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1.
Electrophoresis ; 40(11): 1558-1564, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828828

RESUMO

Human acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2 catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl coenzyme A to form malonyl coenzyme A, along with the conversion of magnesium-adenosine triphosphate complex to magnesium-adenosine diphosphate complex. A simple off-column capillary electrophoresis assay for human acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2 was developed based on the separation of magnesium-adenosine triphosphate complex, magnesium-adenosine diphosphate complex, acetyl coenzyme A and malonyl coenzyme A with detection by ultraviolet absorption at 256 nm. When Mg2+ was absent from the separation buffer, the zones due to magnesium-adenosine triphosphate complex and magnesium-adenosine diphosphate complex both split and migrated as two separate peaks. With Mg2+ added to the separation buffer, magnesium-adenosine triphosphate complex and magnesium-adenosine diphosphate complex produced single peaks, and the reproducibility of peak shape and area improved for human acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2 assay components. The final separation buffer used was 30.0 mM HEPES, 3.0 mM MgCl2 , 2.5 mM KHCO3 , and 2.5 mM potassium citrate at pH 7.50. The same buffer was used for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction (off-column). Inhibition of human acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 2 by CP-640186, a known inhibitor, was detected using the capillary electrophoresis assay.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Tampões (Química) , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Magnésio/química , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia
2.
Anal Biochem ; 447: 1-5, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24444856

RESUMO

An assay was developed for phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) using capillary electrophoresis (CE). In the glycolytic pathway, this enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step from fructose-6-phosphate and magnesium-bound adenosine triphosphate (Mg-ATP) to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and magnesium-bound adenosine diphosphate (Mg-ADP). This enzyme has recently become a research target because of the importance of glycolysis in cancer and obesity. The CE assay for PFK-1 is based on the separation and detection by ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 260 nm of Mg-ATP and Mg-ADP. The separation was enhanced by the addition of Mg²âº to the separation buffer. Inhibition studies of PFK-1 by aurintricarboxylic acid and palmitoyl coenzyme A were also performed. An IC50 value was determined for aurintricarboxylic acid, and this value matched values in the literature obtained using coupled spectrophotometric assays. This assay for PFK-1 directly monitors the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, and the CE separation reduces the potential of spectral interference by inhibitors.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Fosfofrutoquinase-1/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fosfofrutoquinase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Coelhos
3.
Anal Biochem ; 437(1): 32-8, 2013 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23435309

RESUMO

A simple off-column capillary electrophoretic (CE) assay for measuring acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase holoenzyme (holo-ACC) activity and inhibition was developed. The two reactions catalyzed by the holo-ACC components, biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT), were simultaneously monitored in this assay. Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA), malonyl-CoA, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were separated by capillary electrophoresis, and the depletion of ATP and acetyl-CoA as well as the production of ADP and malonyl-CoA were monitored. Inhibition of holo-ACC by the BC inhibitor, 2-amino-N,N-dibenzyloxazole-5-carboxamide, and the carboxyltransferase inhibitor, andrimid, was confirmed using this assay. A previously reported off-column CE assay for only the CT component of ACC was optimized, and an off-column CE assay for the BC component of ACC also was developed.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/metabolismo , Carboxil e Carbamoil Transferases/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Holoenzimas/metabolismo
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 739: 99-103, 2012 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22819055

RESUMO

A data treatment method is presented to detect fluorescence anisotropy (FA) peaks in capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. The data treatment method converts plots of fluorescence anisotropy vs. time that contain no peaks that are distinguishable from the noise of the anisotropy background into plots that show distinct fluorescence anisotropy peaks. The method was demonstrated using laser-induced fluorescence anisotropy data from individual Aß (1-42) aggregates separated using capillary electrophoresis. Applying this data treatment method enabled the detection of anisotropy peaks for individual Aß aggregate fluorescence peaks that were not observed prior to the data treatment method. The data treatment method is not specifically designed for Aß aggregate analysis or capillary electrophoresis, and it should be applicable to other applications and other separation methods with FA detection.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/análise , Eletroforese Capilar , Polarização de Fluorescência , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Humanos , Lasers
5.
Analyst ; 137(14): 3227-9, 2012 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22575916

RESUMO

Here we report a novel method for the manipulation and concentration of Aß amyloid fibrils, implicated in Alzheimer's disease, using DC insulating gradient dielectrophoresis (DC-iGDEP). Fibril enrichment was found to be ∼400%. Simulations suggest that capture of the full range of amyloid protein aggregates is possible with optimized device design.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/isolamento & purificação , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletroforese/métodos , Multimerização Proteica , Impedância Elétrica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
6.
Electrophoresis ; 33(5): 827-33, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22437880

