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1.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare variant of IDH-wildtype glioblastoma multiforme. We performed a single-center analysis to identify prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the records of 26 patients newly diagnosed with primary WHO grade IV GS. Factors of interest were clinical and treatment data, as well as molecular markers, time to recurrence, and time to death. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 9 months (range 5-21 months). Gross total resection did not lead to improved survival, most likely due to the relatively small sample size. Low symptom burden at the time of diagnosis was associated with longer PFS (P = 0.023) and OS (P = 0.018). Median OS in the entire cohort was 12 months. Neither MGMT promoter hypermethylation nor adjuvant temozolomide therapy influenced survival, consistent with some previous reports. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study, patients exhibiting low symptom burden at diagnosis showed improved survival. None of the other factors analyzed were associated with an altered outcome.

2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 767468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926271

RESUMO

Purpose/Objectives: To perform a dosimetric comparison between kilovoltage intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) simulating both deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and free-breathing (FB) modalities for patients with liver metastases. Methods/Materials: Diagnostic computed tomographies (CT) of patients carrying one or two lesions <4 cm and who underwent surgery were retrospectively screened and randomly selected for the study. For DIBH-SRS, a gross target volume (GTV) plus planning target volume (PTV) were delineated. For FB-SRS, a GTV plus an internal target volume (ITV) and PTV were defined. Accounting for the maximal GTV diameters, a modified GTV (GTV-IORT) was expanded circumferentially to simulate a resection cavity. The best suitable round-applicator size was thereafter selected. All treatment plans were calculated homogeneously to deliver 40 Gy. Doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR) and target volumes were compared for IORT vs. both SRS modalities. Results: Eight patients encompassing 10 lesions were included in the study. The mean liver volume was 2,050.97 cm3 (SD, 650.82), and the mean GTV volume was 12.23 cm3 (SD, 12.62). As for target structures, GTV-IORT [19.44 cm3 (SD, 17.26)] were significantly smaller than both PTV DIBH-SRS [30.74 cm3 (SD, 24.64), p = 0.002] and PTV FB-SRS [75.82 cm3 (SD, 45.65), p = 0.002]. The median applicator size was 3 cm (1.5-4.5), and the mean IORT simulated delivery time was 45.45 min (SD, 19.88). All constraints were met in all modalities. Liver V9.1 showed significantly smaller volumes with IORT [63.39 cm3 (SD, 35.67)] when compared to DIBH-SRS [150.12 cm3 (SD, 81.43), p = 0.002] or FB-SRS [306.13 cm3 (SD, 128.75), p = 0.002]. No other statistical or dosimetrically relevant difference was observed for stomach, spinal cord, or biliary tract. Mean IORT D90 was 85.3% (SD, 6.05), whereas D95 for DIBH-SRS and FB-SRS were 99.03% (SD, 1.71; p = 0.042) and 98.04% (SD, 3.46; p = 0.036), respectively. Conclusion: Kilovoltage IORT bears the potential as novel add-on treatment for resectable liver metastases, significantly reducing healthy liver exposure to radiation in comparison to SRS. Prospective clinical evidence is required to confirm this hypothesis.

3.
EPMA J ; 12(4): 559-587, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950252

RESUMO

Inflammation is an essential pillar of the immune defense. On the other hand, chronic inflammation is considered a hallmark of cancer initiation and progression. Chronic inflammation demonstrates a potential to induce complex changes at molecular, cellular, and organ levels including but not restricted to the stagnation and impairment of healing processes, uncontrolled production of aggressive ROS/RNS, triggered DNA mutations and damage, compromised efficacy of the DNA repair machinery, significantly upregulated cytokine/chemokine release and associated patho-physiologic protein synthesis, activated signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, abnormal tissue remodeling, and created pre-metastatic niches, among others. The anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids demonstrate clinically relevant potential as preventive and therapeutic agents to improve individual outcomes in diseases linked to the low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation, including cancers. To this end, flavonoids are potent modulators of pro-inflammatory gene expression being, therefore, of great interest as agents selectively suppressing molecular targets within pro-inflammatory pathways. This paper provides in-depth analysis of anti-inflammatory properties of flavonoids, highlights corresponding mechanisms and targeted molecular pathways, and proposes potential treatment models for multi-level cancer prevention in the framework of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM / 3PM). To this end, individualized profiling and patient stratification are essential for implementing targeted anti-inflammatory approaches. Most prominent examples are presented for the proposed application of flavonoid-conducted anti-inflammatory treatments in overall cancer management. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13167-021-00257-y.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768644

