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1.
Stem Cell Res ; 42: 101660, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794943

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a rare inherited disorder leading to increased bone density with impairment in bone resorption. Among the genes responsible for ARO, the TCIRG1 gene, coding for the a3 subunit of the osteoclast proton pump, is mutated in more than 50% of the cases, increasing the importance of TCIRG1-iPSCs as disease model. We generated 3 iPSC clones derived from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) of a patient carrying the heterozygous mutations p.Y512X and c.2236 + 1G > A. A Sendai virus-based vector was used and the iPSCs were characterized for genetic identity to parental cells, genomic integrity, pluripotency, and differentiation ability.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691923

RESUMO

We report a rare case of a newborn male affected by incontinentia pigmenti, Klinefelter syndrome, and aplasia cutis congenita, who developed severe cutaneous, neurological, and ophthalmological manifestations. Genetic analysis showed the presence of the common mutation of NEMO (exon 4-10 deletion), Klinefelter syndrome karyotype (47 XXY), and random X inactivation. This is in accordance with the severity of involvement of the affected tissues (skin, central nervous system, and retina). Indeed, the patient developed typical skin lesions all over the body, except the head. Equally, multiple lesions diffusely involving both the cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres were observed. Discussing current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis of skin and brain lesions in incontinentia pigmenti, our case seems to support the proapoptotic origin of central nervous system involvement. Possibly, incontinentia pigmenti patients suffer an impaired protection against apoptosis at the level of cerebral endothelial cells of small vessels, leading to vascular damage and subsequent ischemic brain lesions.

3.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101620, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678772

RESUMO

We report the generation of three isogenic iPSC clones (UNIBSi007-A, UNIBSi007-B, and UNIBSi007-C) obtained from fibroblasts of a patient with Aicardi Goutières Syndrome (AGS) carrying a homozygous mutation in RNaseH2B. Cells were transduced using a Sendai virus based system, delivering the human OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 transcription factors. The resulting transgene-free iPSC lines retained the disease-causing DNA mutation, showed normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent markers and could differentiate in vitro toward cells of the three embryonic germ layers.

4.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101623, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698194

RESUMO

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an early-onset monogenic encephalopathy characterized by intracranial calcification, leukodystrophy and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, seven genes have been related to AGS. Among these, IFIH1 encodes for MDA5, a cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor, and is responsible for AGS type 7. We generated three isogenic iPSC clones, using a Sendai virus-based vector, starting from fibroblasts of a patient carrying a dominant mutation in IFIH1. All lines were characterized for genomic integrity, genetic uniqueness, pluripotency, and differentiation capability. Our clones might offer a good model to investigate AGS7 pathophysiological mechanism and to discover new biomarkers for this condition treatment.

5.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101580, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644995

RESUMO

Fibroblasts from a patient with Aicardi Goutières Syndrome (AGS) carrying a compound heterozygous mutation in TREX1, were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to establish isogenic clonal stem cell lines: UNIBSi006-A, UNIBSi006-B, and UNIBSi006-C. Cells were transduced using the episomal Sendai viral vectors, containing human OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 transcription factors. The transgene-free iPSC lines showed normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent markers and displayed in vitro differentiation potential toward cells of the three embryonic germ layers.

6.
Stem Cell Res ; 40: 101548, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536868

RESUMO

Crohn's disease is a debilitating and incurable chronic inflammatory bowel disease, affecting millions of individuals worldwide, with an increasing frequency. Surgery must be applicable in half of the cases often with a disabling course, and pharmacological treatments may have adverse complications. We generated three isogenic clones of iPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a patient with Crohn's Disease under pharmacological treatment without adverse effects. Sendai virus based vector was used and the iPSCs were characterized for genetic uniqueness, genomic integrity, pluripotency, and differentiation ability. These iPSCs will be a powerful tool to develop tailored therapies.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031743

RESUMO

Background: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. Objective: To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Methods: Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: T cell defects, Humoral defects and Other PIDs. The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. Results: The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% (n = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. Conclusions: NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.

