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2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; : 109070, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592390

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the relationship between single therapeutic interventions and indicatorsofglycemic control in the PRISMA trial, a large study comparing the effects of intensive structured SMBG (ISM) vs. active control (AC) in non-insulin-treated T2D. METHODS: Information was collected at four time points, corresponding to months 3, 6, 9, and 12 and visits 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Data on therapeutic interventions, HbA1c levels and the number of hypoglycemic episodes at each visit were analyzed. RESULTS: Intensification of drug therapy occurred in 20.3% vs. 15.6%, and no change in 71.8% vs. 78.7% of visits for the ISM and AC groups, respectively. On the other hand, de-intensification and redistribution of drugs and/or drug dose occurred in a similar proportion of visits. Intensification of drug therapy in both groups was associated with significant reductions in HbA1c vs. the previous visit, while de-intensification of therapy led to a significant increase in HbA1c in the AC group only. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly support that structured SMBG has clinical value in reducing HbA1c in non-insulin-treated T2D and suggest that this clinical benefit may be mediated by more appropriate and timely changes in drug therapy.

3.
Lancet ; 398(10300): 583-598, 2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and GLP-1 receptor agonist under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide versus titrated insulin degludec in people with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin with or without SGLT2 inhibitors. METHODS: In this open-label, parallel-group, multicentre (122 sites), multinational (13 countries), phase 3 study, eligible participants (aged ≥18 years) had a baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7·0-10·5%, body-mass index of at least 25 kg/m2, stable weight, and were insulin-naive and treated with metformin alone or in combination with an SGLT2 inhibitor for at least 3 months before screening. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1), using an interactive web-response system, to once-weekly subcutaneous injection of tirzepatide (5, 10, or 15 mg) or once-daily subcutaneous injection of titrated insulin degludec, and were stratified by country, HbA1c, and concomitant use of oral antihyperglycaemic medications. Tirzepatide was initially given at 2·5 mg and the dose was escalated by 2·5 mg every 4 weeks until the assigned dose was reached. Insulin degludec was initially given at 10 U per day and was titrated once weekly to a fasting self-monitored blood glucose of less than 5·0 mmol/L (<90 mg/dL), following a treat-to-target algorithm, for 52 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was non-inferiority of tirzepatide 10 mg or 15 mg, or both, versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 52. Key secondary efficacy endpoints were non-inferiority of tirzepatide 5 mg versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 52, superiority of all doses of tirzepatide versus insulin degludec in mean change from baseline in HbA1c and bodyweight, and the proportion of participants achieving HbA1c of less than 7·0% (<53 mmol/mol) at week 52. We used a boundary of 0·3% to establish non-inferiority in HbA1c difference between treatments. Efficacy and safety analyses were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (all participants who received at least one dose of study drug). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03882970, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and Nov 15, 2019, we assessed 1947 participants for eligibility, 1444 of whom were randomly assigned to treatment. The modified intention-to-treat population was 1437 participants from the tirzepatide 5 mg (n=358), tirzepatide 10 mg (n=360), tirzepatide 15 mg (n=359), and insulin degludec (n=360) groups. From a mean baseline HbA1c of 8·17% (SD 0·91), the reductions in HbA1c at week 52 were 1·93% (SE 0·05) for tirzepatide 5 mg, 2·20% (0·05) for tirzepatide 10 mg, and 2·37% (0·05) for tirzepatide 15 mg, and 1·34% (0·05) for insulin degludec. The non-inferiority margin of 0·3% was met. The estimated treatment difference (ETD) versus insulin degludec ranged from -0·59% to -1·04% for tirzepatide (p<0·0001 for all tirzepatide doses). The proportion of participants achieving a HbA1c of less than 7·0% (<53 mmol/mol) at week 52 was greater (p<0·0001) in all three tirzepatide groups (82%-93%) versus insulin degludec (61%). At week 52, from a baseline of 94·3 kg (SD 20·1), all three tirzepatide doses decreased bodyweight (-7·5 kg to -12·9 kg), whereas insulin degludec increased bodyweight by 2·3 kg. The ETD versus insulin degludec ranged from -9·8 kg to -15·2 kg for tirzepatide (p<0·0001 for all tirzepatide doses). The most common adverse events in tirzepatide-treated participants were mild to moderate gastrointestinal events that decreased over time. A higher incidence of nausea (12-24%), diarrhoea (15-17%), decreased appetite (6-12%), and vomiting (6-10%) was reported in participants treated with tirzepatide than in those treated with insulin degludec (2%, 4%, 1%, and 1%, respectively). Hypoglycaemia (<54 mg/dL or severe) was reported in five (1%), four (1%), and eight (2%) participants on tirzepatide 5, 10, and 15 mg, respectively, versus 26 (7%) on insulin degludec. Treatment discontinuation due to an adverse event was more common in the tirzepatide groups than in the insulin degludec group. Five participants died during the study; none of the deaths were considered by the investigators to be related to the study treatment. INTERPRETATION: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide (5, 10, and 15 mg) was superior to titrated insulin degludec, with greater reductions in HbA1c and bodyweight at week 52 and a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. Tirzepatide showed a similar safety profile to that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 645507, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267725