RESUMO

Patients with metastatic cancers often require radiotherapy (RT) as a palliative therapy for cancer pain. RT can, however, also induce systemic antitumor effects outside of the irradiated field (abscopal effects) in various cancer entities. The occurrence of the abscopal effect is associated with a specific immunological activation in response to RT-induced cell death, which is mainly seen under concomitant immune checkpoint blockade. Even if the number of reported apscopal effects has increased since the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibition, its occurrence is still considered rare and unpredictable. The cases reported so far may nevertheless allow for identifying first biomarkers and clinical patterns. We here review biomarkers that may be helpful to predict the occurrence of abscopal effects and hence to optimize therapy for patients with metastatic cancers.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 759873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778080

RESUMO

Purpose: To simulate and analyze the dosimetric differences of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) or pre-operative single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in addition to post-operative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in Glioblastoma (GB). Methods: Imaging series of previously treated patients with adjuvant radiochemotherapy were analyzed. For SRS target definition, pre-operative MRIs were co-registered to planning CT scans and a pre-operative T1-weighted gross target volume (GTV) plus a 2-mm planning target volume (PTV) were created. For IORT, a modified (m)GTV was expanded from the pre-operative volume, in order to mimic a round cavity as during IORT. Dose prescription was 20 Gy, homogeneously planned for SRS and calculated at the surface for IORT, to cover 99% and 90% of the volumes, respectively. For tumors > 2cm in maximum diameter, a 15 Gy dose was prescribed. Plan assessment was performed after calculating the 2-Gy equivalent doses (EQD2) for both boost modalities and including them into the EBRT plan. Main points of interest encompass differences in target coverage, brain volume receiving 12 Gy or more (V12), and doses to various organs-at-risk (OARs). Results: Seventeen pre-delivered treatment plans were included in the study. The mean GTV was 21.72 cm3 (SD ± 19.36) and mGTV 29.64 cm3 (SD ± 25.64). The mean EBRT and SRS PTV were 254.09 (SD ± 80.0) and 36.20 cm3 (SD ± 31.48), respectively. Eight SRS plans were calculated to 15 Gy according to larger tumor sizes, while all IORT plans to 20 Gy. The mean EBRT D95 was 97.13% (SD ± 3.48) the SRS D99 99.91% (SD ± 0.35) and IORT D90 83.59% (SD ± 3.55). Accounting for only-boost approaches, the brain V12 was 49.68 cm3 (SD ± 26.70) and 16.94 cm3 (SD ± 13.33) (p<0.001) for SRS and IORT, respectively. After adding EBRT results respectively to SRS and IORT doses, significant lower doses were found in the latter for mean Dmax of chiasma (p=0.01), left optic nerve (p=0.023), right (p=0.008) and left retina (p<0.001). No significant differences were obtained for brainstem and cochleae. Conclusion: Dose escalation for Glioblastoma using IORT results in lower OAR exposure as conventional SRS.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 699860, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595109

RESUMO

Object: Intra-tumoral hemorrhage is considered an imaging characteristic of advanced cancer disease. However, data on the influence of intra-tumoral hemorrhage in patients with brain metastases (BM) remains scarce. We aimed at investigating patients with BM who underwent neurosurgical resection of the metastatic lesion for a potential impact of preoperative hemorrhagic transformation on overall survival (OS). Methods: Between 2013 and 2018, 357 patients with BM were surgically treated at the authors' neuro-oncological center. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were assessed for the occurrence of malignant hemorrhagic transformation. Results: 122 of 375 patients (34%) with BM revealed preoperative intra-tumoral hemorrhage. Patients with hemorrhagic transformed BM exhibited a median OS of 5 months compared to 12 months for patients without intra-tumoral hemorrhage. Multivariate analysis revealed preoperative hemorrhagic transformation as an independent and significant predictor for worsened OS. Conclusions: The present study identifies preoperative intra-tumoral hemorrhage as an indicator variable for poor prognosis in patients with BM undergoing neurosurgical treatment.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) indicate advanced states of cancer disease and cranial surgery represents a common treatment modality. In the present study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for a reduced survival in patients receiving a surgical treatment of BM derived from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: A total of 154 patients with NSCLC that had been surgically treated for BM at the authors' institution between 2013 and 2018 were included for a further analysis. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify the predictors of a poor overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The median overall survival (mOS) was 11 months (95% CI 8.2-13.8). An age > 65 years, the infratentorial location of BM, elevated preoperative C-reactive protein levels, a perioperative red blood cell transfusion, postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation (>48 h) and the occurrence of postoperative adverse events were identified as independent factors of a poor OS. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified several predictors for a worsened OS in patients that underwent surgery for BM of NSCLC. These findings might guide a better risk/benefit assessment in the course of metastatic NSCLC therapy and might help to more sufficiently cope with the challenges of cancer therapy in these advanced stages of disease.

