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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 132(3): 215-220, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188137

RESUMO

An unusual mortality event (UME) of striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba occurred in the period July to December 2016 along the Italian Ionian coastline. We conducted a complete postmortem examination on 28 specimens and detected dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), by means of biomolecular analyses, in the target tissues of 17 animals. Unlike previous outbreaks occurring in the Mediterranean Sea in 2011 and 2013, we observed typical pathological changes suggestive of morbilliviral infection in an acute/subacute phase and immunohistochemical reactivity. The same findings were observed in 13 other specimens beached along the Italian coastline during 2016 with no temporal and geographical relationship with the ongoing epidemic outbreak. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis showed that DMV sequences detected in Italy in 2016 clustered with those identified in Portugal and Galicia (Spain), representing a novel DMV strain of Atlantic origin which entered the Mediterranean Sea and affected a naïve striped dolphin population. DMV sequences detected in the previous Mediterranean outbreaks exhibited a marked genetic relatedness and diverged from those detected in cetaceans stranded along the Galician and Portuguese coasts since 2007.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Infecções por Morbillivirus , Morbillivirus , Stenella , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Filogenia , Espanha
2.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 844-856, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021687

RESUMO

Canine distemper (CD) may pose a serious threat to Alpine wild carnivores and affect their population dynamics. Since 2006, the strain Europe Wildlife 2006-09, a distinct CD virus subgroup within viral lineage Europe 1 (EU1) characterized by increased virulence and host range expansion, has been linked to multiple CD outbreaks in Alpine wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to fill knowledge gaps about ongoing Alpine outbreaks of CD. To do this, we report on the circulation of canine distemper virus (CDV) and outbreaks of CD in Alpine wild carnivores in northwest Italy. A specific diagnostic protocol applied to a sample of 548 wild carnivores collected between January 2013 and December 2015 revealed the circulation of CDV belonging to the EU1 lineage. All isolates were carriers of amino-acid mutations defining the cluster Europe Wildlife 2006-09. A self-maintained multihost pathogen system may have developed in northwest Italy in which interspecies transmission from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to other noncanid species enhanced pathogen maintenance in the system.

4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11577, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068967

RESUMO

Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are rare in the Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, in 2014 a pod of 7 specimens stranded alive along the Italian coast of the Central Adriatic Sea: 3 individuals died on the beach after a few hours due to internal damages induced by prolonged recumbency; the remaining 4 whales were refloated after great efforts. All the dead animals were genetically related females; one was pregnant. All the animals were infected by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and the pregnant whale was also affected by a severe nephropathy due to a large kidney stone. Other analyses ruled out other possible relevant factors related to weather conditions or human activities. The results of multidisciplinary post-mortem analyses revealed that the 7 sperm whales entered the Adriatic Sea encountering adverse weather conditions and then kept heading northward following the pregnant but sick leader of the pod, thereby reaching the stranding site. DMV infection most likely played a crucial role in impairing the health condition and orientation abilities of the whales. They did not steer back towards deeper waters, but eventually stranded along the Central Adriatic Sea coastline, a real trap for sperm whales.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Cachalote , Animais , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 290: e19-e23, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025595

RESUMO

Fishing activities are considered one of the most relevant threats for cetaceans and sea turtles conservation since these animals are sometimes found dead entangled in fishing gears. Currently, postmortem diagnosis is based mainly on the presence of nets and lines on the body and the related marks and injuries evident at gross examination. A more detailed and objective evidence is needed to clarify doubts cases and the diatoms technique, used in forensic human medicine, could support drowning diagnosis also in this field. Diatoms' investigation was implemented to be applied in marine vertebrate on 8 striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and 1 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins and 5 sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the Italian coastlines with a likely cause of death hypothized on necropsies carried out by veterinary pathologists. Diatoms were microscopically searched in the bone marrow collected from long bones implementing protocols used in human medicine and their presence was observed in 4 cetaceans and 2 sea turtles. Despite a clear relation between diatoms' presence and amount and the likely cause of death was not proved due to the poor number of samples, the higher burden of diatoms was found in 3 animals deemed to be death for the interaction with human activity. Despite more studied are necessary to identify the possible relation between the cause of death and diatoms' findings, the present study implemented this technique to be adapted to marine animals, confirming its possible application also in veterinary forensic medicine.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Stenella , Tartarugas , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Afogamento/veterinária , Ciências Forenses , Projetos Piloto
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 127(2): 137-144, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384483