RESUMO

Early and effective glycemic control can prevent or delay the complications associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The benefits of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are becoming increasingly recognized and they now feature prominently in international T2D treatment recommendations and guidelines across the disease continuum. However, despite providing effective glycemic control, weight loss, and a low risk of hypoglycemia, GLP-1RAs are currently underutilized in clinical practice. The long-acting GLP-1RA, semaglutide, is available for once-weekly injection and in a new once-daily oral formulation. Semaglutide is an advantageous choice for the treatment of T2D since it has greater efficacy in reducing glycated hemoglobin and body weight compared with other GLP-1RAs, has demonstrated benefits in reducing major adverse cardiovascular events, and has a favorable profile in special populations (e.g., patients with hepatic impairment or renal impairment). The oral formulation represents a useful option to help improve acceptance and adherence compared with injectable formulations for patients with a preference for oral therapy, and may lead to earlier and broader use of GLP-1RAs in the T2D treatment trajectory. Oral semaglutide should be taken on an empty stomach, which may influence the choice of formulation. As with most GLP-1RAs, initial dose escalation of semaglutide is required for both formulations to mitigate gastrointestinal adverse events. There are also specific dose instructions to follow with oral semaglutide to ensure sufficient gastric absorption. The evidence base surrounding the clinical use of semaglutide is being further expanded with trials investigating effects on diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular outcomes, and on the common T2D comorbidities of obesity, chronic kidney disease, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These will provide further information about whether the benefits of semaglutide extend to these other indications.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208585

RESUMO

Leptin is a principal adipose-derived hormone mostly implicated in the regulation of energy balance through the activation of anorexigenic neuronal pathways. Comprehensive studies have established that the maintenance of certain concentrations of circulating leptin is essential to avoid an imbalance in nutrient intake. Indeed, genetic modifications of the leptin/leptin receptor axis and the obesogenic environment may induce changes in leptin levels or action in a manner that accelerates metabolic dysfunctions, resulting in a hyperphagic status and adipose tissue expansion. As a result, a vicious cycle begins wherein hyperleptinaemia and leptin resistance occur, in turn leading to increased food intake and fat enlargement, which is followed by leptin overproduction. In addition, in the context of obesity, a defective thermoregulatory response is associated with impaired leptin signalling overall within the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These recent findings highlight the role of leptin in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis, thus suggesting leptin to be potentially considered as a new thermolipokine. This review provides new insight into the link between obesity, hyperleptinaemia, leptin resistance and leptin deficiency, focusing on the ability to restore leptin sensitiveness by way of enhanced thermogenic responses and highlighting novel anti-obesity therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Biomarcadores , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/deficiência , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Termogênese , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068941

