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1.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(12): 3419-3431, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714061

RESUMO

Airborne particles are very dynamic and highly reactive components of the Earth's atmosphere. Their high surface area and water content provide a unique reaction environment for multiphase chemistry that continually modifies particle composition and properties that consequently impact air quality as well as concentrations of gas-phase species. By absorbing and scattering solar and terrestrial radiation, particles directly influence the planet's radiative balance. Their indirect effects include modifying the nucleation, lifetime, and physical properties of clouds. Due to the sensitivity of the atmospheric environment to all these variables, fundamental studies of chemical transformations of atmospheric particles, their sources, continuously evolving composition, and physical properties are of highest research priority. Accurate descriptions of particles and their effects in the atmosphere require comprehensive information not only on the particle-type populations and their size distributions and concentrations, but also on the diversity and the spatial heterogeneity of chemical components within individual particles. Developments and applications of modern chemical imaging approaches for off-line characterization of atmospheric particles have been at the forefront of modern experimental studies and have resulted in a transformative impact in atmospheric chemistry and physics. This Account presents a synopsis of recent advances in chemical imaging of atmospheric particles collected on substrates during field and laboratory experiments. The unique advantage of chemical imaging methods is that they simultaneously provide two analytical measurements: imaging of particles to assess variability in their individual sizes and morphology, as well as particle-specific speciation of their composition and spatial heterogeneity of different chemical components within individual particles. We also highlight analytical chemistry approaches that enable chemical imaging of particles with different levels of elemental and molecular specificity, including applications of multimodal methodologies where the same or similar groups of particles are probed by two or more complementary techniques. These approaches provide unique experimental insights on the nature and sources of particles, understanding their physical properties, atmospheric reactivity, and transformations. Chemical imaging data provide unique experimental input for atmospheric models that simulate aging and changes in particle-type populations, internal composition, and their associated optical and cloud forming properties. We highlight applications of chemical imaging in selected recent studies, discuss their existing limitations, and forecast future research directions for this area.

2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4793, 2018 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451836

RESUMO

In the Amazon basin, particles containing mixed sodium salts are routinely observed and are attributed to marine aerosols transported from the Atlantic Ocean. Using chemical imaging analysis, we show that, during the wet season, fungal spores emitted by the forest biosphere contribute at least 30% (by number) to sodium salt particles in the central Amazon basin. Hydration experiments indicate that sodium content in fungal spores governs their growth factors. Modeling results suggest that fungal spores account for ~69% (31-95%) of the total sodium mass during the wet season and that their fractional contribution increases during nighttime. Contrary to common assumptions that sodium-containing aerosols originate primarily from marine sources, our results suggest that locally-emitted fungal spores contribute substantially to the number and mass of coarse particles containing sodium. Hence, their role in cloud formation and contribution to salt cycles and the terrestrial ecosystem in the Amazon basin warrant further consideration.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/análise , Sódio/análise , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Aerossóis , Brasil , Ecossistema , Floresta Úmida , Estações do Ano
3.
Anal Chem ; 90(16): 9761-9768, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008222

RESUMO

Environmental transmission electron microscopy was employed to probe transformations in the size, morphology, and composition of individual atmospheric particles as a function of temperature. Two different heating devices were used and calibrated in this work: a furnace heater and a Micro Electro Mechanical System heater. The temperature calibration used sublimation temperatures of NaCl, glucose, and ammonium sulfate particles, and the melting temperature of tin. Volatilization of Suwanee River Fulvic Acid was further used to validate the calibration up to 800 °C. The calibrated furnace holder was used to examine both laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosol particles and field-collected atmospheric particles. Chemical analysis by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge fine-structure spectroscopy of the organic particles at different heating steps showed that above 300 °C particle volatilization was accompanied by charring. These methods were then applied to ambient particles collected in the central Amazon region. Distinct categories of particles differed in their volatilization response to heating. Spherical, more-viscous particles lost less volume during heating than particles that spread on the imaging substrate during impaction, due to either being liquid upon impaction or lower viscosity. This methodology illustrates a new analytical approach to accurately measure the volume fraction remaining for individually tracked atmospheric particles at elevated temperatures.

