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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 582376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224144

RESUMO

X-linked Agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a rare genetic disorder of B-lymphocyte differentiation, characterized by the absence or paucity of circulating B cells, markedly reduced levels of all serum immunoglobulin isotypes and lack of specific antibody production. Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) gene encodes a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase involved in the B cell maturation and its mutation, blocking B cell differentiation at the pre-B cell stage, and is responsible for XLA. All domains may be affected by the mutation, and the many genotypes are associated with a wide range of clinical presentations. Little is known about genotype-phenotype correlation in this disorder, and factors influencing the phenotype of XLA are not clearly understood. In this report we present a unique case of a young patient affected by XLA. The disease was genetically diagnosed at birth due to a family history of XLA, but during follow up, it was characterized by a CD19+ B cell percentage consistently greater than 2%. He never suffered severe infections, but at two years of age, he developed persistent rhinitis. Thus, total serum IgE levels were measured and detected over the normal range, and specific allergic investigations showed sensitization to dust mites. Further immunological tests (BTK expression, functional "in vitro" B cell proliferation upon CpG stimulation, B cell subset analysis) explained these findings as possible manifestations of a mild XLA phenotype. XLA patients rarely present with allergic manifestations, which could warrant further investigation. High serum IgE levels could be a sign of a mild phenotype, but their role and the mechanisms underlying their production in XLA need to be clarified.

2.
Stem Cell Res ; 49: 102007, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010677

RESUMO

We have generated new disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from skin fibroblasts obtained from a female patient with Joubert syndrome (JS) caused by compound heterozygous mutations in C5orf42 gene. The generated iPSCs offer an unprecedented opportunity to obtain iPSC-derived neurons to investigate the pathogenesis of JS in vitro and to develop therapeutic strategies.

3.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080915

RESUMO

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome 1 (APDS-1) is a recently described inborn error of immunity caused by monoallelic gain-of-function mutations in the PIK3CD gene. We reviewed for the first time medical records and laboratory data of eight Italian APDS-1 patients. Recurrent sinopulmonary infections were the most common clinical feature at onset of disease. Seven patients presented lymphoproliferative disease, at onset or during follow-up, one of which resembled hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Genetic analysis of the PIK3CD gene revealed three novel mutations: functional testing confirmed their activating nature. In the remaining patients, the previously reported variants p.E1021K (n = 4) and p.E525A (n = 1) were identified. Six patients were started on immunoglobulin replacement treatment (IgRT). One patient successfully underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with good chimerism and no GVHD at 21 months post-HSCT. APDS-1 is a combined immune deficiency with a wide variety of clinical manifestations and a complex immunological presentation. Besides IgRT, specific therapies targeting the PI3Kδ pathway will most likely become a valid aid for the amelioration of patients' clinical management and their quality of life.

4.
Minerva Pediatr ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960006

RESUMO

Inborn errors of immunity are diseases of the immune system resulting from germline mutations that alter the expression of encoded proteins or molecules. Total updated number of these distinct disorders is currently 406, with 430 different identified gene defects involved. Studies of the underlying mechanisms have contributed in better understanding the pathophysiology of the diseases, but also the complexity of the biology of the innate and adaptive immune system and its interaction with microbes. In this review we present and 24 briefly discuss Inborn Errors of Immunity caused by defects in genes encoding for receptors and protein of cellular membrane, including cytokine receptors, T cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex, cellular surface receptors or receptors signaling causing predominantly antibody deficiencies, co-stimulatory receptors and other surface molecules. These alterations impact many different biological processes of immune-system cells, including development, proliferation, activation and down-regulation of the immunological response, and result in a variety of different diseases that can present with distinct clinical features but also with overlapping signs and symptoms.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676075

RESUMO

Interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNγR1) deficiency is one of the inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD). This molecular circuit plays a crucial role in regulating the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes, thus affecting DCs activation, maturation, and priming of T cells involved in the immune response against intracellular pathogens. We studied a girl who developed at the age of 2.5 years a Mycobacterium avium infection characterized by disseminated necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis, and we compared her findings with other patients with the same genetic condition. The patient carried a heterozygous 818del4 mutation in the IFNGR1 gene responsible of autosomal dominant (AD) partial IFNγR1 deficiency. During the acute infection blood cells immunophenotyping showed a marked reduction in DCs counts, including both myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs) subsets, that reversed after successful prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Histology of her abdomen lymph node revealed a profound depletion of tissue pDCs, as compared to other age-matched granulomatous lymphadenitis of mycobacterial origin. Circulating DCs depletion was also observed in another patient with AD partial IFNγR1 deficiency during mycobacterial infection. To conclude, AD partial IFNγR1 deficiency can be associated with a transient decrease in both circulating and tissular DCs during acute mycobacterial infection, suggesting that DCs counts monitoring might constitute a useful marker of treatment response.