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. Tubulointerstitial accumulation of lysine 63 (K63)-ubiquitinated (Ub) proteins is involved in the progression of DN fibrosis and correlates with urinary miR-27b-3p downregulation. We explored the renoprotective effect of an inhibitor of K63-Ub (NSC697923), alone or in combination with the ACE-inhibitor ramipril, in vitro and in vivo. Proximal tubular epithelial cells and diabetic DBA/2J mice were treated with NSC697923 and/or ramipril. K63-Ub protein accumulation along with α-SMA, collagen I and III, FSP-1, vimentin, p16INK4A expression, SA-α Gal staining, Sirius Red, and PAS staining were measured. Finally, we measured the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (uACR), and urinary miR-27b-3p expression in mice. NSC697923, both alone and in association with ramipril, in vitro and in vivo inhibited hyperglycemia-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition by significantly reducing K63-Ub proteins, α-SMA, collagen I, vimentin, FSP-1 expression, and collagen III along with tubulointerstitial and glomerular fibrosis. Treated mice also showed recovery of urinary miR-27b-3p and restored expression of p16INK4A. Moreover, NSC697923 in combination with ramipril demonstrated a trend in the reduction of uACR. In conclusion, we suggest that selective inhibition of K63-Ub, when combined with the conventional treatment with ACE inhibitors, might represent a novel treatment strategy to prevent the progression of fibrosis and proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy and we propose miR-27b-3p as a biomarker of treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Fibrose/prevenção & controle , Lisina/química , Nitrofuranos/farmacologia , Ramipril/farmacologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Ubiquitinação , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fibrose/etiologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA
7.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(7): 1929-1946, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097244

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The TROPHIES observational study enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiating their first injectable treatment with the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) dulaglutide or liraglutide. This manuscript focuses on the study design, baseline characteristics of the enrolled population, and factors associated with GLP-1 RA choice. METHODS: TROPHIES is a prospective, observational, 24-month study conducted in France, Germany, and Italy. Inclusion criteria include adult patients with T2DM, naïve to injectable antihyperglycemic treatments, initiating dulaglutide or liraglutide per routine clinical practice. The primary outcome is the duration of treatment on dulaglutide or liraglutide without a significant treatment change. RESULTS: The analysis included 2181 patients (dulaglutide, 1130; liraglutide, 1051) (cutoff date May 15, 2019). The population was 56% male with mean [standard deviation (SD)] patient characteristics at baseline as follows: age, 59.2 (11.0) years; body mass index (BMI), 33.9 (6.6) kg/m2; T2DM duration, 8.5 (6.9) years; and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 8.2 (1.3)%. Between-cohort demographic and clinical characteristics were balanced. The mean (SD) HbA1c and BMI values for French, German, and Italian patients were, respectively, 8.6 (1.4)%, 8.2 (1.4)%, 8.0 (0.8)%; 33.3 (6.1) kg/m2, 36.0 (7.2) kg/m2, and 32.6 (5.9) kg/m2. CONCLUSION: This study analysis at baseline provides an opportunity to evaluate between-country differences in baseline HbA1c, weight, macrovascular complications, and factors driving GLP-1 RA selection for patients with T2DM in daily practice.

9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 75, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789663

RESUMO

The 6th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit "Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes 2020" was the first to be held virtually on October 29-30, 2020. As in previous years, this summit served as reference meeting for in-depth discussions on the topic of recently completed and presented major outcome trials. This year, focus was placed on the outcomes of VERTIS-CV, EMPEROR-Reduced, DAPA-CKD, and FIDELIO-DKD. Trial implications for diabetes management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for diabetologists, cardiologists, endocrinologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussion evolved from major outcome trials using SGLT-2 inhibitors for treatment and prevention of heart failure and chronic kidney disease in people with and without diabetes, to additional therapy options for chronic kidney disease with a novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Furthermore, challenges in diabetes management like COVID-19 and obesity, as well as novel treatment strategies and guidelines, were discussed.The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November, 18-19, 2021 ( http://www.cvot.org ).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências , COVID-19/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671882

