Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 127
Filtrar
1.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 7, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483516

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation has been a proposed mechanism of resistance to aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer. Stratifying by HER2 status, a matched case-control study from the Wellness After Breast Cancer-II cohort was performed to assess whether or not elevated serum inflammatory biomarkers (C-Reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and serum amyloid A [SAA]) and/or the presence of a high-risk IL-6 promoter genotype were associated with recurrence of hormone receptor positive (HR+) early breast cancer. Estrogen levels were also measured and correlated with biomarkers and disease outcomes. CRP and SAA were significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrence in the HR+/HER2- group, but not the HR+/HER2+ group. Mean serum estrogen levels were non-significantly elevated in patients who relapsed vs. non-relapsed patients. Surprisingly, high-risk IL-6 promoter polymorphisms were strongly associated with HER2+ breast cancer relapse, which has potential therapeutic implications, as elevated intracellular IL-6 has been associated with trastuzumab resistance in pre-clinical models.

2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001138

RESUMO

Importance: Health care workers (HCWs) caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, to our knowledge, there is no effective pharmacologic prophylaxis for individuals at risk. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in hospital-based HCWs with exposure to patients with COVID-19 using a pre-exposure prophylaxis strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 With Hydroxychloroquine Study) was conducted at 2 tertiary urban hospitals, with enrollment from April 9, 2020, to July 14, 2020; follow-up ended August 4, 2020. The trial randomized 132 full-time, hospital-based HCWs (physicians, nurses, certified nursing assistants, emergency technicians, and respiratory therapists), of whom 125 were initially asymptomatic and had negative results for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swab. The trial was terminated early for futility before reaching a planned enrollment of 200 participants. Interventions: Hydroxychloroquine, 600 mg, daily, or size-matched placebo taken orally for 8 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as determined by a nasopharyngeal swab during the 8 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects, treatment discontinuation, presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, frequency of QTc prolongation, and clinical outcomes for SARS-CoV-2-positive participants. Results: Of the 132 randomized participants (median age, 33 years [range, 20-66 years]; 91 women [69%]), 125 (94.7%) were evaluable for the primary outcome. There was no significant difference in infection rates in participants randomized to receive hydroxychloroquine compared with placebo (4 of 64 [6.3%] vs 4 of 61 [6.6%]; P > .99). Mild adverse events were more common in participants taking hydroxychloroquine compared with placebo (45% vs 26%; P = .04); rates of treatment discontinuation were similar in both arms (19% vs 16%; P = .81). The median change in QTc (baseline to 4-week evaluation) did not differ between arms (hydroxychloroquine: 4 milliseconds; 95% CI, -9 to 17; vs placebo: 3 milliseconds; 95% CI, -5 to 11; P = .98). Of the 8 participants with positive results for SARS-CoV-2 (6.4%), 6 developed viral symptoms; none required hospitalization, and all clinically recovered. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, although limited by early termination, there was no clinical benefit of hydroxychloroquine administered daily for 8 weeks as pre-exposure prophylaxis in hospital-based HCWs exposed to patients with COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04329923.