10.
Infez Med ; 27(1): 73-76, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882382

RESUMO

Agammaglobulinemia is a congenital deficit of humoral immunity characterized by a decreased level or complete absence of immunoglobulins and profound reduction of B-lymphocytes associated with an increased risk of life-threatening bacterial infection. We report a case of invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa severe skin and soft tissue infection treated with vacuum-assisted closure and antibiotics in a toddler with a previously unreported mutation of the Bruton tyrosin kinase gene.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Úlcera da Perna/terapia , Masculino , Mutação , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Infecções por Pseudomonas/terapia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/terapia
12.
Stem Cell Res ; 35: 101393, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711802

RESUMO

The Cri du Chat Syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from variable size deletion occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, severe psychomotor and mental retardation with characteristics of autism spectrum disorders such as hand flapping, obsessive attachments to objects, twirling objects, repetitive movements, and rocking. We reprogrammed to pluripotency peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from a patient carrying large deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5, using a commercially available non-integrating expression system. The iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers and differentiated in the three embryonic germ layers.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular , Síndrome do Miado do Gato , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Adulto , Síndrome do Miado do Gato/genética , Síndrome do Miado do Gato/metabolismo , Síndrome do Miado do Gato/patologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Masculino
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 67(1): 243-256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early onset dementias (EOD) are rare neurodegenerative dementias that present before 65 years. Genetic factors have a substantially higher pathogenetic contribution in EOD patients than in late onset dementia. OBJECTIVE: To identify known and/or novel rare variants in major candidate genes associated to EOD by high-throughput sequencing. Common-risk variants of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and prion protein (PRNP) genes were also assessed. METHODS: We studied 22 EOD patients recruited in Memory Clinics, in the context of studies investigating genetic forms of dementia. Two methodological approaches were applied for the target-Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis of these patients. In addition, we performed progranulin plasma dosage, C9Orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion analysis, and APOE genotyping. RESULTS: We detected three rare known pathogenic mutations in the GRN and PSEN2 genes and eleven unknown-impact mutations in the GRN, VCP, MAPT, FUS, TREM2, and NOTCH3 genes. Six patients were carriers of only common risk variants (APOE and PRNP), and one did not show any risk mutation/variant. Overall, 69% (n = 9) of our early onset Alzheimer's disease (EAOD) patients, compared with 34% (n = 13) of sporadic late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients and 27% (n = 73) of non-affected controls (ADNI, whole genome data), were carriers of at least two rare/common risk variants in the analyzed candidate genes panel, excluding the full penetrant mutations. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that EOD patients without full penetrant mutations are characterized by higher probability to carry polygenic risk alleles that patients with LOAD forms. This finding is in line with recently reported evidence, thus suggesting that the genetic risk factors identified in LOAD might modulate the risk also in EOAD.

15.
Nat Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510251

RESUMO

In T lymphocytes, the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP-interacting-protein (WIP) regulate T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, but their role in lymphoma is largely unknown. Here we show that the expression of WASP and WIP is frequently low or absent in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) compared to other T cell lymphomas. In anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) ALCL, WASP and WIP expression is regulated by ALK oncogenic activity via its downstream mediators STAT3 and C/EBP-ß. ALK+ lymphomas were accelerated in WASP- and WIP-deficient mice. In the absence of WASP, active GTP-bound CDC42 was increased and the genetic deletion of one CDC42 allele was sufficient to impair lymphoma growth. WASP-deficient lymphoma showed increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation that could be exploited as a therapeutic vulnerability. Our findings demonstrate that WASP and WIP are tumor suppressors in T cell lymphoma and suggest that MAP-kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors combined with ALK inhibitors could achieve a more potent therapeutic effect in ALK+ ALCL.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(52): e13893, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593198