4.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 165-194, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574555

RESUMO

Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective Tg and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(45): 12643-12648, 2016 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27791063

RESUMO

The energy flows in Earth's natural and modified climate systems are strongly influenced by the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). For predictions of concentration, equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between organic PM and the surrounding vapor has widely been assumed, yet recent observations show that organic PM can be semisolid or solid for some atmospheric conditions, possibly suggesting that SVOC uptake and release can be slow enough that equilibrium does not prevail on timescales relevant to atmospheric processes. Herein, in a series of laboratory experiments, the mass labilities of films of secondary organic material representative of similar atmospheric organic PM were directly determined by quartz crystal microbalance measurements of evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations. There were strong differences between films representative of anthropogenic compared with biogenic sources. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH) between 20% and 30%, indicating rapid partitioning above a transition RH but not below. Below the threshold, the characteristic time for equilibration is estimated as up to 1 wk for a typically sized particle. In contrast, for films representing biogenic PM, no RH threshold was observed, suggesting equilibrium partitioning is rapidly obtained for all RHs. The effective diffusion rate Dorg for the biogenic case is at least 103 times greater than that of the anthropogenic case. These differences should be accounted for in the interpretation of laboratory data as well as in modeling of organic PM in Earth's atmosphere.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(22): 12179-12186, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749043

RESUMO

Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and may influence the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicrometer size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of new particle formation in Amazonia.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Esporos Fúngicos , Alérgenos , Fungos , Pólen
7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(43): 29721-29731, 2016 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722496

RESUMO

Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a physical chemistry process of critical relevance to a range of topics in the fundamental and applied sciences and technologies. Heterogeneous ice nucleation remains insufficiently understood, partially due to the lack of experimental methods capable of obtaining in situ microscopic details of ice formation over nucleating substrates or particles. We present microscopic observations of ice nucleation events on kaolinite particles at the nanoscale and demonstrate the capability of direct tracking and micro-spectroscopic characterization of individual ice nucleating particles (INPs) in an authentic atmospheric sample. This approach utilizes a custom-built ice nucleation cell, interfaced with an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (IN-ESEM platform) operated at temperatures and relative humidities relevant for heterogeneous ice nucleation. The IN-ESEM platform allows dynamic observations of individual ice formation events over particles in isobaric and isothermal experiments. Isothermal experiments on individual kaolinite particles demonstrate that ice crystals preferably nucleate at the edges of the stacked kaolinite platelets, rather than on their basal planes. These experimental observations of the location of ice nucleation provide direct information for further theoretical chemistry predictions of ice formation on kaolinite.

8.
Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) ; 9(1): 117-43, 2016 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306308

RESUMO

This article presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(10): 5172-80, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27088454

RESUMO

Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental composition of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state of 158 other particles from the sample broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicrometer atmospheric particles.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Partícula , Molhabilidade , Aerossóis/química , Carbono , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
10.
Soft Matter ; 12(20): 4595-602, 2016 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27104854

RESUMO

Nano-patterned materials are beneficial for applications such as solar cells, opto-electronics, and sensing owing to their periodic structure and high interfacial area. Here, we present a non-lithographic approach for assembling polyelectrolytes into periodic nanoscale patterns over cm(2)-scale areas. Chemically modified block copolymer thin films featuring alternating charged and neutral domains are used as patterned substrates for electrostatic self-assembly. In-depth characterization of the deposition process using spectroscopy and microscopy techniques, including the state-of-the-art scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), reveals both the selective deposition of the polyelectrolyte on the charged copolymer domains as well as gradual changes in the film topography that arise from further penetration of the solvent molecules and possibly also the polyelectrolyte into these domains. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of creating nano-patterned polyelectrolyte layers, which opens up new opportunities for structured functional coating fabrication.

