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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is more severe in transplant recipients. Variants of concern have supplanted wild-type virus. In transplant recipients, data are limited on 2-dose or 3-dose vaccine immunogenicity against variant viruses. OBJECTIVE: To assess neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants in transplant recipients after 2 and 3 vaccine doses. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of a third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine versus placebo. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04885907). SETTING: Single-center transplant program. PATIENTS: Organ transplant recipients. INTERVENTION: Third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine versus placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Sera were analyzed for neutralization against wild-type virus and the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants using a surrogate virus neutralization assay and a spike-pseudotyped lentivirus assay. RESULTS: A total of 117 transplant recipients were analyzed (60 in the mRNA-1273 group and 57 in the placebo group). Sera were obtained before and 4 to 6 weeks after the third dose. After 2 doses, the proportion of patients with positive neutralization for all 3 variants was small compared with wild-type virus. After the third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine, the proportion with a positive neutralization response versus placebo was improved for all 3 variants as measured by both assays. Based on the pseudovirus neutralization assay against the Delta variant, 33 of 60 (55%) patients were positive in the mRNA-1273 group versus 10 of 57 (18%) in the placebo group (difference, 37 [95% CI, 19 to 53] percentage points). The differences were 36 (CI, 17 to 51) percentage points for the Alpha variant and 31 (CI, 15 to 46) percentage points for the Beta variant. In the mRNA-1273 group, lower neutralization values were observed for variants compared with wild-type virus, especially the Beta variant. LIMITATIONS: There is no clear correlate of protection for neutralizing antibody. This was a secondary analysis. CONCLUSION: In organ transplant recipients, a third dose of mRNA vaccine increases neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with placebo. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ajmera Transplant Centre.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6497, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764269

RESUMO

Fungal pathogens pose a global threat to human health, with Candida albicans among the leading killers. Systematic analysis of essential genes provides a powerful strategy to discover potential antifungal targets. Here, we build a machine learning model to generate genome-wide gene essentiality predictions for C. albicans and expand the largest functional genomics resource in this pathogen (the GRACE collection) by 866 genes. Using this model and chemogenomic analyses, we define the function of three uncharacterized essential genes with roles in kinetochore function, mitochondrial integrity, and translation, and identify the glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase Gln4 as the target of N-pyrimidinyl-ß-thiophenylacrylamide (NP-BTA), an antifungal compound.

3.
iScience ; 24(11): 103274, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761192

RESUMO

Internalized and ubiquitinated signaling receptors are silenced by their intraluminal budding into multivesicular bodies aided by the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. HD-PTP, an ESCRT protein, forms complexes with ESCRT-0, -I and -III proteins, and binds to Endofin, a FYVE-domain protein confined to endosomes with poorly understood roles. Using proximity biotinylation, we showed that Endofin forms a complex with ESCRT constituents and Endofin depletion increased integrin α5-and EGF-receptor plasma membrane density and stability by hampering their lysosomal delivery. This coincided with sustained receptor signaling and increased cell migration. Complementation of Endofin- or HD-PTP-depleted cells with wild-type Endofin or HD-PTP, but not with mutants harboring impaired Endofin/HD-PTP association or cytosolic Endofin, restored EGFR lysosomal delivery. Endofin also promoted Hrs indirect interaction with HD-PTP. Jointly, our results indicate that Endofin is required for HD-PTP and ESCRT-0 interdependent sorting of ubiquitinated transmembrane cargoes to ensure efficient receptor desensitization and lysosomal delivery.

4.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0088621, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787495

