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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264381, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231042

RESUMO

The reproductive success of animals breeding in cities is often lower compared to counterparts that inhabit rural, suburban, and peri-urban areas. Urban dwelling may be especially costly for offspring development and survival. Diet composition and diversity may underlie factors that lead to lower fitness, particularly if prey abundance and quality decline in modified environments. Moreover, breeding success may change over the course of a season, an effect that may be augmented in urban areas. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that habitat and date affected nestling house wren (Troglodytes aedon) body condition and survival, and examined whether diet explained differences in nestling success. We monitored urban and rural populations of house wrens breeding in nest boxes, and tested whether clutch size, nestling survivorship, and nestling body condition varied by habitat or by date, and then characterized the diet of a subset of nestlings with DNA metabarcoding of fecal samples. Urbanization had clear impacts on house wren nestling fitness: urban broods contained fewer, smaller nestlings. Early nestling survival decreased as the breeding season progressed, and this effect was more pronounced in the urban population. However, the diets of urban and rural nestlings were similar and did not explain differences in body condition. Instead, across populations, diet changed with date, becoming less diverse, with fewer Lepidoptera and more Orthoptera. Regardless of habitat, adult house wrens provide nestlings with similar types of foods, but other factors, such as quantity or quality of prey delivered, may lead to fitness disparities between urban and rural nestlings.


Assuntos
Dieta , Aves Canoras , Animais , Cidades , Tamanho da Ninhada , Urbanização
2.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210377, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520683

RESUMO

Yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia) use referential 'seet' calls to warn mates of brood parasitic brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). In response to seet calls during the day, female warblers swiftly move to sit tightly on their nests, which may prevent parasitism by physically blocking female cowbirds from inspecting and laying in the nest. However, cowbirds lay their eggs just prior to sunrise, not during daytime. We experimentally tested whether female warblers, warned by seet calls on one day, extend their anti-parasitic responses into the future by engaging in vigilance at sunrise on the next day, when parasitism may occur. As predicted, daytime seet call playbacks caused female warblers to leave their nests less often on the following morning, relative to playbacks of both their generic anti-predator calls and silent controls. Thus, referential calls do not only convey the identity or the type of threat at present but also elicit vigilance in the future to provide protection from threats during periods of heightened vulnerability.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Feminino , Comportamento de Nidação
3.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 143, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235851

RESUMO

Referential alarm calls occur across taxa to warn of specific predator types. However, referential calls may also denote other types of dangers. Yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia) produce "seet" calls specifically to warn conspecifics of obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), which lay their eggs in the warblers' and other species' nests. Sympatric hosts of cowbirds that do not have referential alarm calls may eavesdrop on the yellow warbler's seet call as a warning system for brood parasites. Using playback presentations, we found that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) eavesdrop on seet calls of yellow warblers, and respond as much to seet calls as to cowbird chatters and predator calls. Red-winged blackbirds appear to eavesdrop on seets as warning system to boost frontline defenses on their territories, although they do not seem to perceive the warblers' seets as a cue for parasitism per se, but rather for general danger to the nest.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento de Nidação , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Masculino
4.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220576, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365593

RESUMO

Anthropogenic noise decreases signal active space, or the area over which male bird song can be detected in the environment. For territorial males, noise may make it more difficult to detect and assess territorial challenges, which in turn may increase defense costs and influence whether males maintain territory ownership. We tested the hypothesis that noise affects the ability of male house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) near active nests to detect intruders and alters responses to them. We broadcast pre-recorded male song and pink noise on territories to simulate intrusions with and without noise, as well as to noise alone. We measured detection by how long males took to sing or approach the speaker after the start of a playback. To measure whether playbacks changed male behavior, we compared their vocal responses before and during treatments, as well as compared mean vocal responses and the number of flyovers and attacks on the speaker during treatments. Noise did not affect a male's ability to detect an intruder on his territory. Males altered their responses to simulated intruders with and without noise compared to the noise-only treatment by singing longer songs at faster rates. Males increased peak frequency of songs during intrusions without noise compared to noise-only treatments, but frequency during intruder plus noise treatments did not differ from either. When confronting simulated intruders in noise, males increased the number of attacks on the speaker compared to intruders without noise, possibly because they were less able to assess intruders via songs and relied on close encounters for information. Although noise did not affect intruder detection, noise affected some aspects of singing and aggressive responses, which may be related to the challenge of discriminating and assessing territorial threats under elevated noise.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Ruído , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Atividade Motora
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 627: 1234-1241, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857088

