Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Exp Med ; 218(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617969

RESUMO

Glioblastoma ranks among the most lethal of primary brain malignancies, with glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) at the apex of tumor cellular hierarchies. Here, to discover novel therapeutic GSC targets, we interrogated gene expression profiles from GSCs, differentiated glioblastoma cells (DGCs), and neural stem cells (NSCs), revealing EYA2 as preferentially expressed by GSCs. Targeting EYA2 impaired GSC maintenance and induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and loss of self-renewal. EYA2 displayed novel localization to centrosomes in GSCs, and EYA2 tyrosine (Tyr) phosphatase activity was essential for proper mitotic spindle assembly and survival of GSCs. Inhibition of the EYA2 Tyr phosphatase activity, via genetic or pharmacological means, mimicked EYA2 loss in GSCs in vitro and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Supporting the clinical relevance of these findings, EYA2 portends poor patient prognosis in glioblastoma. Collectively, our data indicate that EYA2 phosphatase function plays selective critical roles in the growth and survival of GSCs, potentially offering a high therapeutic index for EYA2 inhibitors.

2.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615656

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary brain cancer characterized by therapeutic resistance, which is promoted by GBM stem cells (GSCs). Here, we interrogated gene expression and whole genome CRISPR/Cas9 screening in a large panel of patient-derived GSCs, differentiated glioblastoma cells (DGCs), and neural stem cells (NSCs) to identify master regulators of GSC stemness, revealing an essential transcription state with increased RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription. The YY1 and transcriptional CDK9 complex was essential for GSC survival and maintenance in vitro and in vivo. YY1 interacted with CDK9 to regulate transcription elongation in GSCs. Genetic or pharmacological targeting of YY1-CDK9 complex elicited RNA m6A modification-dependent interferon responses, reduced regulatory T cell infiltration, and augmented efficacy of immune checkpoint therapy in glioblastoma. Collectively, these results suggest that YY1-CDK9 transcription elongation complex defines a targetable cell state with active transcription, suppressed interferon responses, and immunotherapy resistance in glioblastoma.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7361-7374, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181729

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification on endogenous RNA transcripts in mammalian cells. Technologies to precisely modify the RNA m6A levels at specific transcriptomic loci empower interrogation of biological functions of epitranscriptomic modifications. Here, we developed a bidirectional dCasRx epitranscriptome editing platform composed of a nuclear-localized dCasRx conjugated with either a methyltransferase, METTL3, or a demethylase, ALKBH5, to manipulate methylation events at targeted m6A sites. Leveraging this platform, we specifically and efficiently edited m6A modifications at targeted sites, reflected in gene expression and cell proliferation. We employed the dCasRx epitranscriptomic editor system to elucidate the molecular function of m6A-binding proteins YTHDF paralogs (YTHDF1, YTHDF2 and YTHDF3), revealing that YTHDFs promote m6A-mediated mRNA degradation. Collectively, our dCasRx epitranscriptome perturbation platform permits site-specific m6A editing for delineating of functional roles of individual m6A modifications in the mammalian epitranscriptome.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Sci Adv ; 7(9)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627414

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer represents a highly lethal disease that poses a substantial burden for females, with four main molecular subtypes carrying distinct clinical outcomes. Here, we demonstrated that plasma cells, a subset of antibody-producing B cells, were enriched in the mesenchymal subtype of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs). Plasma cell abundance correlated with the density of mesenchymal cells in clinical specimens of HGSCs. Coculture of nonmesenchymal ovarian cancer cells and plasma cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Phenotypic switch was mediated by the transfer of plasma cell-derived exosomes containing miR-330-3p into nonmesenchymal ovarian cancer cells. Exosome-derived miR-330-3p increased expression of junctional adhesion molecule B in a noncanonical fashion. Depletion of plasma cells by bortezomib reversed the mesenchymal characteristics of ovarian cancer and inhibited in vivo tumor growth. Collectively, our work suggests targeting plasma cells may be a novel approach for ovarian cancer therapy.