3.
JB JS Open Access ; 5(2): e0085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123670

RESUMO

Background: Individuals with hemophilia undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty are at risk for complications such as bleeding and infection. However, data on hospital length of stay (LOS) and readmission rates compared with nonhemophilic controls are lacking. This study compared the complication rates, LOS, and unplanned 30-day readmission rates between patients with hemophilia and nonhemophilic controls. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4) database from 2007 to 2015 to compare outcomes in patients with hemophilia and nonhemophilic controls undergoing partial and total hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, and revision knee arthroplasty. Results: A total of 118 patients with hemophilia and 3,811 controls were identified. Compared with controls, patients with hemophilia had a higher risk of bleeding complications after hip procedures (38.7% versus 16.1%, p = 0.003), a higher risk of surgical site infection after knee procedures (8.1% versus 1.1%, p < 0.001), longer median LOS after hip (6 versus 3 days, p < 0.001) and knee (5 versus 3 days, p < 0.001) procedures, and higher rates of unplanned 30-day readmission after hip (22.6% versus 4.1%, p < 0.001) and knee (10.3% versus 4.5%, p = 0.018) procedures. The most common reason for unplanned 30-day readmission in patients with hemophilia was bleeding or the patient's underlying coagulopathy (25.1%). Conclusions: Patients with hemophilia undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty had a higher incidence of postoperative bleeding (hip procedures) and surgical site infections (knee procedures), longer LOS, and higher rates of unplanned 30-day readmission compared with nonhemophilic controls. Key limitations of our study include the potential for inaccurate coding, the relatively small number of patients in the hemophilia cohort, and the uneven distribution of procedure type in the hemophilia and control cohorts. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel therapeutic strategies in ovarian cancer (OC) are needed as the survival rate remains dismally low. Although dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines are effective in eliciting therapeutic responses, their complex and costly manufacturing process hampers their full clinical utility outside specialized clinics. Here, we describe a novel approach of generating a rapid and effective cancer vaccine using ascites-derived monocytes for treating OC. METHODS: Using the ID8 mouse ovarian tumor model and OC patient samples, we isolated ascites monocytes and evaluated them with flow cytometry, Luminex cytokine and chemokine array analysis, ex vivo cocultures with T cells, in vivo tumor challenge and T cell transfer experiments, RNA-sequencing and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: We demonstrated the feasibility of isolating ascites monocytes and restoring their ability to function as bona fide antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 lipopolysaccharide and TLR9 CpG-oligonucleotides, and a blocking antibody to interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R Ab) in the ID8 model. The ascites monocytes were laden with tumor antigens at a steady state in vivo. After a short 48 hours activation, they upregulated maturation markers (CD80, CD86 and MHC class I) and demonstrated strong ex vivo T cell stimulatory potential and effectively suppressed tumor and malignant ascites in vivo. They also induced protective long-term T cell memory responses. To evaluate the translational potential of this approach, we isolated ascites monocytes from stage III/IV chemotherapy-naïve OC patients. Similarly, the human ascites monocytes presented tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including MUC1, ERBB2, mesothelin, MAGE, PRAME, GPC3, PMEL and TP53 at a steady state. After a 48-hour treatment with TLR4 and IL-10R Ab, they efficiently stimulated oligoclonal tumor-associated lymphocytes (TALs) with strong reactivity against TAAs. Importantly, the activated ascites monocytes retained their ability to activate TALs in the presence of ascitic fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Ascites monocytes are naturally loaded with tumor antigen and can perform as potent APCs following short ex vivo activation. This novel ascites APC vaccine can be rapidly prepared in 48 hours with a straightforward and affordable manufacturing process, and would be an attractive therapeutic vaccine for OC.

5.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with T1 melanoma ≤ 1 mm has not been reported in a prospective clinical trial setting, so these clinical outcomes remain understudied. This study seeks to evaluate overall survival (OS) with and without lymph node biopsy (LNB) in patients with clinical T1N0M0 melanoma (0.5-1.0 mm). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were identified using the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2012). After stratification into 0.5-0.7-mm and 0.8-1.0-mm groups, patients undergoing LNB were propensity score-matched 1:1 to patients not undergoing LNB. OS was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and the stratified log-rank test. RESULTS: Resection was performed in 28,846 patients, and LNB in 14,028 (49%); 15,194 were included in propensity score-matched analysis. The LNB and no-LNB groups were well balanced on all studied covariates (standardized mean difference < 0.10). Among patients with tumors 0.5-0.7 mm, 5- and 10-year OS were 94.7% and 82.7%, respectively, for the LNB group compared with 94.3% and 84.4% for the no-LNB group (p = 0.35). Among patients with tumors 0.8-1.0 mm in thickness, 5- and 10-year OS were 93.9% and 81.6%, respectively, for the LNB group compared with 90.3% and 74.3% for the no-LNB group (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in OS by LNB status in patients with lesions 0.5-0.7 mm, consistently with recommendations against its routine use in this group. In lesions 0.8-1.0 mm, receipt of LNB was associated with a clinically small but significant improvement in OS. Further study is warranted to better understand this outcome difference.

6.
JCI Insight ; 5(17)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780726

RESUMO

New strategies are needed to enhance the efficacy of anti-programmed cell death protein antibody (anti-PD-1 Ab) in cancer. Here, we report that inhibiting palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1), a target of chloroquine derivatives like hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), enhances the antitumor efficacy of anti-PD-1 Ab in melanoma. The combination resulted in tumor growth impairment and improved survival in mouse models. Genetic suppression of core autophagy genes, but not Ppt1, in cancer cells reduced priming and cytotoxic capacity of primed T cells. Exposure of antigen-primed T cells to macrophage-conditioned medium derived from macrophages treated with PPT1 inhibitors enhanced melanoma-specific killing. Genetic or chemical Ppt1 inhibition resulted in M2 to M1 phenotype switching in macrophages. The combination was associated with a reduction in myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor. Ppt1 inhibition by HCQ, or DC661, induced cyclic GMP-AMP synthase/stimulator of interferon genes/TANK binding kinase 1 pathway activation and the secretion of interferon-ß in macrophages, the latter being a key component for augmented T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Genetic Ppt1 inhibition produced similar findings. These data provide the rationale for this combination in melanoma clinical trials and further investigation in other cancers.

8.
Hum Pathol ; 104: 1-8, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702401

RESUMO

Vulvar malignant melanoma (VMM), although uncommon, comprises 5-10% of all vulvar malignancies. Local control is notoriously poor in VMM with recurrence rates of 30-50% compared with approximately 3% in cutaneous melanomas. We studied clinicopathologic features of 37 women with VMM, after reviewing three decades of clinical follow-up data in our institutional databases. Most patients were Caucasian (n = 35) with an average age at diagnosis of 60.6 years (range 23-83). The most common subtype was mucosal lentiginous melanoma (n = 25). We compared Kaplan-Meier survival curves of 31 patients defined by clinical and microscopic attributes using exact log-rank tests. Younger patients at diagnosis (23-64 years), those with thin melanomas (≤1 mm), and those with Clark's level II or III tumors had better 5-year survival rates than older patients (65-83 years) and those with thick melanomas (>1 mm) and those with Clark's level IV or V (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, by exact log-rank test. Local recurrence of melanoma occurred in 15 patients. Nine patients (24%) had eventual urethral involvement by malignant melanoma, and this feature was associated with significantly shorter survival (P = 0.036). Patients with urethral involvement had shorter median time to death and worse 5-year survival rates. Given that spread to the urethra is common in VMM and urethral recurrence is also associated with mortality, pathology excision specimens should be carefully reviewed with attention to urethral involvement as a potentially important prognostic factor.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3236-3249, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478869

RESUMO

Therapeutic innovation for human papilloma virus-related (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is impaired by inadequate preclinical models and the absence of accurate biomarkers. Our study establishes the first well-characterized panel of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and organoids from HPV+ HNSCCs while determining fidelity of the models to the distinguishing genetic features of this cancer type. Despite low engraftment rates, whole exome sequencing showed that PDXs retain multiple distinguishing features of HPV+ HNSCC lost in existing cell lines, including PIK3CA mutations, TRAF3 deletion and the absence of EGFR amplifications. Engrafted HPV+ tumors frequently contained NOTCH1 mutations, thus providing new models for a negatively prognostic alteration in this disease. Genotype-phenotype associations in the models were then tested for prediction of tumor progression and survival in published clinical cohorts. Observation of high tumor mutational burdens (TMBs) in the faster-growing models facilitated identification of a novel association between TMB and local progression in both HPV+ and HPV- patients that was prognostic in HPV- cases. In addition, reduced E7 and p16INK4A levels found in a PDX from an outlier case with lethal outcome led to detection of similar profiles among recurrent HPV+ HNSCCs. Transcriptional data from the Cancer Genome Atlas was used to demonstrate that the lower E2F target gene expression predicted by reduced E7 levels has potential as a biomarker of disease recurrence risk. Our findings bridge a critical gap in preclinical models for HPV+ HNSCCs and simultaneously reveal novel potential applications of quantifying mutational burden and viral oncogene functions for biomarker development.

10.
J Exp Med ; 217(5)2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150623

RESUMO

In chronic infections, the immune response fails to control virus, leading to persistent antigen stimulation and the progressive development of T cell exhaustion. T cell effector differentiation is poorly understood in the context of exhaustion, but targeting effector programs may provide new strategies for reinvigorating T cell function. We identified Tribbles pseudokinase 1 (Trib1) as a central regulator of antiviral T cell immunity, where loss of Trib1 led to a sustained enrichment of effector-like KLRG1+ T cells, enhanced function, and improved viral control. Single-cell profiling revealed that Trib1 restrains a population of KLRG1+ effector CD8 T cells that is transcriptionally distinct from exhausted cells. Mechanistically, we identified an interaction between Trib1 and the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling activator, MALT1, which disrupted MALT1 signaling complexes. These data identify Trib1 as a negative regulator of TCR signaling and downstream function, and reveal a link between Trib1 and effector versus exhausted T cell differentiation that can be targeted to improve antiviral immunity.