RESUMO

The evaluation of humoral protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 remains crucial in understanding both natural immunity and protective immunity conferred by the several vaccines implemented in the fight against COVID-19. The reference standard for the quantification of antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 is the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). However, given that it is a laboratory-developed assay, validation is crucial in order to ensure sufficient specificity and intra- and interassay precision. In addition, a multitude of other serological assays have been developed, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry-based assays, luciferase-based lentiviral pseudotype assays, and commercially available human ACE2 receptor-blocking antibody tests, which offer practical advantages in the evaluation of the protective humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we validated a SARS-CoV-2 PRNT to assess both 50% and 90% neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 according to guidelines outlined by the World Health Organization. Upon validation, the reference-standard PRNT demonstrated excellent specificity and both intra- and interassay precision. Using the validated assay as a reference standard, we characterized the neutralizing antibody response in specimens from patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Finally, we conducted a small-scale multilaboratory comparison of alternate SARS-CoV-2 PRNTs and surrogate neutralization tests. These assays demonstrated substantial to perfect interrater agreement with the reference-standard PRNT and offer useful alternatives to assess humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19, has infected over 246 million people and led to over 5 million deaths as of October 2021. With the approval of several efficacious COVID-19 vaccines, methods to evaluate protective immune responses will be crucial for the understanding of long-term immunity in the rapidly growing vaccinated population. The PRNT, which quantifies SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies, is used widely as a reference standard to validate new platforms but has not undergone substantial validation to ensure excellent inter- and intraassay precision and specificity. Our work is significant, as it describes the thorough validation of a PRNT, which we then used as a reference standard for the comparison of several alternative serological methods to measure SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies. These assays demonstrated excellent agreement with the reference-standard PRNT and include high-throughput platforms, which can greatly enhance capacity to assess both natural and vaccine-induced protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

5.
PLoS Genet ; 17(11): e1009909, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780483

RESUMO

The ATRX ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling/helicase protein associates with the DAXX histone chaperone to deposit histone H3.3 over repetitive DNA regions. Because ATRX-protein interactions impart functions, such as histone deposition, we used proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) to identify proximal associations for ATRX. The proteomic screen captured known interactors, such as DAXX, NBS1, and PML, but also identified a range of new associating proteins. To gauge the scope of their roles, we examined three novel ATRX-associating proteins that likely differed in function, and for which little data were available. We found CCDC71 to associate with ATRX, but also HP1 and NAP1, suggesting a role in chromatin maintenance. Contrastingly, FAM207A associated with proteins involved in ribosome biosynthesis and localized to the nucleolus. ATRX proximal associations with the SLF2 DNA damage response factor help inhibit telomere exchanges. We further screened for the proteomic changes at telomeres when ATRX, SLF2, or both proteins were deleted. The loss caused important changes in the abundance of chromatin remodelling, DNA replication, and DNA repair factors at telomeres. Interestingly, several of these have previously been implicated in alternative lengthening of telomeres. Altogether, this study expands the repertoire of ATRX-associating proteins and functions.

6.
Transfusion ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot study assesses the ability of plasma collected from Canadian blood donors in the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to neutralize later SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional design was used, and a random cross-sectional sample of all available Canadian Blood Services retention samples (n = 1500/month) was drawn monthly for April and May of 2020. Qualitative IgG analysis was performed on aliquots of specimens using anti-spike, anti-receptor binding domain, and anti-nucleocapsid protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as well as the Abbott Architect SARS CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott Laboratories) against the anti-nucleocapsid protein. Selected plasma specimens were then assessed for neutralization against VOCs using pseudotyped lentivirus inhibition assays as well as plaque reduction neutralization test 50% (PRNT50 ). RESULTS: Six specimens with a high neutralizing titer against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and three specimens with a low neutralizing titer against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were chosen for further analysis against VOCs. Four of six high neutralizing titer specimens had a reduced neutralizing capacity against beta VOCs by both neutralization methods. Three of six high neutralizing titer specimens had reduced neutralization capacity against gamma VOCs. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary data can be used as a justification for limiting the use of first wave plasma products in upcoming clinical trials but cannot be used to speculate on general trends in the immunity of Canadian blood donors to SARS-CoV-2.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052842, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is considerable variability in symptoms and severity of COVID-19 among patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Linking host and virus genome sequence information to antibody response and biological information may identify patient or viral characteristics associated with poor and favourable outcomes. This study aims to (1) identify characteristics of the antibody response that result in maintained immune response and better outcomes, (2) determine the impact of genetic differences on infection severity and immune response, (3) determine the impact of viral lineage on antibody response and patient outcomes and (4) evaluate patient-reported outcomes of receiving host genome, antibody and viral lineage results. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective, observational cohort study is being conducted among adult patients with COVID-19 in the Greater Toronto Area. Blood samples are collected at baseline (during infection) and 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Serial antibody titres, isotype, antigen target and viral neutralisation will be assessed. Clinical data will be collected from chart reviews and patient surveys. Host genomes and T-cell and B-cell receptors will be sequenced. Viral genomes will be sequenced to identify viral lineage. Regression models will be used to test associations between antibody response, physiological response, genetic markers and patient outcomes. Pathogenic genomic variants related to disease severity, or negative outcomes will be identified and genome wide association will be conducted. Immune repertoire diversity during infection will be correlated with severity of COVID-19 symptoms and human leucocyte antigen-type associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants can learn their genome sequencing, antibody and viral sequencing results; patient-reported outcomes of receiving this information will be assessed through surveys and qualitative interviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by Clinical Trials Ontario Streamlined Ethics Review System (CTO Project ID: 3302) and the research ethics boards at participating hospitals. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and end-users.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6064, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663815