RESUMO

A juvenile female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba live stranded on 4 March 2016 at Alassio, western Ligurian Sea coast, Italy. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. Necropsy revealed severe tracheal occlusion and unilateral bronchial stenosis with luminal accumulation of abundant green-yellow mucous-gelatinous material. Histological features suggestive of tracheobronchial aspergillosis were observed. Cultures of lung tissue and tracheo-bronchial exudate isolated Aspergillus fumigatus, identified by a Microseq D2 LSUrDNA fungal sequencing kit. A pan-Herpesvirus nested-PCR assay on frozen samples obtained from multiple organs was positive. Phylogenetic analysis on the partial DNA polymerase gene revealed that the striped dolphin isolate was closely related to known cetacean Alphaherpesvirus sequences from the same host species. Attempted virus isolation was unsuccessful. The tissue levels of different persistent organic pollutants and the toxicological stress, evaluated using a theoretical model, showed a severely impaired immune response. This study reports the first case of occlusive mycotic tracheobronchitis in a free-living cetacean and the first molecular identification of an Alphaherpesvirus in a free-ranging striped dolphin stranded on the coast of Italy.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Bronquite/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Stenella/microbiologia , Traqueíte/veterinária , Animais , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Bronquite/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Traqueíte/epidemiologia , Traqueíte/microbiologia
7.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(2): 295-303, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369721

RESUMO

We summarized the neuropathologic findings in 60 cetaceans stranded along the Italian coastline from 2002 to 2014. The following neuropathologic changes were detected in 45% (27/60) of animals: nonsuppurative meningo-encephalitides (30%, 18/60), nonspecific lesions (12%, 7/60), suppurative encephalitis (2%, 1/60), and neoplasm (2%, 1/60). No histologic lesions were found in 47% (28/60) of the specimens. Five (8%, 5/60) samples were unsuitable for analysis. Analysis with PCR detected Brucella spp., morbillivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii infection in one, six, and seven individuals, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed positivity for morbillivirus and for T. gondii infection in three cases each. No evidence of the scrapie-associated prion protein PrPSc was detected. Our findings underscore the importance of an adequate surveillance system for monitoring aquatic mammal pathologies and for protecting both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/veterinária , Golfinhos , Baleias , Animais , Encefalopatias/patologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 860, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339753

RESUMO

The Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) genome from the first Mediterranean epidemic (1990-'92) is the only cetacean Morbillivirus that has been completely sequenced. Here, we report the first application of next generation sequencing (NGS) to morbillivirus infection of aquatic mammals. A viral isolate, representative of the 2006-'08 Mediterranean epidemic (DMV_IZSPLV_2008), efficiently grew on Vero.DogSLAMtag cells and was submitted to whole genome characterization by NGS. The final genome length was 15,673 nucleotides, covering 99.82% of the DMV reference genome. Comparison of DMV_IZSPLV_2008 and 1990-'92 DMV strain sequences revealed 157 nucleotide mutations and 47 amino acid changes. The sequence similarity was 98.7% at the full genome level. Whole-genome phylogeny suggested that the DMV strain circulating during the 2006-'08 epidemics emerged from the 1990-'92 DMV strain. Viral isolation is considered the "gold standard" for morbillivirus diagnostics but efficient propagation of infectious virus is difficult to achieve. The successful cell replication of this strain allowed performing NGS directly from the viral RNA, without prior PCR amplification. We therefore provide to the scientific community a second DMV genome, representative of another major outbreak. Interestingly, genome comparison revealed that the neglected L gene encompasses 74% of the genetic diversity and might serve as "hypervariable" target for strain characterization.


Assuntos
Golfinhos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Morbillivirus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Funções Verossimilhança , Morbillivirus/classificação , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Células Vero/virologia
9.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 29(3): 165-172, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792275

RESUMO

Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that is considered extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. We evaluated the effect of subacute doses (0.033, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg) of deltamethrin on micronucleus frequency and oxidative stress markers in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 d after intracoelomic injection. No genotoxic damage was recorded, as no specimen showed a micronucleus number above the physiological range. Deltamethrin exposure elicited a transient reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase and a persistent decrease in glutathione reductase activity. Overall, the lower antioxidant enzyme activity in the deltamethrin-treated fish was mainly dose-dependent. Received May 27, 2016 accepted June 18, 2017.