5.
Cancer Discov ; 11(2): 480-499, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023892

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is a universally lethal cancer driven by glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). Here, we interrogated N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) mRNA modifications in GSCs by methyl RNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing and transcriptome analysis, finding transcripts marked by m6A often upregulated compared with normal neural stem cells (NSC). Interrogating m6A regulators, GSCs displayed preferential expression, as well as in vitro and in vivo dependency, of the m6A reader YTHDF2, in contrast to NSCs. Although YTHDF2 has been reported to destabilize mRNAs, YTHDF2 stabilized MYC and VEGFA transcripts in GSCs in an m6A-dependent manner. We identified IGFBP3 as a downstream effector of the YTHDF2-MYC axis in GSCs. The IGF1/IGF1R inhibitor linsitinib preferentially targeted YTHDF2-expressing cells, inhibiting GSC viability without affecting NSCs and impairing in vivo glioblastoma growth. Thus, YTHDF2 links RNA epitranscriptomic modifications and GSC growth, laying the foundation for the YTHDF2-MYC-IGFBP3 axis as a specific and novel therapeutic target in glioblastoma. SIGNIFICANCE: Epitranscriptomics promotes cellular heterogeneity in cancer. RNA m6A landscapes of cancer and NSCs identified cell type-specific dependencies and therapeutic vulnerabilities. The m6A reader YTHDF2 stabilized MYC mRNA specifically in cancer stem cells. Given the challenge of targeting MYC, YTHDF2 presents a therapeutic target to perturb MYC signaling in glioblastoma.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 211.

6.
Cancer Discov ; 11(5): 1192-1211, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328215

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) contains self-renewing GBM stem cells (GSC) potentially amenable to immunologic targeting, but chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has demonstrated limited clinical responses in GBM. Here, we interrogated molecular determinants of CAR-mediated GBM killing through whole-genome CRISPR screens in both CAR T cells and patient-derived GSCs. Screening of CAR T cells identified dependencies for effector functions, including TLE4 and IKZF2. Targeted knockout of these genes enhanced CAR antitumor efficacy. Bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing of edited CAR T cells revealed transcriptional profiles of superior effector function and inhibited exhaustion responses. Reciprocal screening of GSCs identified genes essential for susceptibility to CAR-mediated killing, including RELA and NPLOC4, the knockout of which altered tumor-immune signaling and increased responsiveness of CAR therapy. Overall, CRISPR screening of CAR T cells and GSCs discovered avenues for enhancing CAR therapeutic efficacy against GBM, with the potential to be extended to other solid tumors. SIGNIFICANCE: Reciprocal CRISPR screening identified genes in both CAR T cells and tumor cells regulating the potency of CAR T-cell cytotoxicity, informing molecular targeting strategies to potentiate CAR T-cell antitumor efficacy and elucidate genetic modifications of tumor cells in combination with CAR T cells to advance immuno-oncotherapy.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 995.

7.
Cell ; 184(2): 352-369.e23, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357448

RESUMO

Repetitive elements (REs) compose ∼50% of the human genome and are normally transcriptionally silenced, although the mechanism has remained elusive. Through an RNAi screen, we identified FBXO44 as an essential repressor of REs in cancer cells. FBXO44 bound H3K9me3-modified nucleosomes at the replication fork and recruited SUV39H1, CRL4, and Mi-2/NuRD to transcriptionally silence REs post-DNA replication. FBXO44/SUV39H1 inhibition reactivated REs, leading to DNA replication stress and stimulation of MAVS/STING antiviral pathways and interferon (IFN) signaling in cancer cells to promote decreased tumorigenicity, increased immunogenicity, and enhanced immunotherapy response. FBXO44 expression inversely correlated with replication stress, antiviral pathways, IFN signaling, and cytotoxic T cell infiltration in human cancers, while a FBXO44-immune gene signature correlated with improved immunotherapy response in cancer patients. FBXO44/SUV39H1 were dispensable in normal cells. Collectively, FBXO44/SUV39H1 are crucial repressors of RE transcription, and their inhibition selectively induces DNA replication stress and viral mimicry in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunidade , Interferons/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Trends Cancer ; 7(6): 541-556, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341430

RESUMO

Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors localized in cell nuclei, sensing specific ligands and fine-tuning a variety of cell physiological events. They have been intensively investigated in cancer biology. With their excellent properties of druggability and actionability, nuclear receptors have demonstrated much promise as novel therapeutic targets for different cancer types. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the essential roles of certain nuclear receptors in tumor immunology, suggesting the possibility for them to serve as cancer immunotherapeutic targets. Here, we summarize the roles of nuclear receptors in cancer biology and tumor immunology, and underscore the current advances of clinical trials for nuclear receptor-based cancer therapeutics.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(52): 33295-33304, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318171