11.
Biomaterials ; 62: 147-54, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26056725

RESUMO

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been shown to induce diverse biological effects, ranging from toxic to beneficial. The beneficial effects have been attributed to the potential antioxidant activity of CNPs via certain redox reactions, depending on their oxidation state or Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) ratio. However, this ratio is strongly dependent on the environment and age of the nanoparticles and it is unclear whether and how the complex intracellular environment impacts this ratio and the possible redox reactions of CNPs. To identify any changes in the oxidation state of CNPs in the intracellular environment and better understand their intracellular reactions, we directly quantified the oxidation states of CNPs outside and inside intact hydrated cells and organelles using correlated scanning transmission x-ray and super resolution fluorescence microscopies. By analyzing hundreds of small CNP aggregates, we detected a shift to a higher Ce(3+)/Ce(4+) ratio in CNPs inside versus outside the cells, indicating a net reduction of CNPs in the intracellular environment. We further found a similar ratio in the cytoplasm and in the lysosomes, indicating that the net reduction occurs earlier in the internalization pathway. Together with oxidative stress and toxicity measurements, our observations identify a net reduction of CNPs in the intracellular environment, which is consistent with their involvement in potentially beneficial oxidation reactions, but also point to interactions that can negatively impact the health of the cells.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Células Epiteliais/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Organelas/química , Teste de Materiais , Oxirredução
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(8): 4995-5002, 2015 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25850933

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosols can undergo phase transitions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) while responding to changes in the ambient relative humidity (RH). Here, we report results of chemical imaging experiments using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the LLPS of micrometer-sized particles undergoing a full hydration-dehydration cycle. Internally mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS) and either: limonene secondary organic carbon (LSOC), α, 4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzeneaceticacid (HMMA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) were studied. Events of LLPS were observed for all samples with both techniques. Chemical imaging with STXM showed that both LSOC/AS and HMMA/AS particles were never homogeneously mixed for all measured RH's above the deliquescence point and that the majority of the organic component was located in the outer phase. The outer phase composition was estimated as 65:35 organic: inorganic in LSOC/AS and as 50:50 organic: inorganic for HMMA/AS. PEG-400/AS particles showed fully homogeneous mixtures at high RH and phase separated below 89-92% RH with an estimated 70:30% organic to inorganic mix in the outer phase. These two chemical imaging techniques are well suited for in situ analysis of the hygroscopic behavior, phase separation, and surface composition of collected ambient aerosol particles.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Modelos Químicos , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Cicloexenos/química , Limoneno , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Transição de Fase , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Terpenos/química
13.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(19): 4498-508, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25386912

RESUMO

Constituents of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric aerosols are often mixed with inorganic components and compose a significant mass fraction of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. Interactions between SOC and other condensed-phase species are not well understood. Here, we investigate the reactions of liquid-like and semisolid SOC from ozonolysis of limonene (LSOC) and α-pinene (PSOC) with NaCl using a set of complementary microspectroscopic analyses. These reactions result in chloride depletion in the condensed phase, release of gaseous HCl, and formation of organic salts. The reactions attributed to acid displacement by SOC acidic components are driven by the high volatility of HCl. Similar reactions can take place in SOC/NaNO3 particles. The results show that an increase in SOC mass fraction in the internally mixed SOC/NaCl particles leads to higher chloride depletion. Glass transition temperatures and viscosity of PSOC were estimated for atmospherically relevant conditions. Data show that the reaction extent depends on SOC composition, particle phase state and viscosity, mixing state, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and reaction time. LSOC shows slightly higher potential to deplete chloride than PSOC. Higher particle viscosity at low temperatures and RH can hinder these acid displacement reactions. Formation of organic salts from these overlooked reactions can alter particle physiochemical properties and may affect their reactivity and ability to act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The release and potential recycling of HCl and HNO3 from reacted aerosol particles may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Carbono/química , Cloretos/química , Nitratos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Cicloexenos/química , Difusão , Gases/química , Vidro/química , Umidade , Limoneno , Monoterpenos/química , Terpenos/química , Fatores de Tempo , Temperatura de Transição , Viscosidade
14.
Nano Lett ; 14(10): 5883-90, 2014 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25222441

RESUMO

Charge carrier dynamics in Co3O4 thin films are observed using high harmonic generation transient absorption spectroscopy at the Co M2,3 edge. Results reveal that photoexcited Co3O4 decays to the ground state in 600 ± 40 ps in liquid methanol compared to 1.9 ± 0.3 ns in vacuum. Kinetic analysis suggests that surface-mediated relaxation of photoexcited Co3O4 may be the result of hole transfer from Co3O4 followed by carrier recombination at the Co3O4-methanol interface.