8.
EPMA J ; : 1-23, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367380

RESUMO

The risks related to the COVID-19 are multi-faceted including but by far not restricted to the following: direct health risks by poorly understood effects of COVID-19 infection, overloaded capacities of healthcare units, restricted and slowed down care of patients with non-communicable disorders such as cancer, neurologic and cardiovascular pathologies, among others; social risks-restricted and broken social contacts, isolation, professional disruption, explosion of aggression in the society, violence in the familial environment; mental risks-loneliness, helplessness, defenceless, depressions; and economic risks-slowed down industrial productivity, broken delivery chains, unemployment, bankrupted SMEs, inflation, decreased capacity of the state to perform socially important programs and to support socio-economically weak subgroups in the population. Directly or indirectly, the above listed risks will get reflected in a healthcare occupation and workload which is a tremendous long-term challenge for the healthcare capacity and robustness. The article does not pretend to provide solutions for all kind of health risks. However, it aims to present the scientific evidence of great clinical utility for primary, secondary, and tertiary care to protect affected individuals in a cost-effective manner. To this end, due to pronounced antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties, naturally occurring plant substances are capable to protect affected individuals against COVID-19-associated life-threatening complications such as lung damage. Furthermore, they can be highly effective, if being applied to secondary and tertiary care of noncommunicable diseases under pandemic condition. Thus, the stratification of patients evaluating specific health conditions such as sleep quality, periodontitis, smoking, chronic inflammation and diseases, metabolic disorders and obesity, vascular dysfunction, and cancers would enable effective managemenet of COVID-19-associated complications in primary, secondary, and tertiary care in the context of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (3PM).

9.
EPMA J ; : 1-41, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367381

RESUMO

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved in the regulation of a myriad of processes highly relevant for physical and mental well-being; female and male health; in the modulation of senses, pain, stress reactions and drug sensitivity as well as healing processes, amongst others. Shifted ET-1 homeostasis may influence and predict the development and progression of suboptimal health conditions, metabolic impairments with cascading complications, ageing and related pathologies, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative pathologies, aggressive malignancies, modulating, therefore, individual outcomes of both non-communicable and infectious diseases such as COVID-19. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the involvement of ET-1 and related regulatory pathways in physiological and pathophysiological processes and estimates its capacity as a predictor of ageing and related pathologies,a sensor of lifestyle quality and progression of suboptimal health conditions to diseases for their targeted preventionand as a potent target for cost-effective treatments tailored to the person.

10.
Z Med Phys ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373188

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Robotic systems to assist needle placements for low-dose rate brachytherapy enable conformal dose planning only restricted to path planning around risk structures. We report a treatment planning system (TPS) combining multiple direction needle-path planning with inverse dose optimization algorithms. METHODS: We investigated in a path planning algorithm to efficiently locate needle injection points reaching the target volume without puncturing risk structures. A candidate needle domain with all combinations of trajectories is used for the optimization process. We report a modular algorithm for inverse radiation plan optimization. The initial plan with V100>99% is generated by the "greedy optimizer". The "remove-seed algorithm" reduces the number of seeds in the high dose regions. The "depth-optimizer" varies the insertion depth of the needles. The "coverage-optimizer" locates under-dosed areas in the target volume and supports them with an additional amount of seeds. The dose calculation algorithm is benchmarked on an image set of a phantom with a liver metastasis (prescription dose Dpr=100Gy) and is re-planned in a commercial CE-marked TPS to compare the calculated dose grids using a global gamma analysis. The inverse optimizer is benchmarked by calculating 10 plans on the same phantom to investigate the stability and statistical variability of the dose parameters. RESULTS: The path planning algorithm efficiently removes 72.5% of all considered injection points. The candidate needle domain consists of combinations of 1971 tip points and 827 injection points. The global gamma analysis with gamma 1%=2.9Gy, 1mm showed a pass rate of 98.5%. The dose parameters were V100=99.1±0.3%, V150=76.4±2.5%, V200=44.5±5.5% and D90=125.9±3.6Gy and 10.7±1.3 needles with 34.0±0.8 seeds were used. The median of the TPS total running time was 4.4minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The TPS generates treatment plans with acceptable dose coverage in a reasonable amount of time. The gamma analysis shows good accordance to the commercial TPS. The TPS allows taking full advantage of robotic navigation tools to enable a new precise and safe method of minimally invasive low-dose-rate brachytherapy.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 713965, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381733