RESUMO

Tetraparesis is usually due to cerebral palsy (CP), inborn errors of metabolism, neurogenetic disorders and spinal cord lesions. However, literature data reported that about 10% of children with tetraparesis show a negative/non-specific neuroradiological findings without a specific etiological cause. Aicardi Goutières Syndrome (AGS) is a genetic encephalopathy that may cause tetraparesis. Interferon signature is a reliable biomarker for AGS and could be performed in sine-causa tetraparesis. The aim of the study was to examine the type I interferon signature and AGS related-genes in children with sine causa tetraparesis, to look for misdiagnosed AGS. A secondary aim was to determine which aspects of the patient history, clinical picture and brain imaging best characterize tetraparesis due to an interferonopathy.Seven out of 78 patients affected by tetraparesis, characterized by unremarkable pre-peri-postnatal history and normal/non-specific brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were selected and underwent anamnestic data collection, clinical examination, brain imaging review, peripheral blood interferon signature and AGS-related genes analysis.At our evaluation time (mean age of 11.9 years), all the 7 patients showed spastic-dystonic tetraparesis. At clinical onset brain MRI was normal in 4 and with non-specific abnormalities in 3; at follow-up 3 patients presented with new white-matter lesions, associated with brain calcification in 1 case. Interferon signature was elevated in one subject who presented also a mutation of the IFIH1 gene.AGS should be considered in sine-causa tetraparesis. Core features of interferonopathy-related tetraparesis are: onset during first year of life, psychomotor regression with tetraparesis evolution, brain white-matter lesions with late calcifications. A positive interferon signature may be a helpful marker to select patients with spastic tetraparesis who should undergo genetic analysis for AGS.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Paresia/etiologia , Adolescente , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/sangue , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 272, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327760

RESUMO

We describe a previously healthy 14-year-old girl with acute onset autoimmune hemolytic anemia, associated with severe but transient lymphopenia during corticosteroid therapy, without infectious episodes during follow-up. After detailed investigations to rule out an underlying immunodeficiency, we detected a heterozygous ADA gene mutation. This was associated with slightly increased blood levels of adenosine and deoxyadenosine nucleotides and with reduced ADA activity in red blood cells, but within the normal range. This observation suggests that heterozygous ADA mutation might be a predisposing factor for lymphopenia in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy.

18.
J Exp Med ; 215(10): 2567-2585, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143481

RESUMO

Life-threatening pulmonary influenza can be caused by inborn errors of type I and III IFN immunity. We report a 5-yr-old child with severe pulmonary influenza at 2 yr. She is homozygous for a loss-of-function IRF9 allele. Her cells activate gamma-activated factor (GAF) STAT1 homodimers but not IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) trimers (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9) in response to IFN-α2b. The transcriptome induced by IFN-α2b in the patient's cells is much narrower than that of control cells; however, induction of a subset of IFN-stimulated gene transcripts remains detectable. In vitro, the patient's cells do not control three respiratory viruses, influenza A virus (IAV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). These phenotypes are rescued by wild-type IRF9, whereas silencing IRF9 expression in control cells increases viral replication. However, the child has controlled various common viruses in vivo, including respiratory viruses other than IAV. Our findings show that human IRF9- and ISGF3-dependent type I and III IFN responsive pathways are essential for controlling IAV.

19.
Clin Immunol ; 195: 59-66, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053428

RESUMO

X-linked hyper IgM Syndrome (XLHIGM), the most frequent form of the Hyper IgM syndromes is a primary immune deficiency resulting from a mutation in the CD40 ligand gene (CD40LG). We analyzed the clinical and laboratory features of ten patients with XLHIGM, who were diagnosed at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Most common infections were sinopulmonary infections (80%) and diarrhea (50%). Sclerosing cholangitis and necrotising fasciitis were noted in one patient each. Three novel mutations in CD40LG (c.429_429 delA, p. G144DfsX5; c.500 G > A, p.G167E and c.156 G > C, p.K52 N) were detected. In addition, we found one missense mutation, two splice site mutations and two large deletions, which have been previously reported. Four (4) patients had expired at the time of analysis. We report the first series of XLHIGM from North India where we have documented unique features such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and infections with Mycobacterium sp.

20.
Clin Immunol ; 191: 75-80, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548898

RESUMO

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is a rare primary immunodeficiency due to mutations in the gene encoding for the common ß-chain of the ß2 integrin family (CD18). Herein, we describe clinical manifestations and long-term complications of eight LAD-1 patients. Four LAD-1 patients were treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), while the remaining four, including two with moderate LAD-1 deficiency, received continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Untreated patients presented numerous infections and autoimmune manifestations. In particular, two of them developed renal and intestinal autoimmune diseases, despite the expression of Beta-2 integrin was partially conserved. Other two LAD-1 patients developed type 1 diabetes and autoimmune cytopenia after HSCT, suggesting that HSCT is effective for preventing infections in LAD-1, but does not prevent the risk of the autoimmune complications.

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