7.
J Leukoc Biol ; 108(2): 739-748, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392633

RESUMO

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) caused by full mutation of the IL2RG gene leads to T- B+ NK- phenotype and is usually associated with severe opportunistic infections, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. When IL2RG hypomorphic mutation occurs, diagnosis could be delayed and challenging since only moderate reduction of T and NK cells may be present. Here, we explored phenotypic insights and the impact of the p.R222C hypomorphic mutation (IL2RGR222C ) in distinct cell subsets in an 8-month-old patient with atypical X-SCID. We found reduced CD4+ T cell counts, a decreased frequency of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and an expansion of B cells. Ex vivo STAT5 phosphorylation was impaired in CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells, yet compensated by supraphysiological doses of IL-2. Sanger sequencing on purified cell subsets showed a partial reversion of the mutation in total CD3+ cells, specifically in recent thymic emigrants (RTE), effector memory (EM), and CD45RA+ terminally differentiated EM (EMRA) CD4+ T cells. Of note, patient's NK cells had a normal frequency compared to age-matched healthy subjects, but displayed an expansion of CD56bright cells with higher perforin content and cytotoxic potential, associated with accumulation of NK-cell stimulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15). Overall, this report highlights an alteration in the NK-cell compartment that, together with the high disease-phenotype variability, should be considered in the suspicion of X-SCID with hypomorphic IL2RG mutation.

8.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(2): 358-367, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243572

RESUMO

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) are inherited disorders of immunity with prevalent neurological phenotype. Available treatments are only partially effective, and the prognosis is poor. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are obtained by reprogramming patient somatic cells, preserving the donor individual genetic heritage and creating patient-specific disease models, useful to investigate pathogenesis and drug effects and to develop precision therapies. The aim is to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of immunomodulators using iPSCs of patients with AT or different forms of AGS (AGS1, AGS2, and AGS7). iPSCs were obtained by reprogramming AT and AGS patients' cells and, as a control, the BJ normal human fibroblast line, using Sendai virus. Cytotoxic effects of two drugs proposed to treat respectively AT and AGS (dexamethasone and mepacrine) were tested by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay after 72 hours' exposure. Data were obtained also for other immunomodulatory drugs (thioguanine, mercaptopurine, thalidomide, and lenalidomide). Relative expression of genes involved in the tested drug pathways was analyzed. AGS7-derived iPSCs displayed altered viability when treated with a low dose of mepacrine and higher expression of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase, which is the main target for mepacrine action. AGS7-derived iPSCs were also more sensitive to thioguanine, while AGS2 and AT iPSCs were less sensitive to this medication than the BJ-iPSC. All iPSCs were equally sensitive to mercaptopurine and resistant to dexamethasone, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. This work establishes an innovative in vitro model that is useful to investigate the mechanisms of drugs potentially effective in AT and AGS.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1165-1179.e11, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe early-onset erythroderma and gut inflammation, with massive tissue infiltration of oligoclonal activated T cells are the hallmark of Omenn syndrome (OS). OBJECTIVE: The impact of altered gut homeostasis in the cutaneous manifestations of OS remains to be clarified. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 15 patients with OS and the 129Sv/C57BL/6 knock-in Rag2R229Q/R229Q (Rag2R229Q) mouse model. Homing phenotypes of circulating lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were examined in the sera by ELISA and in skin biopsies by immunohistochemistry and in situ RNA hybridization. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by dextran sulfate sodium salt. RESULTS: We show that memory/activated T cells from patients with OS and from the Rag2R229Q mouse model of OS abundantly express the skin homing receptors cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen and CCR4 (Ccr4), associated with high levels of chemokine C-C motif ligands 17 and 22. Serum levels of LPS are also elevated. A broad Th1/Th2/Th17 inflammatory signature is detected in the periphery and in the skin. Increased Tlr4 expression in the skin of Rag2R229Q mice is associated with enhanced cutaneous inflammation on local and systemic administration of LPS. Likewise, boosting colitis in Rag2R229Q mice results in increased frequency of Ccr4+ splenic T cells and worsening of skin inflammation, as indicated by epidermal thickening, enhanced epithelial cell activation, and dermal infiltration by Th1 effector T cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the existence of an interplay between gut and skin that can sustain skin inflammation in OS.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(2): 429-437, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is the prototype of primary humoral immunodeficiencies. Long-term follow-up studies regarding disease-related complications and outcome are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the natural history of XLA. METHODS: A nationwide multicenter study based on the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry was established in 2000 in Italy. Affected patients were enrolled by documenting centers, and the patients' laboratory, clinical, and imaging data were recorded on an annual base. RESULTS: Data on the patients (N = 168) were derived from a cumulative follow-up of 1370 patient-years, with a mean follow-up of 8.35 years per patient. The mean age at diagnosis decreased after establishment of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry (84 months before vs 23 months after). Respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal manifestations were the most frequent clinical symptoms at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up. Regular immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduced the incidence of invasive infections. Affected patients developed chronic lung disease over time (47% after 40 years of follow-up) in the presence of chronic sinusitis (84%). Malignancies were documented in a minority of cases (3.7%). Overall survival for affected patients was significantly reduced when compared with that for the healthy male Italian population, and it further deteriorated in the presence of chronic lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed long-term follow-up study for patients with XLA, revealing that although immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduces the incidence of invasive infections, it does not appear to influence the development of chronic lung disease. The overall survival of affected patients is reduced. Further studies are warranted to improve patients' clinical management and increase awareness among physicians.