11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(8): 2915-2926, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has transformed melanoma treatment, but optimal sequencing of ICB and surgery for clinically evident nodal metastasis remains undefined. We evaluated adjuvant-only (AT) and neoadjuvant/adjuvant (NAT) ICB with respect to survival outcomes in this patient population. METHODS: Patients who underwent lymphadenectomy (1 January 2011 to 31 July 2018) and received perioperative ICB at an academic center were identified. AT was defined as postoperative ICB, and NAT was defined as one to two cycles of ICB prior to resection with continuation of therapy following surgery. Three-year disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and melanoma-specific survival (MSS) were estimated. RESULTS: Of 59 patients, 18 (31%) received AT and 41 (69%) received NAT. The AT and NAT groups did not differ in age (median 53 vs. 62 years, p = 0.16) or stage (IIIB 33% vs. 29%, IIIC 56% vs. 68%, IIID 11% vs. 2%, p = 0.34). Although 3-year DFS did not differ significantly by treatment sequencing (NAT vs. AT, hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, p = 0.17), NAT was associated with improved 3-year DDFS (HR 0.38, p = 0.028). Of 39 NAT patients with evaluable pathologic response, 23 (59%) and 5 (13%) had a pathologic partial response (pPR) and pathologic complete response (pCR), respectively. Patients with pPR/pCR experienced improved 3-year DFS (HR 0.16, p = 0.001), LRFS (HR 0.17, p = 0.003), and DDFS (HR 0.26, p = 0.029) compared with those with no response. Three-year MSS did not differ significantly by response (p = 0.062). CONCLUSION: NAT may be associated with improved 3-year DDFS compared with AT sequencing, and allows for early assessment of pathologic response. Further prospective evaluation of treatment sequencing is warranted.

12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(Suppl 3): 893, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673939

RESUMO

In the original article, there is an error in the funding information. The correct funding information is as follows.

13.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(12): 3962-3971, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nodal observation is safe for patients with microscopic melanoma metastasis in a sentinel lymph node (LN). Complete LN dissection (CLND) remains the standard of care for patients with clinically evident LN (cLN) metastases, even though about 40% have only one pathologic LN (pLN). We sought to identify clinical features associated with having one pLN among patients with cLNs. METHODS: Patients at three melanoma centers who underwent CLND for cLNs were identified. Clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics associated with one pLN were determined by multivariable logistic regression and classification tree analysis. RESULTS: Of 190 patients, 90 (47.4%) had one pLN and 100 (52.6%) had more than one pLN. By multivariable logistic regression, extremity versus truncal primary (odds ratio [OR] 2.15, p = 0.012), axillary versus superficial inguinal location (OR 3.89, p = 0.009), and preoperative cross-sectional imaging demonstrating more than one versus one cLN (OR 17.1, p < 0.001) were associated with more than one pLN. The negative predictive value for additional pathologic nodal disease of preoperative imaging was 70.9%, increasing to 74.4% for positron emission tomography/computed tomography. In the subgroup of patients with one cLN, the classification tree identified two groups with < 10% risk of additional pLNs: (1) Breslow thickness > 6.55 mm (n = 17); and (2) if unknown primary or Breslow thickness ≤ 6.55 mm, then LN diameter > 1.8 cm in the inguinal location (n = 22). CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with one cLN from melanoma by preoperative imaging will harbor no additional pathologic nodes on CLND. Safety of nodal observation after clinical nodal excision in these patients, particularly in an era of effective adjuvant therapies, deserves prospective evaluation.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(13): 4621-4630, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint and BRAF-targeted inhibitors have demonstrated significant survival benefits for advanced melanoma patients within the context of clinical trials. We sought to determine their impact on overall survival (OS) at a population level in order to better understand the current landscape for patients diagnosed with clinical stage III melanoma. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using the National Cancer Database. Patients diagnosed with clinical stage III melanoma were categorized by diagnosis year into two cohorts preceding the advent of novel therapies (P1: 2004-2005, P2: 2008-2009) and a contemporary group (P3: 2012-2013). OS was estimated using standard time-to-event statistical methods. RESULTS: Of 3720 patients, 525 (14%) were diagnosed in P1, 1375 (37%) in P2, and 1820 (49%) in P3. Median age at diagnosis increased over time (58, 59, and 61 years in P1, P2, and P3, respectively, P = 0.004). OS increased between P2 (median 49.3 months) and P3 (median 58.2 months, Bonferroni-corrected log-rank P < 0.001) but did not differ between P1 (median 50.5 months) and P2 (Bonferroni-corrected log-rank P > 0.99). These differences persisted on multivariable analysis. OS improved for patients diagnosed in P3 compared with P1 [hazard ratio (HR) 0.76, P < 0.001] but not P2 compared with P1 (HR 0.96, P = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: OS has significantly improved nationally for patients newly diagnosed with clinical stage III melanoma in the era of novel melanoma therapies. OS outcomes will likely continue to evolve as these agents are increasingly utilized in the adjuvant setting. These data may help to better inform affected patients with respect to prognosis.


