Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 8 de 8
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124651, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472346

RESUMO

A harbour sediment, previously remediated, was tested for soilless strawberry cultivation (Camarosa and Monterey cultivars), as an innovative, cost-effective and environment-friendly approach of sediment management. Sediments were tested as such (TS100) and mixed 1/1 (v/v) with a peat-based commercial substrate (TS50), using the peat-based medium as control (TS0). Substrates were characterized for some physicochemical properties (e.g. density, porosity and water capacity). Minerals (P, Ca, K, Na and Fe), heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd), aliphatic hydrocarbons (C > 12), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans were analysed in substrates and fruits. Sugars and organic acids, including the ascorbic, were also determined in fruits, as quality indicators. Notwithstanding remediation, sediments showed concentrations of Zn (206 mg kg-1), C > 12 (86 mg kg-1) and PAHs (47 mg kg-1) exceeding the limits established by the Italian L.D. 152/2006, regulating the contamination of soil in green areas, thus making its relocation in the environment not permitted as such. No evidence of fruit contamination by Cr, Pb and Cd was highlighted. Moreover, Cu, Zn and Ni fruit concentrations were comparable among treatments. Conversely, Mn showed statistically higher concentrations in TS0 fruits (56-57 mg kg-1) compared to those grown in sediment-based substrates (8-20 mg kg-1). Among organic contaminants, only dioxin-like PCBs were determined in fruits, at toxic equivalent concentrations fourfold lower than the limit established by the European Union. TS100 fruits showed a yield reduction from 40 to 70% for Camarosa and Monterey, but higher sugar and ascorbic acid contents.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/química , Itália , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5624-5630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of reclaimed dredged sediments as growing media may offer a profitable alternative to their disposal as a waste and at the same time meets the need of peat-substitute substrates in horticulture. When sediments are reused to cultivate food crops, issues related to human health rise due to potential accumulation of contaminants in the product. This pilot study aimed at verifying the suitability of a reclaimed dredged port sediment, used pure or mixed with peat, as a growing medium for lettuce cultivation. RESULTS: The pure sediment caused a reduction in crop yield, probably due to its unsuitable physical properties, whereas the mixture sediment-peat and pure peat resulted in the same yield. Although the sediment contained potentially phytotoxic heavy metals and some organic pollutants, no symptoms of plant toxicity were noted. Besides, no organic contaminants were detected in lettuce heads, and heavy metals amounts were not hazardous for consumers. Conversely, plants grown in the sediment were particularly rich in minerals like Ca, Mg and Fe, and showed higher concentrations of organic acids and antioxidants. CONCLUSION: The use of the sediment as a growing medium for lettuce was shown to be safe for both inorganic and organic contaminants. Nevertheless, considering crop yield results, the mixture of the sediment with other materials is recommended in order to produce a substrate with more suitable physicochemical properties for vegetable cultivation. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 204: 176-84, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988491

RESUMO

Total soluble polyphenols (TSP), total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), radical scavenging activity (RSA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and a number of anthocyanins, phenolic acids, coumarins, flavanols, dihydrochalcones and flavonols were investigated in Tuscan bilberry (i.e. Vaccinium myrtillus) and "false bilberry" (i.e. Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides Bigelow). V. myrtillus berries showed much higher TSP, TMA, RSA and FRAP values than V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides fruits. Moreover, very different profiles of individual phenolics were observed in the two species, being V. myrtillus mainly characterised by delphinidin and cyanidin glycosides, together with chlorogenic acid, and V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides dominated by malvidin derivatives and flavonols. Strong differences between the two species regarded also metabolites investigated herein for the first time, such as scopoletin, which was approximately two magnitude orders higher in V. uliginosum subsp. gaultherioides than in V. myrtillus berries. Very different abundances were also highlighted for cryptochlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-rhamnoside that were about ten-fold higher in bilberry than in "false bilberry". When the anthocyanin composition pattern of Tuscan "false bilberry" was compared to those elsewhere reported for V. uliginosum fruits harvested in different world areas, some important differences were observed.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/análise , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Itália , Extratos Vegetais/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Vaccinium/química , Vaccinium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vaccinium myrtillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 11013: 89-98, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23179692

RESUMO

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is a temperate fruit tree species diffused in all continents. The traditional propagation method adopted by the nursery industry is based on budding/grafting scion cultivars on seedlings from D. kaki, Diospyros lotus, and Diospyros virginiana, the most important species used as rootstock, reproduced by seeds since they are not easy to root. Furthermore, most of nonastringent cultivars of persimmon are not compatible with D. lotus, a rootstock largely utilized because of its hardiness and frost resistance. The main in vitro tissue culture techniques, developed for persimmon, deal with direct regeneration (from dormant buds and root tips), and indirect regeneration through callus from dormant buds, apexes, and leaves. The bottlenecks of micropropagation are (1) the recalcitrance of many cultivars to in vitro establishment, (2) the low multiplication ratio of D. kaki compared to other fruit tree species, (3) the very low rooting ability of ex novo microcuttings both from direct and indirect regeneration, (4) the high sensitivity to transplant from in vitro to in vivo conditions. The development of reliable in vitro regeneration procedures is likely to play a key role for production of both clonal rootstocks and self-rooted cultivars. The general protocol for micropropagation of persimmon reported here is based on the establishment of winter dormant buds in vitro, shoot development, multiplication and elongation, and shoot rooting, using cytokinins (BA or zeatin) in a MS media along with an auxinic pretreatment for rooting induction.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Diospyros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , Meios de Cultura/química , Diospyros/citologia , Diospyros/fisiologia , Germinação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Esterilização , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
J Mass Spectrom ; 47(9): 1207-20, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22972789