RESUMO

Calcineurin, the conserved protein phosphatase and target of immunosuppressants, is a critical mediator of Ca2+ signaling. Here, to discover calcineurin-regulated processes we examined an understudied isoform, CNAß1. We show that unlike canonical cytosolic calcineurin, CNAß1 localizes to the plasma membrane and Golgi due to palmitoylation of its divergent C-terminal tail, which is reversed by the ABHD17A depalmitoylase. Palmitoylation targets CNAß1 to a distinct set of membrane-associated interactors including the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KA) complex containing EFR3B, PI4KA, TTC7B and FAM126A. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange reveals multiple calcineurin-PI4KA complex contacts, including a calcineurin-binding peptide motif in the disordered tail of FAM126A, which we establish as a calcineurin substrate. Calcineurin inhibitors decrease PI4P production during Gq-coupled GPCR signaling, suggesting that calcineurin dephosphorylates and promotes PI4KA complex activity. In sum, this work discovers a calcineurin-regulated signaling pathway which highlights the PI4KA complex as a regulatory target and reveals that dynamic palmitoylation confers unique localization, substrate specificity and regulation to CNAß1.


Assuntos
1-Fosfatidilinositol 4-Quinase/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Lipoilação/fisiologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/química , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257743, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence studies bridge the gap left from case detection, to estimate the true burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. While multiple anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays are available, no gold standard exists. METHODS: This serial cross-sectional study was conducted using plasma samples from 8999 healthy blood donors between April-September 2020. Each sample was tested by four assays: Abbott SARS-Cov-2 IgG assay, targeting nucleocapsid (Abbott-NP) and three in-house IgG ELISA assays (targeting spike glycoprotein, receptor binding domain, and nucleocapsid). Seroprevalence rates were compared using multiple composite reference standards and by a series of Bayesian Latent Class Models. RESULT: We found 13 unique diagnostic phenotypes; only 32 samples (0.4%) were positive by all assays. None of the individual assays resulted in seroprevalence increasing monotonically over time. In contrast, by using the results from all assays, the Bayesian Latent Class Model with informative priors predicted seroprevalence increased from 0.7% (95% credible interval (95% CrI); 0.4, 1.0%) in April/May to 0.7% (95% CrI 0.5, 1.1%) in June/July to 0.9% (95% CrI 0.5, 1.3) in August/September. Assay characteristics varied over time. Overall Spike had the highest sensitivity (93.5% (95% CrI 88.7, 97.3%), while the sensitivity of the Abbott-NP assay waned from 77.3% (95% CrI 58.7, 92.5%) in April/May to 64.4% (95% CrI 45.6, 83.0) by August/September. DISCUSSION: Our results confirmed very low seroprevalence after the first wave in Canada. Given the dynamic nature of this pandemic, Bayesian Latent Class Models can be used to correct for imperfect test characteristics and waning IgG antibody signals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Teorema de Bayes , Doadores de Sangue , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cell Chem Biol ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520745