Assuntos
Nitrilos/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo
10.
J Wildl Dis ; 53(4): 795-803, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475451

RESUMO

Between 2007 and 2014, 83 cetaceans were found stranded along the Ligurian coast of Italy, in the Pelagos Sanctuary, the largest marine protected area in the Mediterranean basin. Forty-nine (59%) were submitted to complete or partial necropsy, depending on the conservation status of the carcass. Based on gross and histological pathology and ancillary testing, the cause of death was determined and categorized as anthropogenic or natural (i.e., nonanthropogenic) in origin for 33 animals (67%) and of undetermined origin in the remaining 16 (33%). Natural causes of death, accompanied by either poor or good nutritional status, were attributed to 29 animals (59%), whereas four (8%) were diagnosed with an anthropogenic cause of death, consisting of interaction with fishing activities. Infectious and noninfectious disease was the most common cause of death, involving 29 cetaceans (59%). These data are valuable for understanding health and mortality trends in cetacean populations and can provide information for establishing policies for cetacean conservation and management in such an important protected area of the Mediterranean basin.


Assuntos
Autopsia/veterinária , Causas de Morte , Cetáceos , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/veterinária , Adenoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Adenoma Adrenocortical/veterinária , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Hemorragia/veterinária , Atividades Humanas , Itália , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Doenças Urológicas/mortalidade , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária
11.
J Virol Methods ; 247: 22-27, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528278

RESUMO

Morbillivirus genus comprises several members related to specific hosts, such as canine distemper virus (CDV) and cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) in which the dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) is included. Both CDV and DMV are able to cause serious outbreak associated with high morbidity and mortality representing an important conservation threat for terrestrial and aquatic mammalian species. This paper describes a new RT-PCR RFLP technique based on a RT-PCR with degenerate primers targeting a 287 bp fragment located on the conserved N terminus of the morbillivirus NP gene, followed by MseI RFLP, in order both to confirm the detection of the virus and to distinguish DMV from CDV. Both carnivores and cetaceans tissues (brain, lung and lymph node) presenting evidence of morbillivirus infection (MI) were analyzed. RT-PCR positive samples were typed by RFLP analysis and then sequenced to confirm the RFLP results. This method was applied during the last morbillivirus cetacean die-off occurred in the Mediterranean basin in 2013, when there was the urgent need of a rapid and economic method to investigate among causes of death on stranded cetaceans. This new technique has proved to be a valuable, reliable, simple and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool easily applicable also in limited-resource laboratories.


Assuntos
Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Animais , Carnívoros , Cetáceos , Morbillivirus/genética
12.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 111, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197145

RESUMO

Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused several mortality events in Mediterranean striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Very recently, a calf Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the Southern Italian coastline with mild pathological findings suggestive of morbilliviral infection, received the first confirmation of DMV infection in this species by biomolecular evidences on lung tissue. This new cross-species infection report, along with 19% of the cetaceans specimens examined by the Italian Stranding Network being found positive to DMV, support the hypothesis of an endemic circulation of this virus among Mediterranean cetaceans.

13.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 118(2): 169-74, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26912047

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. can infect a wide range of species, including humans. In cetaceans, meningoencephalitis has been associated with T. gondii and Brucella spp. infection, whereas to our knowledge, L. monocytogenes infection has not previously been reported. Meningoencephalitis and L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. were identified by means of both direct and indirect laboratory techniques in an adult female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in January 2015 on the Ligurian Sea coast, northwestern Italy. The animal was emaciated, and histopathology disclosed severe meningoencephalitis. The nature of the inflammatory response and intra-lesional protozoa were consistent with a mixed infection by L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. We believe this is an unprecedented case of infection by 3 zoonotic pathogens and also the first bacteriologically confirmed case report of neurolisteriosis in cetaceans. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and neurobrucellosis may have led to the animal's disorientation and stranding, with L. monocytogenes having likely exacerbated the coinfection leading to the demise of this dolphin.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Listeriose/veterinária , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucella , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Coinfecção , Golfinhos , Feminino , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Listeriose/patologia , Meningoencefalite/patologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
14.
Vet Ital ; 49(4): 335-40, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24362773

RESUMO

CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia
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