RESUMO

High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion spray mass spectrometry in the tandem mode with both negative and positive ionization was used for investigating a variety of polyphenolic compounds in four genotypes of Fragaria vesca berries. About 60 phenolic compounds belonging to the compound classes of phenolic acids, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives, flavonols, monomeric and oligomeric flavanols, dihydrochalcones and anthocyanins were reported, providing for the first time a quite complete picture of polyphenolic composition of F. vesca berries. Some of the polyphenols herein investigated, such as a tris-galloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-hexose, two castalagin/vescalagin-like isomers and peonidin-malonylglucoside, were described for the first time. Principal component analysis applied on original HPLC-MS/MS data, acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode, successfully discriminated the four investigated cultivars on the basis of their polyphenolic composition, highlighting the fundamental role of mass spectrometry for food characterization.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
Nutrition ; 27(7-8): 838-46, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21167683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of two persimmon cultivars on some atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol (Chol)-containing diets. METHODS: Persimmon cultivars "Fuyu" and "Jiro" as supplementation to rats' diets were investigated in vitro to compare the contents of their bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant potentials. In the in vivo investigation, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six diet groups, each with six rats: control, control/Fuyu, control/Jiro, Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro. During a period of 47 d (42 d of feeding and 5-d adaptation before the experiment) of the trial, rats in the control group were fed a basal diet and two additional control groups (control/Fuyu and control/Jiro) a basal diet plus 5% of lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro, respectively. The Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro rat groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% Chol (Chol group) and 1% Chol plus 5% lyophilized Fuyu (Chol/Fuyu group) and plus 5% lyophilized Jiro (Chol/Jiro group), respectively. After completion of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized using Narcotan (halothane) and sacrificed and the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta were assessed. The obtained results of the investigation of all six groups were compared. Testing of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol in the liver, electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue, and three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions was performed. RESULTS: The polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (P<0.05). The antioxidant potential of persimmon Fuyu was higher than in the Jiro cultivar, but the difference was significant only according to the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay (P<0.05). Supplementation of diets with 5% of the lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro hindered the increase in plasma lipids versus the Chol group (total cholesterol 19.4% and 9.5%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 25.6% and 13.1%, respectively, P<0.05) and hindered the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity versus the Chol group by 40.0% and 16.8% and by 39.6% and 11.3% for the ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, respectively. The atherosclerotic lesions in the aortas of the Chol/Fuyu and Chol/Jiro groups were significantly less than in the Chol group (P<0.05). Electrophoresis of the proteins from rats' liver tissue showed changes in 14-kDa bands after persimmon supplementation. A shift in maximum wavelengths in three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions after persimmon supplementation was found in comparison with the control group and an increase in fluorescence intensity compared with the Chol groups. CONCLUSION: The contents of polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (P<0.05). The antioxidant potentials of Fuyu were higher than those of the Jiro cultivar, but the difference was significant only according to the ABTS assay (P<0.05). Supplementation of 5% lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro to diets of rats fed Chol-containing diets 1) hindered the increase in plasma lipids levels and the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity and 2) significantly decreased the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta (P<0.05). Electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue and fluorescence spectra can be used as additional biomarkers for determination of atherosclerosis indices.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Colesterol/sangue , Diospyros/química , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/patologia , Benzotiazóis , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Diospyros/classificação , Frutas , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/induzido quimicamente , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Especificidade da Espécie , Ácidos Sulfônicos/metabolismo , Taninos/análise , Taninos/farmacologia , Taninos/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 56(15): 6536-46, 2008 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18642842

RESUMO

This paper investigates the influence of cultivar (Annurca, Golden Delicious, Red Chief, and Stayman Neepling), rural practice (integrated and organic), and growing region (different Italian regions) on polyphenol composition and antiradical activity of the pulp and skin of apples, as presented to the consumer at the market. Antiradical activity of fruit was strongly related with the total polyphenolic content, determined both by the spectrophotometric Folin-Ciocalteu method ( R (2) = 0.90; P < 0.01) and by HPLC ( R (2) = 0.85; P < 0.01). Considering the edible portion of the fruit, polyphenolics contribute toward explaining approximately 90% of the overall antiradical activity, thus highlighting their important role in human health protection. Therefore, the data indirectly indicated that ascorbic acid and other antiradical molecules differing from polyphenols play a much less important role in explaining the health-protecting properties of apples. Cultivar effect was by far the most important, and Annurca and Golden Delicious were respectively the best and the worst apples from the point of view of the health-protecting attributes.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Frutas/química , Malus/química , Fenóis/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Itália , Polifenóis , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
J Plant Physiol ; 165(17): 1808-16, 2008 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18343531

RESUMO

The molecular interaction between pear tree (Pyrus spp.) and the phloem-feeding psylla Cacopsylla pyri (Linnaeus) was investigated through the construction and characterization of cDNA subtracted libraries. Genes expressed upon insect infestation were identified in the susceptible pear cultivar Bartlett and in the resistant selection NY10355. In both interactions, genes involved in the plant defense response were induced, confirming the observed similarity between the response to pathogens and to insects with piercing/sucking mouthparts. However, the two expression profiles were found to be different, with more genes involved in the response to biotic and abiotic stress being activated in the resistant plant than in the susceptible one. Further characterization of the identified genes could lead to the development of molecular markers associated with tolerance/resistance to pear psylla.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/parasitologia , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA