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1.
J Vet Res ; 61(3): 367-373, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978097

RESUMO

Introduction: Foot quality is essential to the horse's movement. The barefoot approach favours the animal's welfare. Environment and selection determine hoof characteristics. Material and Methods: Hoof characteristics of eight Anglo-Arabian (AA) and nine Haflinger (HA) horses were studied. After a preliminary visual analysis of feet, nail samples were collected after trimming for physico-chemical analysis. The parameters were submitted to analysis of variance. A principal component analysis and a Pearson correlation were used to compare mineral contents. Results: The hooves of both breeds were healthy and solid. The hooves of HA horses were longer than those of AA horses (14.90 ±0.30 cm vs 13.10 ±0.60 cm), while the AA hoof was harder than the HA hoof both in the wall (74.55 ±2.95 H vs 60.18 ±2.67 H) and sole (67.00 ±5.87 H vs 43.0 ±4.76 H). In comparison with the sole, the AA hoof wall also had a lower moisture percentage (12.56 ±0.67% vs 20.64 ±0.76%), while crude protein and ash contents were similar in both regions. The AA hoof showed a higher Se content, while the HA hoof had a higher level of macroelements. The negative correlations of K with Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the AA hoof may indicate osmoregulation activity. Conclusion: The hoof morphology of AA and HA horses met the literature parameters for mesomorphic horses. Both breeds had healthy and well-conformed hooves, useful for sport and recreation activities.

2.
Waste Manag ; 33(4): 892-906, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23352084

RESUMO

The present article analyses the current situation of End-of-Life-of-Vehicles (ELVs) management in Europe, with particular attention on Italian condition. Similarly to other European countries, metal recycling is the main activity of the whole system, but such situation is evolving due to the 2000/53/EC Directive, which sets out targets for Reuse, Recycling and Recovery of ELVs. Due to the relevance of the ELVs problem, in 2008 Italian Ministry of Environment subscribed a framework agreement with competent stakeholders as carmakers, dismantlers, shredders. The main result is an industrial plan to promote (amongst other objectives) technological progress for residual waste (Automotive Shredder Residue-ASR) treatment. According with Italian Trial 2006 analysis about ELVs, Reuse and Recycling rate is currently estimated to be about 81%. At the present time, dismantling plants constitute the first collection points for ELVs; for this reason, during 2009 an investigation has been done over a number of ten Authorized Treatment Facilities (ATFs) operating in Italy. The first step of the analysis was aimed to find out major practices and methods through observations of ATFs activities and interviews to operators. Furthermore, the depollution and dismantling treatments of about 70 different ELVs have been observed and timed in detail over a period of three months. The results included the identification of most relevant critical issues in ELVs treatment, such as distortions between scrapping activities and Directive's regulation, and the assessment of the time and of the resources needed to perform each operation. In the second step of the survey, a process simulation model has been built on the basis of such data. The model was aimed to include the real variability and all the uncertainties that are typical of dismantling activities; it is intended as a tool for process layout planning and for its management. Some control parameters have been introduced; these are able to dynamically modify process path depending on ELVs queues and priorities. The model can also be used for the economic assessments of single operations or of the whole treatment activity.