RESUMO

Significant changes in the formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs in a capillary during electrophoresis were studied, and it was demonstrated that these effects were due to the type of biological molecule immobilized on the surface of these beads. Three biological molecules, an antibody, an oligonucleotide, and alkaline phosphatase (AP), were attached to otherwise identical streptavidin-coated magnetic beads through biotin-avidin binding in order to isolate differences in bead immobilization in a magnetic field resulting from the type of biological molecule immobilized on the bead surface. AP was also attached to the magnetic beads using epoxy groups on the bead surfaces (instead of avidin-biotin binding) to study the impact of immobilization chemistry. The formation and retention of magnetic bead plugs were studied quantitatively using light scattering detection of magnetic particles eluting from the bead plugs and qualitatively using microscopy. Both the types of biomolecule immobilized on the magnetic bead surface and the chemistry used to link the biomolecule to the magnetic bead impacted the formation and retention of the bead plugs.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eletroforese Capilar/instrumentação , Imãs , Microesferas , Fosfatase Alcalina , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Compostos de Epóxi , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Estreptavidina
7.
Anal Biochem ; 425(2): 104-12, 2012 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22446499

RESUMO

The separation and detection of individual amyloid beta (Aß) aggregates by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) was demonstrated. Samples were prepared with either Aß (1-40) or Aß (1-42) peptides and were characterized by CE with ultraviolet (UV) absorbance detection and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using thioflavin T (ThT) in the electrophoresis buffer, electrophoresis of aggregate-containing samples (5.0-s injection) produced up to several hundred narrow (< 20 ms FWHM [full width at half maximum]) fluorescence peaks. Injection of Aß (1-40) monomer samples resulted in no additional peaks compared with controls. The CE-LIF results were validated by bulk ThT fluorescence measurements for the same samples. The potential of laser-induced fluorescence anisotropy (LIFA) with CE to characterize individual Aß aggregates also was investigated.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/análise , Eletroforese Capilar , Lasers , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/isolamento & purificação , Benzotiazóis , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Tiazóis/química
8.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 879(9-10): 627-32, 2011 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21334989

RESUMO

A method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV absorbance detection is presented to characterize synthetic amyloid beta (Aß) peptide preparations at different aggregation states. Aggregation of Aß (1-40) and Aß (1-42) is closely linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), and studying how Aß peptides self-assemble to form aggregates is the focus of intense research. Developing methods capable of identifying, characterizing and quantifying a wide range of Aß species from monomers to fully formed fibrils is critical for AD research and is a major analytical challenge. Monomer and fibril samples of Aß (1-40) and Aß (1-42) were prepared and characterized for this study. The monomer-equivalent concentration for each sample was determined by HPLC-UV, and aggregate formation was confirmed and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The same samples were studied using CE with UV absorbance detection. Analysis by mass spectrometry of collected CE fractions was used to confirm the presence of Aß for some CE-UV peaks. The CE-UV method reported here clearly indicates that monomeric and aggregated Aß were electrophoretically separated, and substantial differences in the electrophoretic profiles between samples of Aß (1-40) and Aß (1-42) were observed. This CE-UV method can differentiate between Aß monomer, oligomeric intermediates, and mature fibrils.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Multimerização Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
9.
Analyst ; 135(7): 1631-5, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20448881

RESUMO

A method was developed to characterize and quantify preparations of monomeric beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV absorbance detection. The detection limit for Abeta monomer using this method was 0.5 microM (19 pg). The self-assembly of Abeta to form amyloid fibrils is closely linked to Alzheimer's disease and is the subject of intense investigations. Consistent preparation of Abeta monomer samples at known concentrations and free of aggregates is a significant challenge for researchers studying the mechanism of Abeta fibril formation and searching for small molecules that inhibit Abeta fibril formation. Samples of Abeta monomer are known to sometimes contain pre-existing aggregates that can affect the kinetics and structure of amyloid fibrils. The CE method presented here showed that some of the monomeric Abeta samples prepared for this study contained a species producing a second peak (in addition to the major monomer peak). The aggregation was monitored using a thioflavin T fluorescence assay, and the resulting fibrils were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Monomer samples containing the additional peak based on CE analysis were shown to aggregate more rapidly than monomer samples that were free of this putative Abeta aggregate peak.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Benzotiazóis , Limite de Detecção , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Tiazóis/química
10.
Planta Med ; 76(14): 1570-5, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20379951