RESUMO

The widespread use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine to treat pathogenic bacteria has resulted in the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). Wild animals may enable the spread of pathogenic and non-pathogenic ARB when they are exposed to reservoirs (e.g., contaminated soil, water, or crops) and carry ARB in and on their bodies to other environments. We tested for the presence of ARB in four songbird species in southwest Michigan across a gradient of land use. Our specific objectives were to: 1) quantify the prevalence of ARB found in the gut microbiome of birds; 2) identify the specific bacteria exhibiting resistance; 3) assess whether ARB prevalence and identity varied among bird species; and 4) assess whether anthropogenic land use influenced the prevalence and identity of ARB found on birds. We sampled birds across a land use gradient consisting of urban, agricultural, and natural land covers using a randomized, spatially-balanced sampling design and cultured bacteria from fecal samples in the presence of three different antibiotics (amoxicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin). Overall prevalence of ARB was high, with 88% of total birds carrying ARB resistant to one of three antibiotics that we tested. Resistance to amoxicillin was more common (83% of sampled birds) than resistance to tetracycline (15%) or ciprofloxacin (1%). Identified ARB were diverse, and included 135 isolates representing 5 bacterial phyla and 22 genera. There was no effect of land use on ARB prevalence, with 90% of sampled birds captured in rural sites and 85% of sampled birds in urban sites carrying ARB. We provide the first analysis of ARB prevalence across multiple bird species and land uses utilizing a spatially-balanced, randomized study design. Our results demonstrate that nearly all sampled birds carried at least some ARB, and that they may serve as important dispersal agents of ARB across large spatial scales.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aves Canoras/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos , Cidades , Michigan
6.
Parasitol Res ; 117(2): 471-489, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282527

RESUMO

Avian blood parasites from the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon (Haemosporida) affect hosts in numerous ways. They influence species interactions, host behavior, reproductive success, and cause pathology and mortality in birds. The Great Lakes region of North America has extensive aquatic and wetland habitat and supports a diverse vector community. Here we describe the community of bird-infecting Haemosporida in southwest Michigan and their host associations by measuring parasite prevalence, diversity, and host breadth across a diverse community of avian hosts. Over 700 songbirds of 55 species were screened for Haemosporida infection across southwest Michigan, including 11 species that were targeted for larger sample sizes. In total, 71 parasite lineages infected over 40% of birds. Of these, 42 were novel, yet richness estimates suggest that approximately half of the actual parasite diversity in the host community was observed despite intensive sampling of multiple host species. Parasite prevalence varied among parasite genera (7-24%) and target host species (0-85%), and parasite diversity was consistently high across most target species. Host breadth varied widely across the most prevalent parasite lineages, and we detected around 60% of host species richness for these parasite lineages. We report many new lineages and novel host-parasite associations, but substantial parasite diversity remains undiscovered in the Midwest.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Michigan , América do Norte , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 599-600: 1191-1201, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514837

RESUMO

Continuous and intermittent noise may have different effects on humans and wildlife, therefore distinguishing temporal patterns of noise and their drivers is important for policy regarding both public health and wildlife management. We visualized patterns and explored land-use drivers of continuous and high-amplitude intermittent sound pressure levels (SPLs) on an urban campus in Michigan, U.S.A. To visualize patterns of SPLs, we introduce decibel duration curves (DDCs), which show the cumulative frequency distribution of SPLs and aid in the interpretation of statistical SPLs (Ln values) that reflect continuous versus intermittent sounds. DDCs and Ln values reveal that our 24 recording locations varied in the intensity of both continuous and intermittent noise, with intermittent high-amplitude sound events in particular contributing to variability in SPLs over the study site. Time of day influenced both continuous and intermittent SPLs, as locations relatively close to manmade structures (buildings, roads and parking lots) experienced higher SPLs as the day progressed. Continuous SPLs increased with decreasing distance to manmade structures, whereas intermittent SPLs increased with decreasing distance to roads and increasing distance to buildings. Thus, different land-use factors influenced patterns of continuous and intermittent noise, which suggests that different policy and strategies may be needed to ameliorate their effects on the public and wildlife.

8.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159883, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467503

RESUMO

Animals select and use habitats based on environmental features relevant to their ecology and behavior. For animals that use acoustic communication, the sound environment itself may be a critical feature, yet acoustic characteristics are not commonly measured when describing habitats and as a result, how habitats vary acoustically over space and time is poorly known. Such considerations are timely, given worldwide increases in anthropogenic noise combined with rapidly accumulating evidence that noise hampers the ability of animals to detect and interpret natural sounds. Here, we used microphone arrays to record the sound environment in three terrestrial habitats (forest, prairie, and urban) under ambient conditions and during experimental noise introductions. We mapped sound pressure levels (SPLs) over spatial scales relevant to diverse taxa to explore spatial variation in acoustic habitats and to evaluate the number of microphones needed within arrays to capture this variation under both ambient and noisy conditions. Even at small spatial scales and over relatively short time spans, SPLs varied considerably, especially in forest and urban habitats, suggesting that quantifying and mapping acoustic features could improve habitat descriptions. Subset maps based on input from 4, 8, 12 and 16 microphones differed slightly (< 2 dBA/pixel) from those based on full arrays of 24 microphones under ambient conditions across habitats. Map differences were more pronounced with noise introductions, particularly in forests; maps made from only 4-microphones differed more (> 4 dBA/pixel) from full maps than the remaining subset maps, but maps with input from eight microphones resulted in smaller differences. Thus, acoustic environments varied over small spatial scales and variation could be mapped with input from 4-8 microphones. Mapping sound in different environments will improve understanding of acoustic environments and allow us to explore the influence of spatial variation in sound on animal ecology and behavior.