RESUMO

Object: In the light of an aging population and ongoing advances in cancer control, the optimal management in geriatric patients with brain metastases (BM) poses an increasing challenge, especially due to the scarce data available. We therefore analyzed our institutional data with regard to factors influencing overall survival (OS) in geriatric patients with BM. Methods: Between 2013 and 2018, patients aged ≥ 65 years with surgically treated BM were included in this retrospective analysis. In search of preoperatively identifiable risk factors for poor OS, in addition to the underlying cancer, the preoperative frailty of patients was analyzed using the modified Frailty Index (mFI). Results: A total of 180 geriatric patients with surgically treated BM were identified. Geriatric patients categorized as least-frail achieved a median OS of 18 months, whereas frailest patients achieved an OS of only 3 months (p<0.0001). Multivariable cox regression analysis detected "multiple intracranial metastases" (p=0.001), "infratentorial localization" (p=0.011), "preoperative CRP >5 mg/l" (p=0.01) and "frailest patients (mFI ≥ 0.27)" (p=0.002) as predictors for reduced OS in older patients undergoing surgical treatment for BM. Conclusions: In this retrospective series, pre-operative frailty was associated with poor survival in elderly patients with BM requiring surgery. Our analyses warrant thorough counselling and support of affected elderly patients and their families.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445360

RESUMO

Multi-factorial mitochondrial damage exhibits a "vicious circle" that leads to a progression of mitochondrial dysfunction and multi-organ adverse effects. Mitochondrial impairments (mitochondriopathies) are associated with severe pathologies including but not restricted to cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegeneration. However, the type and level of cascading pathologies are highly individual. Consequently, patient stratification, risk assessment, and mitigating measures are instrumental for cost-effective individualized protection. Therefore, the paradigm shift from reactive to predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (3PM) is unavoidable in advanced healthcare. Flavonoids demonstrate evident antioxidant and scavenging activity are of great therapeutic utility against mitochondrial damage and cascading pathologies. In the context of 3PM, this review focuses on preclinical and clinical research data evaluating the efficacy of flavonoids as a potent protector against mitochondriopathies and associated pathologies.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Prognóstico
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202550

RESUMO

In this study, we determined the potential of polyethylene glycol-encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPCO) for the intracellular delivery of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (IONPDOX) to enhance the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. The biological effects of IONP and X-ray irradiation (50 kV and 6 MV) were determined in HeLa cells using the colony formation assay (CFA) and detection of γH2AX foci. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. IONP were efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. IONPCO radiomodulating effect was dependent on nanoparticle concentration and photon energy. IONPCO did not radiosensitize HeLa cells with 6 MV X-rays, yet moderately enhanced cellular radiosensitivity to 50 kV X-rays (DMFSF0.1 = 1.13 ± 0.05 (p = 0.01)). IONPDOX did enhance the cytotoxicity of 6 MV X-rays (DMFSF0.1 = 1.3 ± 0.1; p = 0.0005). IONP treatment significantly increased γH2AX foci induction without irradiation. Treatment of HeLa cells with IONPCO resulted in a radiosensitizing effect for low-energy X-rays, while exposure to IONPDOX induced radiosensitization compared to IONPCO in cells irradiated with 6 MV X-rays. The effect did not correlate with the induction of γH2AX foci. Given these results, IONP are promising candidates for the controlled delivery of DOX to enhance the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos , Compostos Férricos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Células HeLa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa/patologia , Células HeLa/efeitos da radiação , Células HeLa/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Radiação Ionizante
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283079