RESUMO

Cinnamon bark ( CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM) is used extensively as an antimicrobial material and currently is being increasingly used in Europe by people with type II diabetes to control their glucose levels. In this paper we describe the action of cinnamon oil, its major component, TRANS-cinnamaldehyde, and an analogue, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- TRANS-cinnamaldehyde against bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of action of this well-known antimicrobial material. These natural products inhibited the carboxyltransferase component of ESCHERICHIA COLI acetyl-CoA carboxylase but had no effect on the activity of the biotin carboxylase component. The inhibition patterns indicated that these products bound to the biotin binding site of carboxyltransferase with TRANS-cinnamaldehyde having a K (i) value of 3.8 ± 0.6 mM. The inhibition of carboxyltransferase by 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- TRANS-cinnamaldehyde was analyzed with a new assay for this enzyme based on capillary electrophoresis. These results explain, in part, the antibacterial activity of this well-known antimicrobial material.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/isolamento & purificação , Acroleína/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Vegetais/química
11.
Electrophoresis ; 31(2): 346-52, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20024913

RESUMO

A technique for separating and detecting enzyme inhibitors was developed using CE with an enzyme microreactor. The on-column enzyme microreactor was constructed using NdFeB magnet(s) to immobilize alkaline phosphatase-coated superparamagnetic beads (2.8 microm diameter) inside a capillary before the detection window. Enzyme inhibition assays were performed by injecting a plug of inhibitor into a capillary filled with the substrate, AttoPhos. Product generated in the enzyme microreactor was detected by LIF. Inhibitor zones electrophoresed through the capillary, passed through the enzyme microreactor, and were observed as negative peaks due to decreased product formation. The goal of this study was to improve peak capacities for inhibitor separations relative to previous studies, which combined continuous engagement electrophoretically mediated microanalysis and transient engagement electrophoretically mediated microanalysis to study enzyme inhibition. The effects of electric field strength, bead injection time and inhibitor concentrations on peak capacity and peak width were investigated. Peak capacities were increased to >or=20 under optimal conditions of electric field strength and bead injection time for inhibition assays with arsenate and theophylline. Five reversible inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase (theophylline, vanadate, arsenate, L-tryptophan and tungstate) were separated and detected to demonstrate the ability of this technique to analyze complex inhibitor mixtures.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Magnetismo/instrumentação , Microesferas , Microtecnologia/instrumentação , Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatase Alcalina/isolamento & purificação , Teofilina/isolamento & purificação
12.
Analyst ; 132(12): 1215-22, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18318282

RESUMO

Separation and detection of individual submicron polystyrene spheres using capillary electrophoresis with laser-light-scattering detection has been demonstrated. Electrophoretically separated particles were passed through a focused laser beam and light scattered from individual particles was collected at 90 degrees. Each diameter of polystyrene spheres injected (from 110 to 992 nm) resulted in the observation of a well-defined migration window containing multiple peaks, each arising from the light scattered by an individual particle. The migration time window for individual particles of a particular size corresponded well to the migration time of a peak from a population of particles of the same size detected using a UV absorbance detector. The electrophoretic mobility and scattered light intensity were determined for each particle detected. The average scattered light intensity for each particle size was consistent with Mie scattering theory. Particles as small as 110 nm in diameter were detected individually using this method, but particles with a diameter of 57 nm could not be individually detected. The number of single particle scattering events was counted and compared to the theoretical number of particles injected electrokinetically, and the detection efficiency determined ranged from 38 to 57% for polystyrene spheres of different sizes. The laser-light-scattering detection method was directly compared to laser-induced fluorescence detection using fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. The number of particles detected individually by each method was in agreement.


Assuntos
Lasers , Poliestirenos/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/instrumentação , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Microesferas , Tamanho da Partícula , Espalhamento de Radiação
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 339: 187-202, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16790874

RESUMO

Electrophoretic migration and electroosmotic flow (EOF) combine to determine the migration rate of charged compounds in capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE). Uncontrolled and unmeasured changes in EOF will lead to irreproducible peak migration times and poor peak quantitation. The two most common methods for measuring EOF for CE and MCE are detailed. Experimental results for application of the neutral marker method and the current monitoring method to EC are presented, and related calculations of EOF rates and electroosmotic mobility are described. The strengths and shortcomings of these two EOF measurement techniques are discussed. Additional approaches for studying and measuring EOF and for improving the reproducibility of migration times for CE and MCE are summarized.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Eletroforese em Microchip/métodos , Eletroquímica/métodos , Osmose
14.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 29(12): 1799-803, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14698347

RESUMO

We investigated the release of iron from ferritin in aqueous solutions exposed to high-frequency ultrasound (US). Our data suggests that superoxide produced as a result of ultrasonic cavitation acts as a reducing agent, enabling the release of iron from ferritin. We also found that the release of ferritin iron during US exposure is enhanced by the addition of 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. We hypothesize that this quinone is ultrasonically transformed into a semiquinone radical capable of directly and indirectly reducing Fe(3+) in ferritin to soluble Fe(2+). Our proposed mechanism for the release of iron from ferritin adds new insight to the synergistic effect of quinone-containing cancer drugs with US.


