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Nat Med ; 25(3): 454-461, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804515


Immunologic responses to anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma patients occur rapidly with pharmacodynamic T cell responses detectable in blood by 3 weeks. It is unclear, however, whether these early blood-based observations translate to the tumor microenvironment. We conducted a study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy in stage III/IV melanoma. We hypothesized that immune reinvigoration in the tumor would be detectable at 3 weeks and that this response would correlate with disease-free survival. We identified a rapid and potent anti-tumor response, with 8 of 27 patients experiencing a complete or major pathological response after a single dose of anti-PD-1, all of whom remain disease free. These rapid pathologic and clinical responses were associated with accumulation of exhausted CD8 T cells in the tumor at 3 weeks, with reinvigoration in the blood observed as early as 1 week. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a pretreatment immune signature (neoadjuvant response signature) that was associated with clinical benefit. In contrast, patients with disease recurrence displayed mechanisms of resistance including immune suppression, mutational escape, and/or tumor evolution. Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 treatment is effective in high-risk resectable stage III/IV melanoma. Pathological response and immunological analyses after a single neoadjuvant dose can be used to predict clinical outcome and to dissect underlying mechanisms in checkpoint blockade.

Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma , Evasão Tumoral
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 67(6): 1265-72, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22609219


BACKGROUND: Vemurafenib, a novel selective small molecule inhibitor of BRAF, has recently been shown to be effective in the treatment of melanomas harboring the BRAF V600E mutation. Similar to the broad-spectrum RAF inhibitor sorafenib, vemurafenib induces development of squamous cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas as a side effect of therapy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to detail additional cutaneous adverse effects of vemurafenib and a similar BRAF inhibitor, dabrafenib. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and histologic feature of skin side effects developing on vemurafenib or dabrafenib therapy in 14 patients. RESULTS: Eight patients developed one or more squamous cell carcinomas, and 11 patients formed benign verrucous keratoses. Eight patients developed single lesions and/or widespread eruptions with histopathologic findings of acantholytic dyskeratosis, consistent with warty dyskeratomas and Darier- or Grover-like rashes, respectively. One patient developed palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and darkening of existing nevi and new nevi within 2 months of starting vemurafenib. Side effects presented as early as 1 week after beginning therapy, with a mean time of onset of 12.6 weeks in our cohort. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by the small number of cases, all from a single institution. CONCLUSION: Selective BRAF inhibitor therapy is associated with the development of malignant and benign growths, including keratoacanthoma-like squamous cell carcinomas, warty dyskeratomas, and verrucous keratoses, along with widespread eruptions with histologic features of acantholytic dyskeratosis. Given the potential for malignant lesions to develop on treatment, awareness of potential adverse effects of these agents is necessary, and a low threshold for biopsy of new growths is recommended.

Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/induzido quimicamente , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Ceratoacantoma/induzido quimicamente , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vemurafenib
Clin Cancer Res ; 15(24): 7711-7718, 2009 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19996224


PURPOSE: The combination of the oral alkylating agent temozolomide and the oral multikinase inhibitor sorafenib was evaluated in advanced melanoma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with metastatic melanoma (n = 167) were treated on four arms. All patients received sorafenib at 400 mg p.o. twice daily without interruption. Patients without brain metastases or prior temozolomide were randomized between arm A: extended dosing of temozolomide (75 mg/m(2) temozolomide daily for 6 of every 8 weeks) and arm B: standard dosing (150 mg/m(2) temozolomide daily for 5 of every 28 days). Patients previously treated with temozolomide were enrolled on arm C: extended dosing of temozolomide. Patients with brain metastases and no prior temozolomide were assigned to arm D: standard dosing. The primary end point was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. Secondary end points included response rate, toxicity rates, and the rates of BRAF or NRAS mutations. RESULTS: The 6-month PFS rate for arms A, B, C, and D were 50%, 40%, 11%, and 23%. The median PFS for patients on arm A, B, C, and D was 5.9, 4.2, 2.2, and 3.5 months, respectively. No significant differences were observed between arms A and B in 6-month PFS rate, median PFS, or response rates. Treatment was well tolerated in all arms. No significant differences in toxicity were observed between arms A and B except for more grade 3 to 4 lymphopenia in arm A. CONCLUSION: Temozolomide plus sorafenib was well tolerated and showed activity in melanoma patients without prior history of temozolomide. The activity of this combination regimen warrants further investigation. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7711-8).

Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 56(3): 359-70, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16783574


Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer patients with cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) has been hampered by the inability of the CTL to home into tumors in vivo. Chemokines can attract T lymphocytes to the tumor site, as demonstrated in animal models, but the role of chemokines in T-lymphocyte trafficking toward human tumor cells is relatively unexplored. In the present study, the role of chemokines and their receptors in the migration of a colon carcinoma (CC) patient's CTL toward autologous tumor cells has been studied in a novel three-dimensional organotypic CC culture. CTL migration was mediated by chemokine receptor CXCR3 expressed by the CTL and CXCL11 chemokine secreted by the tumor cells. Excess CXCL11 or antibodies to CXCL11 or CXCR3 inhibited migration of CTL to tumor cells. T cell and tumor cell analyses for CXCR3 and CXCL11 expression, respectively, in ten additional CC samples, may suggest their involvement in other CC patients. Our studies, together with previous studies indicating angiostatic activity of CXCL11, suggest that CXCL11 may be useful as an immunotherapeutic agent for cancer patients when transduced into tumor cells or fused to tumor antigen-specific Ab.

Movimento Celular/imunologia , Quimiocinas CXC/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Apoptose/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CXCL11 , Quimiocinas CXC/biossíntese , Citocinas/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Fenótipo , Receptores CXCR3 , Receptores de Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
Chest ; 128(5): 3507-11, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16304306


STUDY OBJECTIVES: The role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for primary lung cancer remains poorly defined. The purpose of this "ablate and resect" pilot study was to evaluate the safety of performing RFA in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to characterize the histologic changes in tumor tissue following such ablation. DESIGN: This prospective study was undertaken at a single institution, and 10 patients were accrued from June 2002 to June 2003. Eligible patients included those with clinical stage I or II disease. RFA of the tumor was performed through a standard thoracotomy followed by conventional lobectomy and lymph node dissection. Extent of cell death was determined histologically. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Following the exclusion of two patients, the treated portions of eight tumors were examined for tumor cell viability. Gross inspection and routine histologic staining could not reliably identify the "immediately ablated" tissue. However, using a supravital staining technique, the treated areas from seven of the eight tumors (87.5%) demonstrated > 80% nonviability (100% nonviability was noted in the treated areas from three of the eight tumors). No bleeding or thermal complications were noted at the time of RFA, and none of the patients had skin burns at the electrode dispersive pad sites. CONCLUSIONS: RFA of primary NSCLC is feasible and can be performed safely in the setting of an open thoracotomy. Complete tumor cell necrosis, as determined by supravital staining, was noted in the treated areas from three of eight tumors (37.5%). Such complete ablation was observed in the treated areas from smaller tumors (< 2 cm), whereas the treated areas from larger tumors demonstrated incomplete ablation. Additional investigation with histopathologic correlation is needed to fully assess the long-term efficacy of RFA for NSCLC.

Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonectomia , Estudos Prospectivos
Am J Surg ; 189(5): 606-9; discussion 609, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15862505


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to better characterize the clinical significance of cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (IHC)-only-positive lymph node metastases among patients with breast cancer. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 334 patients who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy from 1 February 1997 through 31 July 2001. SLN biopsies were evaluated using standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) techniques. If H&E was negative, cytokeratin IHC was performed. We then evaluated the incidence of subsequent regional and distant metastatic disease. RESULTS: Cytokeratin IHC was performed on 183 sentinel node biopsies from 180 patients comprising a total of 427 sentinel lymph nodes. The procedures included lumpectomy and SLN biopsy (n = 83), mastectomy with SLN biopsy (n = 7), lumpectomy with SLN biopsy and completion axillary dissection (n = 80), and modified radical mastectomy with SLN biopsy and completion axillary dissection (n = 13). Cytokeratin IHC was negative in 175 axillary specimens and positive in 8 (4.4%) from 8 different patients. In these eight specimens, deeper sections with subsequent H&E staining additionally identified micrometastasis in four patients. Three of these 8 patients (37.5%) developed distant metastatic disease compared with 1 of the 172 patients (0.6%) with negative cytokeratin IHC (P < .001). Additionally, one of the cytokeratin-positive patients developed regional nodal metastasis compared with none of the 172 cytokeratin-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cytokeratin IHC provides a clinically relevant adjunct to H&E staining for evaluating sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. These data suggest that patients with cytokeratin-positive sentinel nodes are at increased risk for development of regional and distant metastatic disease.

Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Queratinas/análise , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estudos Retrospectivos