RESUMO

Neurosurgical resection represents an important therapeutic pillar in patients with brain metastasis (BM). Such extended treatment modalities require preoperative assessment of patients' physical status to estimate individual treatment success. The aim of the present study was to analyze the predictive value of frailty and sarcopenia as assessment tools for physiological integrity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had undergone surgery for BM. Between 2013 and 2018, 141 patients were surgically treated for BM from NSCLC at the authors' institution. The preoperative physical condition was assessed by the temporal muscle thickness (TMT) as a surrogate parameter for sarcopenia and the modified frailty index (mFI). For the ≥65 aged group, median overall survival (mOS) significantly differed between patients classified as 'frail' (mFI ≥ 0.27) and 'least and moderately frail' (mFI < 0.27) (15 months versus 11 months (p = 0.02)). Sarcopenia revealed significant differences in mOS for the <65 aged group (10 versus 18 months for patients with and without sarcopenia (p = 0.036)). The present study confirms a predictive value of preoperative frailty and sarcopenia with respect to OS in patients with NSCLC and surgically treated BM. A combined assessment of mFI and TMT allows the prediction of OS across all age groups.

15.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 127, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246284

RESUMO

We read with great interest the recent review, entitled "Current status and recent advances in resection cavity irradiation of brain metastases". It is a comprehensive summary of currently available techniques for treatment of post-resection cavity in patients with this diagnosis. We would like to complement this manuscript by including intraoperative techniques as other viable approaches in the management of these patients.

16.
J Neurooncol ; 153(3): 479-485, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neuro-oncology tumor boards (NTBs) hold an established function in cancer care as multidisciplinary tumor boards. However, NTBs predominantly exist at academic and/or specialized centers. In addition to increasing centralization throughout the healthcare system, changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic have arguably resulted in advantages by conducting clinical meetings virtually. We therefore asked about the experience and acceptance of (virtualized) NTBs and their potential benefits. METHODS: A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed via a web-based platform. Specialized neuro-oncological centers in Germany were identified based on the number of brain tumor cases treated in the respective institution per year. Only one representative per center was invited to participate in the survey. Questions targeted the structure/organization of NTBs as well as changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 65/97 institutions participated in the survey (response rate 67%). In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, regular conventions of NTBs were maintained by the respective centers and multi-specialty participation remained high. NTBs were considered valuable by respondents in achieving the most optimal therapy for the affected patient and in maintaining/encouraging interdisciplinary debate/exchange. The settings of NTBs have been adapted during the pandemic with the increased use of virtual technology. Virtual NTBs were found to be beneficial, yet administrative support is lacking in some places. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual implementation of NTBs was feasible and accepted in the centers surveyed. Therefore, successful implementation offers new avenues and may be pursued for networking between centers, thereby increasing coverage of neuro-oncology care.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Telemedicina , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 664225, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954116

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the outcome of radiotherapy (RT) to all PSMA ligand positive metastases for patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Patients and methods: A total of 42 patients developed oligometastatic mCRPC and received PSMA PET-guided RT of all metastases. The main outcome parameters were biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and second-line systemic treatment free survival (SST-FS). Results: A total of 141 PSMA ligand-positive metastases were irradiated. The median follow-up time was 39.0 months (12-58 months). During the follow-up five out of 42 (11.9%) patients died of progressive mPCa. Five out of 42 (11.9%) patients showed no biochemical responses and presented with a PSA level ≥10% of the baseline PSA at first PSA level measurement after RT and were classified as non-responders. The median PSA level before RT was 4.79 ng/mL (range, 0.4-46.1), which decreased significantly to a median PSA nadir level of 0.39 ng/mL (range, <0.07-32.8; p=0.002). The median PSA level at biochemical progression after PSMA ligand-based RT was 2.75 ng/mL (range, 0.27-53.0; p=0.24) and was not significantly different (p=0.29) from the median PSA level (4.79 ng/mL, range, 0.4-46.1) before the PSMA ligand-based RT. The median bPFS was 12.0 months after PSMA ligand PET-based RT (95% CI, 11.2-15.8) and the median SST-FS was 15.0 months (95% CI, 14.0-21.5). Conclusion: In well-informed and closely followed-up patients, PSMA PET-guided RT represents a viable treatment option for patients with oligometastatic mCRPC to delay further systemic therapies.