Assuntos
Ferritinas/química , Ferro/química , Ultrassom , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Terapia Combinada , Ferro/análise , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Oxirredução , Superóxidos , Terapia por Ultrassom
15.
Anal Chem ; 75(14): 3531-8, 2003 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14570207

RESUMO

Electroosmotic flow dynamics during a field-amplified sample stacking experiment have been studied experimentally using the periodic photobleaching of a dilute, neutral fluorophore added to the separation buffer. The effects of hydrodynamically injecting different sample plug lengths containing a mixture of arsenic compounds dissolved in 0.125 mM (120, 240, and 600 s) and 41.7 microM (27, 45, and 74 s) phosphate buffer with a separation buffer concentration of 12.5 mM phosphate buffer were examined. Changes in electroosmotic flow during sample stacking and separation were monitored at a rate of 1 Hz. The observed effects of increasing the sample plug length on electroosmotic flow and electrophoretic current agreed qualitatively with predictions by theoretical models presented in the literature. Electroosmotic flow changes on the order of 100% (1.6-3.3 mm/s) were observed. Broadening of the flow monitoring peaks has been used to examine parabolic flow due to the discontinuous buffer systems used for sample stacking.

16.
Anal Chem ; 75(3): 361-70, 2003 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12585459

RESUMO

Electroosmotic flow (EOF) was monitored in glass microfluidic devices at rates up to 2 Hz with a precision of 0.2-1.0% using a technique based on the periodic photobleaching of a dilute, neutral fluorophore added to the running buffer. This EOF monitoring method was used to examine the performance of the current monitoring technique for measuring an average electroosmotic flow in a microfluidic device with a cross-T design. Flow measurements made with the current monitoring method gave a precision of 0.4-2.2%, but the periodic photobleaching method shows that the current monitoring technique causes changes in EOF as high as 41% during a single experiment. The periodic photobleaching method for EOF monitoring was also used to study EOF in channels on opposite sides of a cross-channel intersection. The opposite channels were shown to exhibit substantially different EOF dynamics during a current monitoring experiment as well as different steady-state EOF rates during normal operating conditions.

17.
Anal Biochem ; 307(2): 226-34, 2002 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12202238

RESUMO

Reversible inhibition, irreversible inhibition, and activation of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) have been studied by capillary electrophoresis. The capillary electrophoretic enzyme-inhibitor assays were based on electrophoretic mixing of inhibitor and enzyme zones in a substrate-filled capillary. Enzyme inhibition was indicated by a decrease in product formation detected in the capillary by laser-induced fluorescence. Reversible enzyme inhibitors could be quantified by Michaelis-Menten treatment of the electrophoretic data. Reversible, competitive inhibition of alkaline phosphatase by sodium vanadate and sodium arsenate has been examined, and reversible, noncompetitive inhibition by theophylline has been studied. The K(i) values determined for these reversible inhibitors using capillary electrophoresis are within the range of values reported in the literature for the same enzyme-inhibitor combinations. Irreversible inhibition of alkaline phosphatase by EDTA at concentrations of 1.0mM and above has been observed. Activation of alkaline phosphatase has also been observed for EDTA at concentrations from 20 to 400 microM.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Arseniatos/farmacologia , Ligação Competitiva , Bovinos , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Fatores de Tempo , Vanadatos/farmacologia
18.
Anal Chem ; 74(7): 1572-7, 2002 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12043598

RESUMO

A simple and reproducible technique for constructing perfectly aligned gaps in fused-silica capillaries has been developed for postcolumn reagent addition with capillary electrophoresis. This technique uses laser ablation with the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) at 13.5 mJ/pulse and a repetition rate of 15 Hz to create these gaps. A capillary is glued to a microscope slide and positioned at the focal point of a cylindrical lens using the focused beam from a laser pointer as a reference. Gaps of 14.0 +/- 2.2 microm (n = 33) at the bore of the capillary are produced with a success rate of 94% by ablation with 400 pulses. This simple method of gap construction requires no micromanipulation under a microscope, hydrofluoric acid etching, or use of column fittings. These structures have been used for reagent addition for postcolumn derivatization with laser-induced fluorescence detection and have been tested for the separation of proteins and amino acids. Detection limits of 6 x 10(-7) and 1 x 10(-8) M have been obtained for glycine and tranferrin, respectively. Separation efficiencies obtained using these gap reactors range from 38,000 to 213,000 theoretical plates.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/instrumentação , Lasers , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Glicina/análise , Indicadores e Reagentes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transferrina/análise
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