RESUMO

Adipocytes have been implicated in breast tumor growth and stemness maintenance through secreted factors. However, the mechanisms by which these cytokines are regulated during diet-induced obesity and contribute to breast tumorigenesis remain largely unknown. Here we show that transcription cofactor TAZ in adipocytes is directly up-regulated by the free fatty acid/PPARγ axis upon dietary fat stimulation. TAZ knockdown alters the expression profile of a series of secreted proteins and attenuates the tumor-supporting function of adipocytes. Moreover, we identify Resistin, an adipose-derived hormone, as a functional downstream target of TAZ, which facilitates tumorigenesis, and its expression correlated with adipocyitc TAZ in triple-negative breast cancer samples. Further, Adiponectin-cre-mediated TAZ knockout in adipocytes mitigates breast tumor growth. Taken together, our findings highlight how diet-induced TAZ expression in adipocytes promotes tumorigenesis, suggesting promising cancer therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese/patologia , Resistina/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
10.
Stem Cell Reports ; 15(3): 761-775, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795421

RESUMO

One approach to understanding how tissue-specific cancers emerge is to determine the requirements for "reprograming" such neoplastic cells back to their developmentally normal primordial pre-malignant epiblast-like pluripotent state and then scrutinizing their spontaneous reconversion to a neoplasm, perhaps rendering salient the earliest pivotal oncogenic pathway(s) (before other aberrations accumulate in the adult tumor). For the prototypical malignancy anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), we found that tonic RAS reduction was obligatory for reprogramming cancer cells to a normal epiblast-emulating cells, confirmed by changes in their transcriptomic and epigenetic profiles, loss of neoplastic behavior, and ability to derive normal somatic cells from their "epiblast organoids." Without such suppression, ATCs re-emerged from the clones. Hence, for ATC, RAS inhibition was its "reprogram enablement" (RE) factor. Each cancer likely has its own RE factor; identifying it may illuminate pre-malignant risk markers, better classifications, therapeutic targets, and tissue-specification of a previously pluripotent, now neoplastic, cell.

11.
iScience ; 23(9): 101458, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861994

RESUMO

The emerging immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has ushered the cancer therapeutics field into an era of immunotherapy. Although ICB treatment provides remarkable clinical responses in a subset of patients with cancer, this regimen fails to extend survival in a large proportion of patients. Here, we found that a combined treatment of estrogen receptor beta (ERß) agonist and PD-1 antibody treatment improved therapeutic efficacy in mouse tumor models, compared with monotherapies, by reducing infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and increasing CD8+ T cells in tumors. Mechanistically, LY500307 treatment reduced tumor-derived CSF1 and decreased infiltration of CSF1R+ MDSCs in the tumor bed. CSF1 released by tumor cells induced CSF1R+ MDSC chemotaxis in vitro and blockade of CSF1R demonstrated similar therapeutic effects as ERß activation in vivo. Collectively, our study proved combined treatment of ERß agonist and PD-1 antibody reduced MDSC infiltration in the tumor and enhanced tumor response to ICB therapy.

12.
Cancer Discov ; 10(11): 1722-1741, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703768

RESUMO

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor with current classification offering limited therapeutic guidance. Here, we interrogated meningioma enhancer landscapes from 33 tumors to stratify patients based upon prognosis and identify novel meningioma-specific dependencies. Enhancers robustly stratified meningiomas into three biologically distinct groups (adipogenesis/cholesterol, mesodermal, and neural crest) distinguished by distinct hormonal lineage transcriptional regulators. Meningioma landscapes clustered with intrinsic brain tumors and hormonally responsive systemic cancers with meningioma subgroups, reflecting progesterone or androgen hormonal signaling. Enhancer classification identified a subset of tumors with poor prognosis, irrespective of histologic grading. Superenhancer signatures predicted drug dependencies with superior in vitro efficacy to treatment based upon the NF2 genomic profile. Inhibition of DUSP1, a novel and druggable meningioma target, impaired tumor growth in vivo. Collectively, epigenetic landscapes empower meningioma classification and identification of novel therapies. SIGNIFICANCE: Enhancer landscapes inform prognostic classification of aggressive meningiomas, identifying tumors at high risk of recurrence, and reveal previously unknown therapeutic targets. Druggable dependencies discovered through epigenetic profiling potentially guide treatment of intractable meningiomas.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1611.

13.
Cell Res ; 30(10): 833-853, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499560

RESUMO

Brain tumors are dynamic complex ecosystems with multiple cell types. To model the brain tumor microenvironment in a reproducible and scalable system, we developed a rapid three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting method to construct clinically relevant biomimetic tissue models. In recurrent glioblastoma, macrophages/microglia prominently contribute to the tumor mass. To parse the function of macrophages in 3D, we compared the growth of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) alone or with astrocytes and neural precursor cells in a hyaluronic acid-rich hydrogel, with or without macrophage. Bioprinted constructs integrating macrophage recapitulate patient-derived transcriptional profiles predictive of patient survival, maintenance of stemness, invasion, and drug resistance. Whole-genome CRISPR screening with bioprinted complex systems identified unique molecular dependencies in GSCs, relative to sphere culture. Multicellular bioprinted models serve as a scalable and physiologic platform to interrogate drug sensitivity, cellular crosstalk, invasion, context-specific functional dependencies, as well as immunologic interactions in a species-matched neural environment.

14.
Mass Spectrom Rev ; 39(5-6): 745-762, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469100

RESUMO

Exosomes are critical intercellular messengers released upon the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the cellular plasma membrane that deliver their cargo in the form of extracellular vesicles. Containing numerous nonrandomly packed functional proteins, lipids, and RNAs, exosomes are vital intercellular messengers that contribute to the physiologic processes of the healthy organism. During the post-genome era, exosome-oriented proteomics have garnered great interest. Since its establishment, mass spectrometry (MS) has been indispensable for the field of proteomics research and has advanced rapidly to interrogate biological samples at a higher resolution and sensitivity. Driven by new methodologies and more advanced instrumentation, MS-based approaches have revolutionized our understanding of protein biology. As the access to online proteomics database platforms has blossomed, experimental data processing occurs with more speed and accuracy. Here, we review recent advances in the technological progress of MS-based proteomics and several new detection strategies for MS-based proteomics research. We also summarize the use of integrated online databases for proteomics research in the era of big data. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Mass Spec Rev.

15.
Cell Stem Cell ; 26(2): 187-204.e10, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956038

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly by killing neural precursor cells (NPCs) and other brain cells. ZIKV also displays therapeutic oncolytic activity against glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). Here we demonstrate that ZIKV preferentially infected and killed GSCs and stem-like cells in medulloblastoma and ependymoma in a SOX2-dependent manner. Targeting SOX2 severely attenuated ZIKV infection, in contrast to AXL. As mechanisms of SOX2-mediated ZIKV infection, we identified inverse expression of antiviral interferon response genes (ISGs) and positive correlation with integrin αv (ITGAV). ZIKV infection was disrupted by genetic targeting of ITGAV or its binding partner ITGB5 and by an antibody specific for integrin αvß5. ZIKV selectively eliminated GSCs from species-matched human mature cerebral organoids and GBM surgical specimens, which was reversed by integrin αvß5 inhibition. Collectively, our studies identify integrin αvß5 as a functional cancer stem cell marker essential for GBM maintenance and ZIKV infection, providing potential brain tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Células-Tronco Neurais , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Receptores de Vitronectina , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética
16.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 31(2): 93-106, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706690

RESUMO

Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily serve as master regulators in signaling by either positively or negatively regulating gene expression. Accumulating evidence has suggested that nuclear receptors are actively involved in immune responses, with specific roles in different immune cell compartments that contribute to both normal function and to disease development. The druggable properties of nuclear receptors have made them ideal modulatory therapeutic targets. Here, we revisit nuclear receptor biology, summarize recent advances in our understanding of the immunological functions of nuclear receptors, describe cell-type-specific roles and specific nuclear receptors in disease pathogenesis, and explore their potential as novel therapeutic targets. These nuclear receptor-dependent alterations in the immune system are amenable to pharmacological manipulation and suggest novel therapeutic strategies.