18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amplification of the MYCN oncogene is a molecular hallmark of aggressive neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system. There is evidence that MYCN promotes a non-inflamed and T-cell infiltration-poor ('cold') tumor microenvironment (TME) by suppressing interferon signaling. This may explain, at least in part, why patients with NB seem to have little benefit from single-agent immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. Targeting MYCN or its effectors could be a strategy to convert a cold TME into a 'hot' (inflamed) TME and improve the efficacy of ICB therapy. METHODS: NB transcriptome analyses were used to identify epigenetic drivers of a T-cell infiltration-poor TME. Biological and molecular responses of NB cells to epigenetic drugs and interferon (IFN)-γ exposure were assessed by proliferation assays, immunoblotting, ELISA, qRT-PCR, RNA-seq and ChIP-qPCR as well as co-culture assays with T cells. RESULTS: We identified H3K9 euchromatic histone-lysine methyltransferases EHMT2 and EHMT1, also known as G9a and GLP, as epigenetic effectors of the MYCN-driven malignant phenotype and repressors of IFN-γ transcriptional responses in NB cells. EHMT inhibitors enhanced IFN-γ-induced expression of the Th1-type chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, key factors of T-cell recruitment into the TME. In MYCN-amplified NB cells, co-inhibition of EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homologue 2), a H3K27 histone methyltransferase cooperating with EHMTs, was needed for strong transcriptional responses to IFN-γ, in line with histone mark changes at CXCL9 and CXCL10 chemokine gene loci. EHMT and EZH2 inhibitor response gene signatures from NB cells were established as surrogate measures and revealed high EHMT and EZH2 activity in MYCN-amplified high-risk NBs with a cold immune phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our results delineate a strategy for targeted epigenetic immunomodulation of high-risk NBs, whereby EHMT inhibitors alone or in combination with EZH2 inhibitors (in particular, MYCN-amplified NBs) could promote a T-cell-infiltrated TME via enhanced Th1-type chemokine expression.

19.
EPMA J ; : 1-22, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025826

RESUMO

Cost-efficacy of currently applied treatments is an issue in overall cancer management challenging healthcare and causing tremendous economic burden to societies around the world. Consequently, complex treatment models presenting concepts of predictive diagnostics followed by targeted prevention and treatments tailored to the personal patient profiles earn global appreciation as benefiting the patient, healthcare economy, and the society at large. In this context, application of flavonoids as a spectrum of compounds and their nano-technologically created derivatives is extensively under consideration, due to their multi-faceted anti-cancer effects applicable to the overall cost-effective cancer management, primary, secondary, and even tertiary prevention. This article analyzes most recently updated data focused on the potent capacity of flavonoids to promote anti-cancer therapeutic effects and interprets all the collected research achievements in the frame-work of predictive, preventive, and personalized (3P) medicine. Main pillars considered are: - Predictable anti-neoplastic, immune-modulating, drug-sensitizing effects; - Targeted molecular pathways to improve therapeutic outcomes by increasing sensitivity of cancer cells and reversing their resistance towards currently applied therapeutic modalities.

20.
Front Oncol ; 11: 658949, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816316

RESUMO

Objective: Surgical resection represents a common treatment modality in patients with brain metastasis (BM). Postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) might have an enormous impact on the overall survival (OS) of these patients suffering from advanced cancer disease. We therefore have analyzed our institutional database with regard to a potential impact of PMV on OS of patients who had undergone surgery for brain metastases. Methods: 360 patients with surgically treated brain metastases were included. The definition of PMV consisted of postoperative mechanical ventilation lasting for more than 48 hours. Analysis of survival incorporating established prognostic factors such as age, location of BM, and preoperative physical status was performed. Results: 14 of 360 patients with BM (4%) suffered from postoperative PMV after surgical treatment of BM. Patients with PMV presented in a significantly more impaired neurological condition preoperatively than patients without (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis determined PMV to be a significant prognostic factor for OS after surgical treatment in patients with BM, independent of other predictive factors (p<0.0001). Conclusions: The present study demonstrates postoperative PMV as significantly related to poor OS in patients with surgically treated BM. Postoperative PMV is a so far underestimated prognostic predictor, but might be utilized for optimized patient management early in the postoperative phase. For this purpose, the results of the present study should encourage the initiation of further scientific efforts.

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