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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20107, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208894

RESUMO

Our understanding of how projected climatic warming will influence the world's biota remains largely speculative, owing to the many ways in which it can directly and indirectly affect individual phenotypes. Its impact is expected to be especially severe in the tropics, where organisms have evolved in more physically stable conditions relative to temperate ecosystems. Lake Tanganyika (eastern Africa) is one ecosystem experiencing rapid warming, yet our understanding of how its diverse assemblage of endemic species will respond is incomplete. Herein, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess how anticipated future warming would affect the mirror-elicited aggressive behaviour of Julidochromis ornatus, a common endemic cichlid in Lake Tanganyika. Given linkages that have been established between temperature and individual behaviour in fish and other animals, we hypothesized that water warming would heighten average individual aggression. Our findings support this hypothesis, suggesting the potential for water warming to mediate behavioural phenotypic expression through negative effects associated with individual health (body condition). We ultimately discuss the implications of our findings for efforts aimed at understanding how continued climate warming will affect the ecology of Lake Tanganyika fishes and other tropical ectotherms.

2.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 3862949, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906330

RESUMO

Waterborne Escherichia coli are a major reservoir of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), including but not limited to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) mechanisms. This study quantified and described ESBL- and KPC-producing E. coli in Northern Colorado from sewer water, surface water, and influent and effluent wastewater treatment sources. Total detected bacteria and E. coli abundances, and the percentages that contain ESBL and/or KPC, were compared between water sources. Seventy E. coli isolates from the various waters had drug resistance validated with a panel of 17 antibiotics using a broth microdilution assay. The diverse drug resistance observed across E. coli isolates was further documented by polymerase chain reaction of common ESBL genes and functional relatedness by PhenePlate assay-generated dendrograms (n=70). The total E. coli abundance decreased through the water treatment process as expected, yet the percentages of E. coli harboring ESBL resistance were increased (1.70%) in surface water. Whole-genome sequencing analysis was completed for 185 AMR genes in wastewater E. coli isolates and confirmed the presence of diverse AMR gene classes (e.g., beta-lactams and efflux pumps) in isolate genomes. This study completed surveillance of AMR patterns in E. coli that reside in environmental water systems and suggests a role for integrating both phenotypic and genotypic profiling beyond ESBL and KPC mechanisms. AMR screening via multiple approaches may assist in the prevention of drug-resistant E. coli spread from waters to animals and humans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Colorado , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
4.
Int J STD AIDS ; 27(1): 44-50, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25681262

RESUMO

Prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan African countries persists at alarming rates. There are currently four promoted methods to prevent HIV infection: adherence to antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of condoms. This study aimed to assess the availability and accessibility of one of the prevention efforts, condoms, in Kawale, Lilongwe, Malawi. A total of 220 potential condom-selling establishments were surveyed in 2012. Data were collected with store owners or staff and locations were geocoded to assess store density. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Of those audited, 96 stores sold condoms, 13 of which distributed free condoms. The stores were most often small shops and located in markets or trading centres. Condoms were most often found at the back of the store in an open space. There were approximately 1.2 stores per » mile; 44% of the businesses in the study region carried condoms. This one method of prevention exhibited multiple barriers in this region: few stores sold condoms, high costs, condom locations within stores and limited availability. The limited accessibility is likely to influence social norms surrounding condom use. Future research should incorporate assessing norms and addressing barriers to uptake of HIV prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Preservativos/provisão & distribução , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
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