RESUMO

Incretins are gut hormones that potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) after meals. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is the most investigated incretin hormone, synthesized mainly by L cells in the lower gut tract. GLP-1 promotes ß-cell function and survival and exerts beneficial effects in different organs and tissues. Irisin, a myokine released in response to a high-fat diet and exercise, enhances GSIS. Similar to GLP-1, irisin augments insulin biosynthesis and promotes accrual of ß-cell functional mass. In addition, irisin and GLP-1 share comparable pleiotropic effects and activate similar intracellular pathways. The insulinotropic and extra-pancreatic effects of GLP-1 are reduced in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients but preserved at pharmacological doses. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are therefore among the most widely used antidiabetes drugs, also considered for their cardiovascular benefits and ability to promote weight loss. Irisin levels are lower in T2D patients, and in diabetic and/or obese animal models irisin administration improves glycemic control and promotes weight loss. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that both GLP-1 and irisin are also synthesized within the pancreatic islets, in α- and ß-cells, respectively. This review aims to describe the similarities between GLP-1 and irisin and to propose a new potential axis-involving the gut, muscle, and endocrine pancreas that controls energy homeostasis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Fibronectinas/fisiologia , Incretinas/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia
11.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546278

RESUMO

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a major component of the Mediterranean diet and is appreciated worldwide because of its nutritional benefits in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). EVOO contains significant amounts of secondary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds (PCs), that may positively influence the metabolic status. In this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of several PCs on beta-cell function and survival. To this aim, INS-1E cells were exposed to 10 µM of the main EVOO PCs for up to 24 h. Under these conditions, survival, insulin biosynthesis, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and intracellular signaling activation (protein kinase B (AKT) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)) were evaluated. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and apigenin augmented beta-cell proliferation and insulin biosynthesis, and apigenin and luteolin enhanced the GSIS. Conversely, vanillic acid and vanillin were pro-apoptotic for beta-cells, even if they increased the GSIS. In addition, oleuropein, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids significantly worsened the GSIS. Finally, a mixture of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and apigenin promoted the GSIS in human pancreatic islets. Apigenin was the most effective compound and was also able to activate beneficial intracellular signaling. In conclusion, this study shows that hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and apigenin foster beta-cells' health, suggesting that EVOO or supplements enriched with these compounds may improve insulin secretion and promote glycemic control in T2D patients.

12.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(7): 1484-1495, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606897

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors compared with other antihyperglycaemic agents (AHAs) in large and unselected populations of the Lombardy and Apulia regions in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational cohort study of first-time users of GLP-1RAs, SGLT2 inhibitors or other AHAs was conducted from 2010 to 2018. Death and cardiovascular (CV) events were evaluated using conditional Cox models in propensity-score-matched populations. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each region and in a meta-analysis for pooled risks. RESULTS: After propensity-score matching, the Lombardy cohort included 18 716 and 11 683 patients and the Apulia cohort 9772 and 6046 patients for the GLP-1RA and SGLT2 inhibitor groups, respectively. Use of GLP-1RAs was associated with lower rates of death (HR 0.61, CI 0.56-0.65, Lombardy; HR 0.63, CI 0.55-0.71, Apulia), cerebrovascular disease and ischaemic stroke (HR 0.70, CI 0.63-0.79; HR 0.72, CI 0.60-0.87, Lombardy), peripheral vascular disease (HR 0.72, CI 0.64-0.82, Lombardy; HR 0.80, CI 0.67-0.98, Apulia), and lower limb complications (HR 0.67, CI 0.56-0.81, Lombardy; HR 0.69, CI 0.51-0.93, Apulia). Compared with other AHAs, SGLT2 inhibitor use decreased the risk of death (HR 0.47, CI 0.40-0.54, Lombardy; HR 0.43, CI 0.32-0.57, Apulia), cerebrovascular disease (HR 0.75, CI 0.61-0.91, Lombardy; HR 0.72, CI 0.54-0.96, Apulia), and heart failure (HR 0.56, CI 0.46-0.70, Lombardy; HR 0.57, CI 0.42-0.77, Apulia). In the pooled cohorts, a reduction in heart failure was also observed with GLP-1RAs (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97). Serious adverse events were quite low in frequency. CONCLUSION: Our findings from real-world practice confirm the favourable effect of GLP-1RAs and SGLT2 inhibitors on death and CV outcomes across both regions consistently. Thus, these drug classes should be preferentially considered in a broad type 2 diabetes population beyond those with CV disease.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Sódio , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
13.
Obes Facts ; 14(1): 163-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498054