RESUMO

The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) evades the innate immune system by interfering with autophagy and phagosomal maturation in macrophages, and, as a result, small molecule stimulation of autophagy represents a host-directed therapeutics (HDTs) approach for treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Here we show the marine natural product clionamines activate autophagy and inhibit Mtb survival in macrophages. A yeast chemical-genetics approach identified Pik1 as target protein of the clionamines. Biotinylated clionamine B pulled down Pik1 from yeast cell lysates and a clionamine analog inhibited phosphatidyl 4-phosphate (PI4P) production in yeast Golgi membranes. Chemical-genetic profiles of clionamines and cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) are closely related, linking the clionamine mode of action to co-localization with PI4P in a vesicular compartment. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of PI4KB, a human homolog of Pik1, inhibited the survival of Mtb in macrophages, identifying PI4KB as an unexploited molecular target for efforts to develop HDT drugs for treatment of TB.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549195

RESUMO

The eukaryotic cell is compartmentalized into subcellular niches, including membrane-bound and membrane-less organelles. Proteins localize to these niches to fulfil their function, enabling discreet biological processes to occur in synchrony. Dynamic movement of proteins between niches is essential for cellular processes such as signalling, growth, proliferation, motility and programmed cell death, and mutations causing aberrant protein localization are associated with a wide range of diseases. Determining the location of proteins in different cell states and cell types and how proteins relocalize following perturbation is important for understanding their functions, related cellular processes and pathologies associated with their mislocalization. In this Primer, we cover the major spatial proteomics methods for determining the location, distribution and abundance of proteins within subcellular structures. These technologies include fluorescent imaging, protein proximity labelling, organelle purification and cell-wide biochemical fractionation. We describe their workflows, data outputs and applications in exploring different cell biological scenarios, and discuss their main limitations. Finally, we describe emerging technologies and identify areas that require technological innovation to allow better characterization of the spatial proteome.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123622, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473256

RESUMO

Importance: Patients undergoing hemodialysis have a high mortality rate associated with COVID-19, and this patient population often has a poor response to vaccinations. Randomized clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines included few patients with kidney disease; therefore, vaccine immunogenicity is uncertain in this population. Objective: To evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis following 1 vs 2 doses of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination compared with health care workers serving as controls and convalescent serum. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, single-center cohort study was conducted between February 2 and April 17, 2021, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants included 142 patients receiving in-center hemodialysis and 35 health care worker controls. Exposures: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to the spike protein (anti-spike), receptor binding domain (anti-RBD), and nucleocapsid protein (anti-NP). Results: Among the 142 participants undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, 94 (66%) were men; median age was 72 (interquartile range, 62-79) years. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were measured in 66 patients receiving 1 vaccine dose following a public health policy change, 76 patients receiving 2 vaccine doses, and 35 health care workers receiving 2 vaccine doses. Detectable anti-NP suggestive of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in 15 of 142 (11%) patients at baseline, and only 3 patients had prior COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. Two additional patients contracted COVID-19 after receiving 2 doses of vaccine. In 66 patients receiving a single BNT162b2 dose, seroconversion occurred in 53 (80%) for anti-spike and 36 (55%) for anti-RBD by 28 days postdose, but a robust response, defined by reaching the median levels of antibodies in convalescent serum from COVID-19 survivors, was noted in only 15 patients (23%) for anti-spike and 4 (6%) for anti-RBD in convalescent serum from COVID-19 survivors. In patients receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, seroconversion occurred in 69 of 72 (96%) for anti-spike and 63 of 72 (88%) for anti-RBD by 2 weeks following the second dose and median convalescent serum levels were reached in 52 of 72 patients (72%) for anti-spike and 43 of 72 (60%) for anti-RBD. In contrast, all 35 health care workers exceeded the median level of anti-spike and anti-RBD found in convalescent serum 2 to 4 weeks after the second dose. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests poor immunogenicity 28 days following a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in the hemodialysis population, supporting adherence to recommended vaccination schedules and avoiding delay of the second dose in these at-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052282, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has an excessive impact on residents in long-term care facilities (LTCF), causing high morbidity and mortality. Early detection of presymptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases supports the timely implementation of effective outbreak control measures but repetitive screening of residents and staff incurs costs and discomfort. Administration of vaccines is key to controlling the pandemic but the robustness and longevity of the antibody response, correlation of neutralising antibodies with commercial antibody assays, and the efficacy of current vaccines for emerging COVID-19 variants require further study. We propose to monitor SARS-CoV-2 in site-specific sewage as an early warning system for COVID-19 in LTCF and to study the immune response of the staff and residents in LTCF to COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study includes two parts: (1) detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in LTCF site-specific sewage samples using a molecular assay followed by notification of Public Health within 24 hours as an early warning system for appropriate outbreak investigation and control measures and cost-benefit analyses of the system and (2) testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff and residents in LTCF at various time points before and after COVID-19 vaccination using commercial assays and neutralising antibody testing performed at a reference laboratory. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Alberta Health Research Ethics Board with considerations to minimise risk and discomforts for the participants. Early recognition of a COVID-19 case in an LTCF might prevent further transmission in residents and staff. There was no direct benefit identified to the participants of the immunity study. Anticipated dissemination of information includes a summary report to the immunity study participants, sharing of study data with the scientific community through the Canadian COVID-19 Immunity Task Force, and prompt dissemination of study results in meeting abstracts and manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esgotos , Formação de Anticorpos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Canadá , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109584, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433036