17.
Cell ; 179(6): 1330-1341.e13, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761532

RESUMO

Non-coding regions amplified beyond oncogene borders have largely been ignored. Using a computational approach, we find signatures of significant co-amplification of non-coding DNA beyond the boundaries of amplified oncogenes across five cancer types. In glioblastoma, EGFR is preferentially co-amplified with its two endogenous enhancer elements active in the cell type of origin. These regulatory elements, their contacts, and their contribution to cell fitness are preserved on high-level circular extrachromosomal DNA amplifications. Interrogating the locus with a CRISPR interference screening approach reveals a diversity of additional elements that impact cell fitness. The pattern of fitness dependencies mirrors the rearrangement of regulatory elements and accompanying rewiring of the chromatin topology on the extrachromosomal amplicon. Our studies indicate that oncogene amplifications are shaped by regulatory dependencies in the non-coding genome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Amplificação de Genes , Oncogenes , Acetilação , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Genes Neoplásicos , Loci Gênicos , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neuroglia/metabolismo
18.
Front Oncol ; 9: 965, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681559

RESUMO

Cancer is a devastating disease process that touches the lives of millions worldwide. Despite advances in our understanding of the genomic architecture of cancers and the mechanisms that underlie cancer development, a great therapeutic challenge remains. Here, we revisit the birthplace of cancer biology and review how one of the first discovered oncogenes, RAS, drives cancers in new and unexpected ways. As our understanding of oncogenic signaling has evolved, it is clear that RAS signaling is not homogenous, but activates distinct downstream effectors in different cancer types and grades. RAS signaling is tightly controlled through a series of post-transcriptional mechanisms, which are frequently distorted in the context of cancer, and establish key metabolic and immunologic states that support cancer growth, migration, survival, metastasis, and plasticity. While targeting RAS has been fiercely pursued for decades, new strategies have recently emerged with the potential for therapeutic efficacy. Thus, understanding the complexities of RAS biology may translate into improved therapies for patients with RAS-driven cancers.

19.
Cancer Discov ; 9(11): 1556-1573, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455674

RESUMO

Glioblastomas are highly lethal cancers, containing self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). Here, we show that GSCs, differentiated glioblastoma cells (DGC), and nonmalignant brain cultures all displayed robust circadian rhythms, yet GSCs alone displayed exquisite dependence on core clock transcription factors, BMAL1 and CLOCK, for optimal cell growth. Downregulation of BMAL1 or CLOCK in GSCs induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that BMAL1 preferentially bound metabolic genes and was associated with active chromatin regions in GSCs compared with neural stem cells. Targeting BMAL1 or CLOCK attenuated mitochondrial metabolic function and reduced expression of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Small-molecule agonists of two independent BMAL1-CLOCK negative regulators, the cryptochromes and REV-ERBs, downregulated stem cell factors and reduced GSC growth. Combination of cryptochrome and REV-ERB agonists induced synergistic antitumor efficacy. Collectively, these findings show that GSCs co-opt circadian regulators beyond canonical circadian circuitry to promote stemness maintenance and metabolism, offering novel therapeutic paradigms. SIGNIFICANCE: Cancer stem cells are highly malignant tumor-cell populations. We demonstrate that GSCs selectively depend on circadian regulators, with increased binding of the regulators in active chromatin regions promoting tumor metabolism. Supporting clinical relevance, pharmacologic targeting of circadian networks specifically disrupted cancer stem cell growth and self-renewal.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1469.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/química , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(504)2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391321

RESUMO

Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) reprogram glucose metabolism by hijacking high-affinity glucose uptake to survive in a nutritionally dynamic microenvironment. Here, we trace metabolic aberrations in GSCs to link core genetic mutations in glioblastoma to dependency on de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Targeting the pyrimidine synthetic rate-limiting step enzyme carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydroorotase (CAD) or the critical downstream enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibited GSC survival, self-renewal, and in vivo tumor initiation through the depletion of the pyrimidine nucleotide supply in rodent models. Mutations in EGFR or PTEN generated distinct CAD phosphorylation patterns to activate carbon influx through pyrimidine synthesis. Simultaneous abrogation of tumor-specific driver mutations and DHODH activity with clinically approved inhibitors demonstrated sustained inhibition of metabolic activity of pyrimidine synthesis and GSC tumorigenic capacity in vitro. Higher expression of pyrimidine synthesis genes portends poor prognosis of patients with glioblastoma. Collectively, our results demonstrate a therapeutic approach of precision medicine through targeting the nexus between driver mutations and metabolic reprogramming in cancer stem cells.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Pirimidinas/biossíntese , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Crotonatos/farmacologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Toluidinas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...