RESUMO

The Milan Charter on Urban Obesity highlights the challenges of urban environments as a battleground for human health, as cities are often organized to subvert public health goals, and promote rather than prevent the development of obesity and consequent non-communicable diseases. The Charter articulates ten principles which detail actions and strategies through which general practitioners, diverse medical specialists, related healthcare professionals, administrators and healthcare practice managers, policy actors - within health systems and at a national level - along with experts across disciplines, and citizens, can work in cooperation to meet this challenge and improve public health. The Charter urges the adoption of decisions that deliver the following: (i) policies which enable our cities to become healthier and less obesogenic, more supportive of well-being and less health-disruptive in general, and (ii) policies that fully support primary prevention strategies, that address social stigma, and that ensure fair access to treatment for people living with obesity. The Milan Charter on Urban Obesity aims to raise awareness of our shared responsibility for the health of all citizens, and focuses on addressing the health of people living with obesity - not only as a challenge in its own right, but a gateway to other major non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Itália , Saúde Pública , Sociedades Médicas , Saúde da População Urbana
14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 172: 108617, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310175

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major effect on healthcare during 2020. Current evidence suggests that, while individuals with diabetes and obesity are no more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection than those without, the risk of hospitalisation if someone has diabetes or obesity and then contracts COVID-19 is three times higher - and 4.5 times higher if they have diabetes and obesity. We assembled a panel of experts from South and East Europe, the Middle East, and Africa to discuss the challenges to management of diabetes and obesity during and post the COVID-19 pandemic. The experience and learnings of this panel cover a heterogeneous patient population, wide range of clinical settings, healthcare organisations, disease management strategies, and social factors. We discuss the importance of timely and effective disease management via telemedicine, providing reassurance and guidance for patients unable or unwilling to visit healthcare settings at this time. We address the use of novel therapies and their role in managing diabetes and obesity during the pandemic, as well as the importance of controlling hypoglycaemia and preventing cardiovascular complications, particularly in vulnerable people. Finally, we consider post-COVID-19 management of diabetes and obesity, and how these learnings and experiences should impact upon future clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina/métodos , África/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia
15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 196, 2020 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222693

RESUMO

Approximately half of all patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) develop a certain degree of renal impairment. In many of them, chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses over time, eventually leading to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) requiring dialysis and conveying a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even with widespread use of renin-angiotensin system blockers and tight glycemic control, a substantial residual risk of nephropathy progression remains. Recent cardiovascular outcomes trials investigating sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have suggested that these therapies have renoprotective effects distinct from their glucose-lowering action, including the potential to reduce the rates of ESKD and acute kidney injury. Although patients in most cardiovascular outcomes trials had higher prevalence of existing cardiovascular disease compared with those normally seen in clinical practice, the proportion of patients with renal impairment was similar to that observed in a real-world context. Patient cardiovascular risk profiles did not relevantly impact the renoprotective benefits observed in these studies. Benefits were observed in patients across a spectrum of renal risk, but were evident also in those without renal damage, suggesting a role for SGLT2 inhibition in the prevention of CKD in people with T2D. In addition, recent studies such as CREDENCE and DAPA-CKD offer a greater insight into the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. This review outlines the evidence that SGLT2 inhibitors may prevent the development of CKD and prevent and delay the worsening of CKD in people with T2D at different levels of renal risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 170: 108478, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002548