RESUMO

Evasion of killing by immune cells is crucial for fungal survival in the host. For the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, internalization by macrophages induces a transition from yeast to filaments that promotes macrophage death and fungal escape. Nutrient deprivation, alkaline pH, and oxidative stress have been implicated as triggers of intraphagosomal filamentation; however, the impact of other host-derived factors remained unknown. Here, we show that lysates prepared from macrophage-like cell lines and primary macrophages robustly induce C. albicans filamentation. Enzymatic treatment of lysate implicates a phosphorylated protein, and bioactivity-guided fractionation coupled to mass spectrometry identifies the immunomodulatory phosphoprotein PTMA as a candidate trigger of C. albicans filamentation. Immunoneutralization of PTMA within lysate abolishes its activity, strongly supporting PTMA as a filament-inducing component of macrophage lysate. Adding to the known repertoire of physical factors, this work implicates a host protein in the induction of C. albicans filamentation within immune cells.

15.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 20: 100128, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332124

RESUMO

Understanding how proteins are organized in compartments is essential to elucidating their function. While proximity-dependent approaches such as BioID have enabled a massive increase in information about organelles, protein complexes, and other structures in cell culture, to date there have been only a few studies on living vertebrates. Here, we adapted proximity labeling for protein discovery in vivo in the vertebrate model organism, zebrafish. Using lamin A (LMNA) as bait and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a negative control, we developed, optimized, and benchmarked in vivo TurboID and miniTurbo labeling in early zebrafish embryos. We developed both an mRNA injection protocol and a transgenic system in which transgene expression is controlled by a heat shock promoter. In both cases, biotin is provided directly in the egg water, and we demonstrate that 12 h of labeling are sufficient for biotinylation of prey proteins, which should permit time-resolved analysis of development. After statistical scoring, we found that the proximal partners of LMNA detected in each system were enriched for nuclear envelope and nuclear membrane proteins and included many orthologs of human proteins identified as proximity partners of lamin A in mammalian cell culture. The tools and protocols developed here will allow zebrafish researchers to complement genetic tools with powerful proteomics approaches.

16.
Nature ; 595(7865): 120-124, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079125

RESUMO

Compartmentalization is a defining characteristic of eukaryotic cells, and partitions distinct biochemical processes into discrete subcellular locations. Microscopy1 and biochemical fractionation coupled with mass spectrometry2-4 have defined the proteomes of a variety of different organelles, but many intracellular compartments have remained refractory to such approaches. Proximity-dependent biotinylation techniques such as BioID provide an alternative approach to define the composition of cellular compartments in living cells5-7. Here we present a BioID-based map of a human cell on the basis of 192 subcellular markers, and define the intracellular locations of 4,145 unique proteins in HEK293 cells. Our localization predictions exceed the specificity of previous approaches, and enabled the discovery of proteins at the interface between the mitochondrial outer membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum that are crucial for mitochondrial homeostasis. On the basis of this dataset, we created humancellmap.org as a community resource that provides online tools for localization analysis of user BioID data, and demonstrate how this resource can be used to understand BioID results better.