Assuntos
Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Cancer Cell ; 35(6): 885-900.e10, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185212

RESUMO

We investigated the role of chemokines in regulating T cell accumulation in solid tumors. CCL5 and CXCL9 overexpression was associated with CD8+ T cell infiltration in solid tumors. T cell infiltration required tumor cell-derived CCL5 and was amplified by IFN-γ-inducible, myeloid cell-secreted CXCL9. CCL5 and CXCL9 coexpression revealed immunoreactive tumors with prolonged survival and response to checkpoint blockade. Loss of CCL5 expression in human tumors was associated with epigenetic silencing through DNA methylation. Reduction of CCL5 expression caused tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) desertification, whereas forced CCL5 expression prevented Cxcl9 expression and TILs loss, and attenuated tumor growth in mice through IFN-γ. The cooperation between tumor-derived CCL5 and IFN-γ-inducible CXCR3 ligands secreted by myeloid cells is key for orchestrating T cell infiltration in immunoreactive and immunoresponsive tumors.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CCL5/genética , Quimiocina CCL5/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Metilação de DNA , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Comunicação Parácrina , Receptores CXCR3/genética , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Science ; 364(6446): 1156-1162, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221853

RESUMO

Glycosylation alterations are indicative of tissue inflammation and neoplasia, but whether these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis is largely unknown. To study the role of glycan changes in pancreatic disease, we inducibly expressed human fucosyltransferase 3 and ß1,3-galactosyltransferase 5 in mice, reconstituting the glycan sialyl-Lewisa, also known as carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Notably, CA19-9 expression in mice resulted in rapid and severe pancreatitis with hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Mechanistically, CA19-9 modification of the matricellular protein fibulin-3 increased its interaction with EGFR, and blockade of fibulin-3, EGFR ligands, or CA19-9 prevented EGFR hyperactivation in organoids. CA19-9-mediated pancreatitis was reversible and could be suppressed with CA19-9 antibodies. CA19-9 also cooperated with the KrasG12D oncogene to produce aggressive pancreatic cancer. These findings implicate CA19-9 in the etiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer and nominate CA19-9 as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Antígeno CA-19-9/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , Antígeno CA-19-9/imunologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doença Crônica , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Fucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Galactosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite/patologia
17.
Hum Pathol ; 88: 78-86, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965022

RESUMO

We observed that non-tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells are often present in the stroma of melanoma. The role of these stromal inflammatory cells (SIC) in cancer has not been studied. We evaluated the prognostic significance of SIC in 299 patients with vertical growth phase primary melanomas with at least 10 years of clinical follow-up. Lymphatic density and lymphatic invasion in the areas with SIC was quantified. The prognostic significance of these factors was evaluated using univariable and multivariable Cox models for melanoma-specific death and the time to first recurrence. Of the 299 melanomas, 161 exhibited areas with SIC. Percentages of vertical growth phase tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and radial growth phase regression were significantly higher in cases with SIC compared to those without SIC (P = .005); lymphatic invasion was also detected more frequently in cases with SIC (P = .001). Lymphatic density in SIC areas was higher than that in other areas of the melanomas. Patients with SIC had poorer clinical outcome. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGFC) staining in a subset of these melanoma patients showed that VEGFC expression in the stromal macrophages was associated with lymphatic invasion in SIC areas. In conclusion, SIC in melanoma is associated with poorer prognosis, and the prognostic effect is partially mediated through induction of lymphangiogenesis with increased lymphatic invasion.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/química , Masculino , Melanoma/química , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Células Estromais/patologia , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise
18.
Blood Adv ; 3(3): 301-311, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705032