15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(20): 12047-55, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25233355

RESUMO

Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and microspectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene SOA (LSOA) and α-pinene SOA (PSOA). The LSOA compounds readily formed adducts with Na(+) under electrospray ionization conditions, with only a small fraction of compounds detected in the protonated form. In contrast, a significant fraction of PSOA compounds appeared in the protonated form because of their increased molecular rigidity. Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas was detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl-imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the α-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Carbono/química , Cicloexenos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Terpenos/química , Aerossóis/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Carbono/análise , Iminas/química , Isomerismo , Limoneno , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Monoterpenos/análise , Ozônio/química , Volatilização
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(70): 10144-7, 2014 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25052057

RESUMO

Spectroscopic evidence for an enhanced binding of Nitric Oxide (NO) to metal centers with lower oxidation states (open Cu(1+) sites) in Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1) is presented. The Cu(1+) sites created by thermal treatment or X-ray exposure exhibit a preferential adsorption of NO compared to H2O. This phenomenon demonstrates the potential use of MOFs with lower oxidation state metal centers for selective gas separation.

17.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(10): 104906, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24182150

RESUMO

A new technique of high-resolution micro-Raman thermometry using anatase TiO2 microparticles (0.5-3 µm) is presented. These very high spatial resolution measurements (280 nm) reveal temperature gradients even within individual microparticles. Potential applications of this technique are demonstrated by probing the temperature distribution of a micro-fabricated heater consisting of a thin silicon nitride (Si-N) membrane with a gold coil on top of the membrane. Using TiO2 microparticle micro-Raman thermometry, the temperature from the outer edge of the coil to the inner portion was measured to increase by ~40 °C. These high spatial resolution microscopic measurements were also used to measure the temperature gradient within the 20 µm wide Si-N between the gold heating coils. 2D numerical simulations of the micro heater temperature distribution are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements of the temperatures. These measurements illustrate the potential to extend applications of micro-Raman thermometry to obtain temperature details on a sub-micrometer spatial resolution by employing microparticles.

18.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(7): 073708, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23902077

RESUMO

We have designed, fabricated, and tested a compact gas-phase reactor for performing in situ soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) measurements. The reactor mounts directly to the existing sample holder used in the majority of STXM instruments around the world and installs with minimal instrument reconfiguration. The reactor accommodates many gas atmospheres, but was designed specifically to address the needs of measurements under water vapor. An on-board sensor measures the relative humidity and temperature inside the reactor, minimizing uncertainties associated with measuring these quantities outside the instrument. The reactor reduces x-ray absorption from the process gas by over 85% compared to analogous experiments with the entire STXM instrument filled with process gas. Reduced absorption by the process gas allows data collection at full instrumental resolution, minimizes radiation dose to the sample, and results in much more stable imaging conditions. The reactor is in use at the STXM instruments at beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source.

19.
Science ; 337(6098): 1075-8, 2012 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22936773

RESUMO

The fine particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei in pristine Amazonian rainforest air consist mostly of secondary organic aerosol. Their origin is enigmatic, however, because new particle formation in the atmosphere is not observed. Here, we show that the growth of organic aerosol particles can be initiated by potassium-salt-rich particles emitted by biota in the rainforest. These particles act as seeds for the condensation of low- or semi-volatile organic compounds from the atmospheric gas phase or multiphase oxidation of isoprene and terpenes. Our findings suggest that the primary emission of biogenic salt particles directly influences the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei and affects the microphysics of cloud formation and precipitation over the rainforest.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Material Particulado/química , Potássio/química , Chuva/química , Árvores/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Sais/química , América do Sul
20.
Anal Chem ; 82(19): 7906-14, 2010 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20879799

RESUMO

We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicrometer particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278 to 320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and noncarbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate the application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Carbono/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura/métodos , Algoritmos , Atmosfera , Automação , Tamanho da Partícula , Potássio/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Termodinâmica
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