Assuntos
Modelos Econômicos , Veículos Automotores , Reciclagem , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Itália
3.
Fertil Steril ; 85 Suppl 1: 1077-81, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16616077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the behavior of isolated primordial follicles that were exposed to different concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PROH), and glycerol (GLY). DESIGN: Isolated primordial follicles were exposed to the cryoprotectant (CPA) solution and photographed to calculate their volume at different periods of exposure. SETTING: Laboratorio Renzo Giuliani, University of Florence, Italy. ANIMAL(S): Lambs, 30-40 days old. INTERVENTION(S): Isolation of primordial follicles and subsequent exposure to CPA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicular volume. RESULT(S): At 2 minutes of CPA exposure, all follicles appeared to be shrunken. At approximately 5 minutes, shrinkage ceased, and follicles started to swell, absorbing the CPA and water to maintain osmotic equilibrium. When DMSO was tested, follicular dehydration in all concentrations did not exceed 17%; with PROH and EG, it reached 33% and 27%, respectively. The highest degree of dehydration (48%) was seen with GLY. In almost all tested concentrations, follicular shrinkage occurred up to 5 minutes. CONCLUSION(S): Volume changes in isolated primordial follicles can fluctuate according to the CPA used and its concentration.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Crioprotetores/farmacocinética , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos/farmacocinética , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Animais , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Crioprotetores/administração & dosagem , Citoproteção/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos/administração & dosagem , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos
4.
Fertil Steril ; 81 Suppl 1: 735-40, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15019803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the viability of isolated primordial follicles to different propylene glycol (PROH) and glycerol (GLY) concentrations before and after cryopreservation. DESIGN: Isolated primordial follicles were stained with trypan blue to evaluate the effect of different PROH and GLY concentrations before and after cryopreservation. SETTING: Laboratorio Renzo Giuliani, University of Florence, Italy. PATIENT(S): Thirty- to forty-day-old lambs. INTERVENTION(S): : Isolation of primordial follicles with subsequent exposure to cryoprotectant and freezing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Histologic structure and follicular mortality. RESULT(S): After the isolation procedure (control), the mean number of live primordial follicles/mL was 2,688 and 4,452 in the GLY and PROH groups, respectively. When GLY was used, the number of live follicles before cryopreservation was 820, 756, 640, 524, 564, and 460 follicles/mL with concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol/L, respectively. After cryopreservation, this number decreased to 0, 12, 36, 100, 84, and 68 follicles/mL, respectively, with the same concentrations. When PROH was used, the number of live follicles before cryopreservation was 4,216, 3,880, 3,560, 1,812, 704, and 568 follicles/mL with concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol/L, respectively. After cryopreservation, this number decreased to 0, 116, 336, 472, 360, and 244 follicles/mL, respectively, with the same concentrations. CONCLUSION(S): Both cryoprotectants were shown to preserve isolated primordial follicles after cryopreservation.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Crioprotetores/administração & dosagem , Glicerol/administração & dosagem , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Propilenoglicol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovinos , Sobrevivência de Tecidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
5.
Theriogenology ; 60(4): 735-42, 2003 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12832021

RESUMO

Cryopreservation of primordial follicles represents an opportunity to preserve female gametes, and consequently to protect the reproductive capacity of humans and animals, as well as to safeguard genetic material from endangered animal species or rare breeds. The aim of this work was to assess the toxicity of different concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG) to primordial follicles, and verify the viability of these follicles after the freezing-thawing procedure. Primordial follicles were isolated from ovine ovaries and exposed to different EG concentrations to evaluate the cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity before and after cryopreservation. After isolation of primordial follicle (control), the number (mean+/-S.E.M.) of viable primordial follicles/ml was 3764+/-795.21. The number of viable follicles in the toxicity test using EG at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 M was 1096+/-447.9, 960+/-446.67, 948+/-366.14, 832+/-313.59, 856+/-280.67, and 700+/-255.02, respectively. The number of viable follicles at concentrations of 2.5 M was less than for controls. After cryopreservation, the numbers decreased to 0+/-0, 148+/-85.46, 764+/-246.69, 824+/-291.9, 844+/-296.27, and 588+/-200.65, respectively for 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 M EG. The number of viable follicles at 0, 0.5, and 2.5 M was less than for controls. In conclusion, after the freezing and thawing procedure, concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 M EG can be successfully used for the cryopreservation of isolated follicles in sheep.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/administração & dosagem , Etilenoglicol/administração & dosagem , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovinos , Animais , Crioprotetores/toxicidade , Etilenoglicol/toxicidade , Feminino , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia
6.
Fertil Steril ; 79 Suppl 1: 682-6, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12620477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the viability of isolated primordial follicles after exposure to different concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and after cryopreservation. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. SETTING: Laboratorio Renzo Giuliani, University of Florence, Italy. ANIMAL(S): Thirty- to 40-day-old lambs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Isolated primordial follicles were stained with trypan blue to evaluate the effect of different DMSO concentrations before and after the cryopreservation. Histological structure and follicular mortality were evaluated. RESULT(S): After the isolation procedure (control), a mean (+/-SE) of 800 +/- 203.86 live primordial follicles/mL were obtained. The number of live follicles in the toxicity test using the DMSO at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 M was 782 +/- 193.96, 754 +/- 172.03, 778 +/- 191.58, 736 +/- 191.92, 476 +/- 122.9, and 316 +/- 83.52, respectively. The number of live follicles at 2.5 M was lower than that in the control procedure. After cryopreservation, the numbers decreased to 0 +/- 0, 232 +/- 44.20, 636 +/- 161.82, 628 +/- 181.28, 208 +/- 11.57, and 184 +/- 47.07, respectively at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 M. The number of live follicles at 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 2.5 M were lower than that in the control procedure. CONCLUSION(S): After cryopreservation, only DMSO concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5 M showed a number of live follicles similar to that of the control procedure.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/toxicidade , Dimetil Sulfóxido/toxicidade , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Corantes/metabolismo , Criopreservação/métodos , Feminino , Azul Tripano/metabolismo
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