Assuntos
Acústica , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Espectrografia do Som
9.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 157(3): 241-8, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18571172

RESUMO

Comparative research on natural populations of vertebrates, in particular avian species, has been instrumental in documenting the existence of interspecific variation in the hormonal regulation of behavior. Studies on tropical birds, which tend to experience ecological conditions that diverge from those of higher latitude birds, have been invaluable in showcasing such variation. Here we review recent advances in tropical avian field endocrinology, focusing on male circulating testosterone concentrations during the breeding season. We summarize the evidence for a decrease in male circulating testosterone concentrations from high towards low latitudes. We revisit both established and recently proposed ecological hypotheses that attempt to explain the existence of this pattern, as well as the variation in testosterone concentrations and dynamics within tropical populations of birds. We highlight additional social and life history variables that may need to be considered if we aim at gaining an integrated understanding of the ultimate factors that influence the relationship between hormonal signals and behavioral traits in natural populations. Understanding the ecological factors that influence circulating hormone concentrations will be an important first step in our understanding of the evolutionary processes that are at the basis of variations in hormone-behavior connections. Such findings should be supplemented by studies on functional aspects of the testosterone signal at the organismal and cellular level.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Aves/sangue , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Testosterona/sangue , Clima Tropical , Animais , Masculino
10.
Horm Behav ; 54(1): 115-24, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18377906

RESUMO

The challenge hypothesis poses that in socially monogamous vertebrates, males increase circulating testosterone in response to aggressive challenges to promote intense and persistent aggression. However, in bird species that raise only a single brood during short breeding seasons as well as those with essential male parental care, males lack the well-documented testosterone response to social challenges. We tested male behavioral and hormonal responses to social challenges in a neotropical bird species, the buff-breasted wren (Thryothorus leucotis), which is single-brooded with extensive male parental care, but in contrast to most species studied to date, has a long breeding season. We presented live female, male, and paired decoys with song playback for 30 min during pre-breeding and breeding periods. Males responded aggressively to all intruders, but male decoys elicited somewhat weaker responses overall. Responses to female decoys were most intense during pre-breeding, whereas pair decoys elicited stronger responses at breeding. Plasma testosterone concentrations did not differ between challenged and unchallenged males, or among males exposed to different decoys or during different seasons. Plasma corticosterone in pre-breeding males was higher in challenged than unchallenged males and varied positively with the duration of social challenge. Circulating dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations were similar in challenged and unchallenged males, but correlated positively with the proportion of time males spent in close proximity to the decoy. Both testosterone and corticosterone results support recent findings, suggesting that brood number and essential male care, but not breeding-season length, may be important determinants of male hormonal responsiveness during aggressive interactions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Aves Canoras/sangue , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Clima Tropical , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ligação do Par , Comportamento Paterno , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/metabolismo , Territorialidade , Testosterona/metabolismo
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 274(1622): 2187-94, 2007 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17609184

RESUMO

Testosterone promotes aggressive behaviour in male vertebrates during the breeding season, but the importance of testosterone in female aggression remains unclear. Testosterone has both beneficial and detrimental effects on behaviour and physiology, prompting the hypothesis that selection favours an association between aggression and testosterone only in certain contexts in which intense or persistent aggression may be beneficial. We tested this hypothesis in a year-round territorial female buff-breasted wrens (Thryothorus leucotis), by exposing free-living females to experimental intrusions in different social (either single female or male, or paired decoys) and seasonal (pre-breeding or breeding) contexts. Females responded more aggressively to intrusions by females and pairs than to males. However, female intrusions elicited stronger responses during pre-breeding, whereas responses to pair intrusions were more intense during breeding. Territorial females had elevated testosterone levels after female intrusions and intermediate levels after pair intrusions during pre-breeding, but the levels of testosterone remained low after these intrusions during breeding. These results demonstrate seasonal differences in circulating testosterone following territorial aggression in female buff-breasted wrens and are suggestive of differences according to social context as well. Context-dependent elevation of testosterone implies that selection acts directly on female vertebrates to shape patterns of testosterone secretion.


Assuntos
Agressão , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Testosterona/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Aves Canoras/sangue , Testosterona/sangue
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