; diagnosed between 50-70 years; 343 tumour and 35 normal); and (2) late-onset CRC (LOCRC; >70 years; 318 tumour and 40 normal). CpGs associated with age-related methylation drift were identified using a public dataset of 231 normal mucosa samples from people without CRC. DNAm-age was estimated using epiTOC2. Common to all three age-of-onset groups, 88,385 (20% of all CpGs) CpGs were differentially methylated between tumour and normal mucosa. We identified 234 differentially methylated genes that were unique to the EOCRC group; 13 of these DMRs/genes were replicated in EOCRC compared with LOCRCs from TCGA. In normal mucosa from people without CRC, we identified 28,154 CpGs that undergo ageing-related DNAm drift, and of those, 65% were aberrantly methylated in EOCRC tumours. Based on the mitotic-based DNAm clock epiTOC2, we identified age acceleration in normal mucosa of people with EOCRC compared with normal mucosa from the IOCRC, LOCRC groups (p = 3.7 × 10-16) and young people without CRC (p = 5.8 × 10-6). EOCRC acquires unique DNAm alterations at 234 loci. CpGs associated with ageing-associated drift were widely affected in EOCRC without needing the decades-long accrual of DNAm drift as commonly seen in intermediate- and late-onset CRCs. Accelerated ageing in normal mucosa from people with EOCRC potentially underlies the earlier age of diagnosis in CRC carcinogenesis.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key feature of aging. We aimed to i) investigate the association of 34 blood markers potentially involved in inflammatory processes with age and mortality, ii) develop a signature of 'inflammaging'. METHODS: Thirty-four blood markers relating to inflammation, B vitamin status and the kynurenine pathway were measured in 976 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study at baseline (median age=59 years) and follow-up (median age=70 years). Associations with age and mortality were assessed using linear and Cox regression, respectively. A parsimonious signature of inflammaging was developed and its association with mortality was compared with two marker scores calculated across all markers associated with age and mortality, respectively. RESULTS: The majority of markers (30/34) were associated with age, with stronger associations observed for neopterin, cystatin C, IL-6, TNF-α, several markers of the kynurenine pathway and derived indices KTR (kynurenine/tryptophan ratio), PAr index (ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid and the sum of pyridoxal 5´-phosphate and pyridoxal), and HK:XA (3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio). Many markers (17/34) showed an association with mortality, in particular IL-6, neopterin, CRP, quinolinic acid, PAr index, and KTR. The inflammaging signature included ten markers and was strongly associated of mortality (HR per SD=1.40, 95%CI:1.24-1.57, P=2x10 -8), similar to scores based on all age-associated (HR=1.38, 95%CI:1.23-1.55, P=4x10 -8) and mortality-associated markers (HR=1.43, 95%CI:1.28-1.60, P=1x10 -10), respectively. Strong evidence of replication of the inflammaging signature association with mortality was found in the Hordaland Health Study. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the key role of the kynurenine pathway and vitamin B6 catabolism in aging, along with other well-established inflammation-related markers. A signature of inflammaging based on ten markers was strongly associated with mortality.

19.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3): pkab021, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977228

RESUMO

Background: The Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm and the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study breast cancer risk models are used to provide advice on screening intervals and chemoprevention. We evaluated the performance of these models, which now incorporate polygenic risk scores (PRSs), using a prospective cohort study. Methods: We used a case-cohort design, involving women in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study aged 50-75 years when surveyed in 2003-2007, of whom 408 had a first primary breast cancer diagnosed within 10 years (cases), and 2783 were from the subcohort. Ten-year risks were calculated based on lifestyle factors, family history data, and a 313-variant PRS. Discrimination was assessed using a C-statistic compared with 0.50 and calibration using the ratio of expected to observed number of cases (E/O). Results: When the PRS was added to models with lifestyle factors and family history, the C-statistic (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased from 0.57 (0.54 to 0.60) to 0.62 (0.60 to 0.65) using IBIS and from 0.56 (0.53 to 0.59) to 0.62 (0.59 to 0.64) using BOADICEA. IBIS underpredicted risk (E/O = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.80) for women in the lowest risk category (<1.7%) and overpredicted risk (E/O = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.67) in the highest risk category (≥5%), using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test for calibration in quantiles of risk and a 2-sided P value less than .001. BOADICEA underpredicted risk (E/O = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.99) in the second highest risk category (3.4%-5%); the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and a 2-sided P value was equal to .02. Conclusions: Although the inclusion of a 313 genetic variant PRS doubles discriminatory accuracy (relative to reference 0.50), models with and without this PRS have relatively modest discrimination and might require recalibration before their clinical and wider use are promoted.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(8): 1566-1574, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimates of future burden of cancer attributable to current modifiable causal exposures can guide cancer prevention. We quantified future head and neck cancer burden in Australia attributable to individual and joint causal exposures, and assessed whether these burdens differ between population subgroups. METHODS: We estimated the strength of the associations between exposures and head and neck cancer using adjusted proportional hazards models from pooled data from seven Australian cohorts (N = 367,058) linked to national cancer and death registries and estimated exposure prevalence from the 2017 to 2018 Australian National Health Survey. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAF) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), accounting for competing risk of death, and compared PAFs for population subgroups. RESULTS: Contemporary levels of current and former smoking contribute 30.6% (95% CI, 22.7%-37.8%), alcohol consumption exceeding two standard drinks per day 12.9% (95% CI, 7.6%-17.9%), and these exposures jointly 38.5% (95% CI, 31.1%-45.0%) to the future head and neck cancer burden. Alcohol-attributable burden is triple and smoking-attributable burden is double for men compared with women. Smoking-attributable burden is also at least double for those consuming more than two alcoholic drinks daily or doing less than 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous activity weekly, and for those aged under 65 years, unmarried, with low or intermediate educational attainment or lower socioeconomic status, compared with their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Two-fifths of head and neck cancers in Australia are preventable by investment in tobacco and alcohol control. IMPACT: Targeting men and other identified high-burden subgroups can help to reduce head and neck cancer burden disparities.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...