Assuntos
Biotinilação , Compartimento Celular , Transporte Proteico , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/química , Células Cultivadas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Homeostase , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Mitocôndrias/química , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Organelas/química , Organelas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Mol Cell ; 81(12): 2549-2565.e8, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957083

RESUMO

Hsp70s comprise a deeply conserved chaperone family that has a central role in maintaining protein homeostasis. In humans, Hsp70 client specificity is provided by 49 different co-factors known as J domain proteins (JDPs). However, the cellular function and client specificity of JDPs have largely remained elusive. We have combined affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) and proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) to characterize the interactome of all human JDPs and Hsp70s. The resulting network suggests specific functions for many uncharacterized JDPs, and we establish a role of conserved JDPs DNAJC9 and DNAJC27 in histone chaperoning and ciliogenesis, respectively. Unexpectedly, we find that the J domain of DNAJC27 but not of other JDPs can fully replace the function of endogenous DNAJC27, suggesting a previously unappreciated role for J domains themselves in JDP specificity. More broadly, our work expands the role of the Hsp70-regulated proteostasis network and provides a platform for further discovery of JDP-dependent functions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/fisiologia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
18.
Elife ; 102021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913810

RESUMO

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a vascular sarcoma that metastasizes early in its clinical course and lacks an effective medical therapy. The TAZ-CAMTA1 and YAP-TFE3 fusion proteins are chimeric transcription factors and initiating oncogenic drivers of EHE. A combined proteomic/genetic screen in human cell lines identified YEATS2 and ZZZ3, components of the Ada2a-containing histone acetyltransferase (ATAC) complex, as key interactors of both fusion proteins despite the dissimilarity of the C terminal fusion partners CAMTA1 and TFE3. Integrative next-generation sequencing approaches in human and murine cell lines showed that the fusion proteins drive a unique transcriptome by simultaneously hyperactivating a TEAD-based transcriptional program and modulating the chromatin environment via interaction with the ATAC complex. Interaction of the ATAC complex with both fusion proteins indicates that it is a key oncogenic driver and unifying enzymatic therapeutic target for this sarcoma. This study presents an approach to mechanistically dissect how chimeric transcription factors drive the formation of human cancers.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/metabolismo , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma
19.
Mol Ther ; 29(6): 1984-2000, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578036

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the immediate need for the development of antiviral therapeutics targeting different stages of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. We developed a bioluminescence-based bioreporter to interrogate the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike (S) protein and its host entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The bioreporter assay is based on a nanoluciferase complementation reporter, composed of two subunits, large BiT and small BiT, fused to the S receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and ACE2 ectodomain, respectively. Using this bioreporter, we uncovered critical host and viral determinants of the interaction, including a role for glycosylation of asparagine residues within the RBD in mediating successful viral entry. We also demonstrate the importance of N-linked glycosylation to the RBD's antigenicity and immunogenicity. Our study demonstrates the versatility of our bioreporter in mapping key residues mediating viral entry as well as screening inhibitors of the ACE2-RBD interaction. Our findings point toward targeting RBD glycosylation for therapeutic and vaccine strategies against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Lectinas/farmacologia , Receptores Virais/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Asparagina/química , Asparagina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Genes Reporter , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Cell Biol ; 220(2)2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464297

RESUMO

Adaptor protein complex 5 (AP-5) and its partners, SPG11 and SPG15, are recruited onto late endosomes and lysosomes. Here we show that recruitment of AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 is enhanced in starved cells and occurs by coincidence detection, requiring both phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) and Rag GTPases. PI3P binding is via the SPG15 FYVE domain, which, on its own, localizes to early endosomes. GDP-locked RagC promotes recruitment of AP-5/SPG11/SPG15, while GTP-locked RagA prevents its recruitment. Our results uncover an interplay between AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 and the mTORC1 pathway and help to explain the phenotype of AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 deficiency in patients, including the defect in autophagic lysosome reformation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Endossomos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos
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