11.
Sci Immunol ; 5(44)2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111619

RESUMO

We investigated the molecular and cellular basis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in six patients with otofaciocervical syndrome type 2 who failed to attain T cell reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, despite successful engraftment in three of them. We identified rare biallelic PAX1 rare variants in all patients. We demonstrated that these mutant PAX1 proteins have an altered conformation and flexibility of the paired box domain and reduced transcriptional activity. We generated patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and differentiated them into thymic epithelial progenitor cells and found that they have an altered transcriptional profile, including for genes involved in the development of the thymus and other tissues derived from pharyngeal pouches. These results identify biallelic, loss-of-function PAX1 mutations as the cause of a syndromic form of SCID due to altered thymus development.

12.
Stem Cell Res ; 42: 101660, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794943

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a rare inherited disorder leading to increased bone density with impairment in bone resorption. Among the genes responsible for ARO, the TCIRG1 gene, coding for the a3 subunit of the osteoclast proton pump, is mutated in more than 50% of the cases, increasing the importance of TCIRG1-iPSCs as disease model. We generated 3 iPSC clones derived from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) of a patient carrying the heterozygous mutations p.Y512X and c.2236 + 1G > A. A Sendai virus-based vector was used and the iPSCs were characterized for genetic identity to parental cells, genomic integrity, pluripotency, and differentiation ability.

13.
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) ; 10(1): 213-220, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691923

RESUMO

We report a rare case of a newborn male affected by incontinentia pigmenti, Klinefelter syndrome, and aplasia cutis congenita, who developed severe cutaneous, neurological, and ophthalmological manifestations. Genetic analysis showed the presence of the common mutation of NEMO (exon 4-10 deletion), Klinefelter syndrome karyotype (47 XXY), and random X inactivation. This is in accordance with the severity of involvement of the affected tissues (skin, central nervous system, and retina). Indeed, the patient developed typical skin lesions all over the body, except the head. Equally, multiple lesions diffusely involving both the cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres were observed. Discussing current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis of skin and brain lesions in incontinentia pigmenti, our case seems to support the proapoptotic origin of central nervous system involvement. Possibly, incontinentia pigmenti patients suffer an impaired protection against apoptosis at the level of cerebral endothelial cells of small vessels, leading to vascular damage and subsequent ischemic brain lesions.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744133

RESUMO

We report the first case, to our knowledge, in Italy, of a severe combined immunodeficiency patient with a persistent rotavirus infection due to a vaccine derived strain. Rotavirus was detected by enzyme immunoassays and RT-PCR in stool specimens for five months. The persistent infection was resolved after complete immune reconstitution achieved by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This case underlines the importance of neonatal SCID_screening.

15.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101620, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678772

RESUMO

We report the generation of three isogenic iPSC clones (UNIBSi007-A, UNIBSi007-B, and UNIBSi007-C) obtained from fibroblasts of a patient with Aicardi Goutières Syndrome (AGS) carrying a homozygous mutation in RNaseH2B. Cells were transduced using a Sendai virus based system, delivering the human OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 transcription factors. The resulting transgene-free iPSC lines retained the disease-causing DNA mutation, showed normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent markers and could differentiate in vitro toward cells of the three embryonic germ layers.

16.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101623, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698194

RESUMO

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an early-onset monogenic encephalopathy characterized by intracranial calcification, leukodystrophy and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, seven genes have been related to AGS. Among these, IFIH1 encodes for MDA5, a cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor, and is responsible for AGS type 7. We generated three isogenic iPSC clones, using a Sendai virus-based vector, starting from fibroblasts of a patient carrying a dominant mutation in IFIH1. All lines were characterized for genomic integrity, genetic uniqueness, pluripotency, and differentiation capability. Our clones might offer a good model to investigate AGS7 pathophysiological mechanism and to discover new biomarkers for this condition treatment.

17.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101580, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644995

RESUMO

Fibroblasts from a patient with Aicardi Goutières Syndrome (AGS) carrying a compound heterozygous mutation in TREX1, were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to establish isogenic clonal stem cell lines: UNIBSi006-A, UNIBSi006-B, and UNIBSi006-C. Cells were transduced using the episomal Sendai viral vectors, containing human OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 transcription factors. The transgene-free iPSC lines showed normal karyotype, expressed pluripotent markers and displayed in vitro differentiation potential toward cells of the three embryonic germ layers.

18.
Stem Cell Res ; 40: 101548, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536868

RESUMO

Crohn's disease is a debilitating and incurable chronic inflammatory bowel disease, affecting millions of individuals worldwide, with an increasing frequency. Surgery must be applicable in half of the cases often with a disabling course, and pharmacological treatments may have adverse complications. We generated three isogenic clones of iPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a patient with Crohn's Disease under pharmacological treatment without adverse effects. Sendai virus based vector was used and the iPSCs were characterized for genetic uniqueness, genomic integrity, pluripotency, and differentiation ability. These iPSCs will be a powerful tool to develop tailored therapies.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

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