RESUMO

A sizable proportion of hemophilia inhibitor patients fails immune tolerance induction and requires bypass agents for long-term bleed management. Recombinant human-activated coagulation Factor VII (rhFVIIa) is an on-demand bypass hemostatic agent for bleeds in hemophilia inhibitor patients. Prophylactic use of rhFVIIa may enable sustained hemostatic management of inhibitor patients, but the critical relationship of rhFVIIa circulating levels and clinical outcome in that setting remains unclear. To address this in vivo, we used the rat hemophilia A (HA) model that exhibits spontaneous bleeds and allows longitudinal studies with sufficient statistical power. We simulated activated Factor VII (FVIIa) prophylaxis by adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer of a rat FVIIa transgene. Compared with naive HA animals, rat FVIIa continuous expression affected the overall observed bleeds, which were resolved with on-demand administration of recombinant rat FVIIa. Specifically, although 91% of naive animals exhibited bleeds, this was reduced to 83% and 33% in animals expressing less than 708 ng/mL (<14 nM) and at least 708 ng/mL (≥14 nM) rat FVIIa, respectively. No bleeds occurred in animals expressing higher than 1250 ng/mL (>25 nM). Rat FVIIa expression of at least 708 ng/mL was also sufficient to normalize the blood loss after a tail vein injury. Continuous, AAV-mediated rat FVIIa transgene expression had no apparent adverse effects in the hemostatic system of HA rats. This work establishes for the first time a dose dependency and threshold of circulating FVIIa antigen levels for reduction or complete elimination of bleeds in a setting of FVIIa-based HA prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Fator VIIa/genética , Terapia Genética/métodos , Hemofilia A/genética , Hemofilia A/terapia , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Dependovirus/genética , Fator VIIa/biossíntese , Fator VIIa/isolamento & purificação , Células HEK293 , Hemofilia A/sangue , Humanos , Fenótipo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Transgenes
19.
Stat Med ; 38(11): 1903-1917, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663113

RESUMO

The last two decades have witnessed an explosion in research focused on the development and assessment of novel biomarkers for improved prognosis of diseases. As a result, best practice standards guiding biomarker research have undergone extensive development. Currently, there is great interest in the promise of biomarkers to enhance research efforts and clinical practice in the setting of chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, and glomerular disease. However, some have questioned whether biomarkers currently add value to the clinical practice of nephrology. The current state of the art pertaining to statistical analyses regarding the use of such measures is critical. In December 2014, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases convened a meeting, "Toward Building Better Biomarker Statistical Methodology," with the goals of summarizing the current best practice recommendations and articulating new directions for methodological research. This report summarizes its conclusions and describes areas that need attention. Suggestions are made regarding metrics that should be commonly reported. We outline the methodological issues related to traditional metrics and considerations in prognostic modeling, including discrimination and case mix, calibration, validation, and cost-benefit analysis. We highlight the approach to improved risk communication and the value of graphical displays. Finally, we address some "new frontiers" in prognostic biomarker research, including the competing risk framework, the use of longitudinal biomarkers, and analyses in distributed research networks.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Modelos Estatísticos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(7): 2080-2087, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635337

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Everolimus inhibits the mTOR, activating cytoprotective autophagy. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits autophagy. On the basis of preclinical data demonstrating synergistic cytotoxicity when mTOR inhibitors are combined with an autophagy inhibitor, we launched a clinical trial of combined everolimus and hydroxychloroquine, to determine its safety and activity in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three centers conducted a phase I/II trial of everolimus 10 mg daily and hydroxychloroquine in patients with advanced ccRCC. The objectives were to determine the MTD of hydroxychloroquine with daily everolimus, and to estimate the rate of 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ccRCC receiving everolimus/hydroxychloroquine after 1-3 prior treatment regimens. Correlative studies to identify patient subpopulations that achieved the most benefit included population pharmacokinetics, measurement of autophagosomes by electron microscopy, and next-generation tumor sequencing. RESULTS: No dose-limiting toxicity was observed in the phase I trial. The recommended phase II dose of hydroxychloroquine 600 mg twice daily with everolimus was identified. Disease control [stable disease + partial response (PR)] occurred in 22 of 33 (67%) evaluable patients. PR was observed in 2 of 33 patients (6%). PFS ≥ 6 months was achieved in 15 of 33 (45%) of patients who achieved disease control. CONCLUSIONS: Combined hydroxychloroquine 600 mg twice daily with 10 mg daily everolimus was tolerable. The primary endpoint of >40% 6-month PFS rate was met. Hydroxychloroquine is a tolerable autophagy inhibitor in future RCC or other trials.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Retratamento , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...