RESUMO

Approximately 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not achieve glycemic targets and require treatment intensification. A fixed-ratio combination of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) with basal insulin, such as lixisenatide with insulin glargine (iGlarLixi), exploits the complementary mechanisms of action of each component to address hyperglycemia while mitigating potential adverse events (AEs). The iGlarLixi dose is titrated considering the effect of basal insulin on fasting plasma glucose, and the fixed-ratio combination ensures that the lixisenatide dose never exceeds 20 µg/day. We describe the characteristics of iGlarLixi therapy, based on the LixiLan clinical program, and provide guidance on the characteristics of patients likely to benefit from such treatment in routine clinical practice. In the phase III LixiLan trials, iGlarLixi resulted in significantly greater reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), better achievement of HbA1c targets, less glycemic variability versus insulin glargine, lixisenatide or GLP-1 RA alone, and was associated with weight control, less hypoglycemia versus insulin glargine, and fewer GI AEs versus lixisenatide. Findings were consistent regardless of age, diabetes duration, and baseline HbA1c. The efficacy, safety, and convenient once-daily administration schedule of iGlarLixi make it a valuable treatment option for patients with T2DM requiring treatment intensification.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Masculino
17.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(10): 2383-2399, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures provide important information beyond clinical data, studies that assess the PROs of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients initiating injectable glucose-lowering medications in routine clinical practice are limited. We describe the perspectives of patients based on a diversified panel of generic and disease-specific PRO measures at the time of enrollment (baseline) in the TROPHIES study. METHODS: TROPHIES is a 24-month prospective observational study performed in France, Germany, and Italy in patients with T2DM who initiated their first injectable glucose-lowering medication with once-weekly dulaglutide or once-daily liraglutide. To better understand the perspectives of these patients regarding their overall health, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life and work, the patients' responses to the following questionnaires were collected at baseline before they initiated treatment with dulaglutide or liraglutide: EQ-5D-5L (scale: 0-1), EQ-VAS (visual analog scale: 0-100), Impact of Weight on Self-Perceptions Questionnaire (IW-SP; scale: 0-100), Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire Status (DTSQs; scale: 0-36), and Diabetes Productivity Measure (DPM; scale: 0-100). Analyses were descriptive in nature, with higher scores reflecting better outcomes. RESULTS: Data from patients at the time of enrollment were analyzed. At baseline, patients initiating dulaglutide (N = 1130) or liraglutide (N = 1051) rated their quality of life in terms of mean EQ-5D-5L index as 0.84 and 0.83, and in terms of mean EQ-VAS as 67.5 and 67.5, respectively. The mean baseline scores in patients initiating dulaglutide or liraglutide were 59.8 and 61.3 for IW-SP, 24.6 and 25.8 for DTSQs, 78.6 and 79.5 for DPM Life Productivity, and 87.5 and 86.8 for DPM Work Productivity, respectively. CONCLUSION: The information from this varied panel of PRO instruments collected at baseline complements clinical outcomes data.

18.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3404, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918324

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess changes in glucose metrics and their association with psychological distress and lifestyle changes in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using flash glucose monitoring (FGM) during lockdown following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-centre, observational, retrospective study enrolling T1D patients who attended a remote visit on April 2020 at the Endocrinology division of the University Hospital Policlinico Consorziale, Bari, Italy. Lockdown-related changes in physical activity level and dietary habits were assessed on a semi-quantitative basis. Changes in general well-being were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-12 items with a binary scoring system. Glucose metrics were obtained from the Libreview platform for the first 2 weeks of February 2020 (T0) and the last 2 weeks before the phone visit (T1). RESULTS: Out of 84 patients assessed for eligibility, 48 had sufficient FGM data to be included in the analysis. FGM data analysis revealed significant reductions in coefficient of variation, number of hypoglycaemic events, and time below range, while no changes were found in time in range, time above range, mean sensor glucose, and glucose management indicator. Moreover, the frequency of sweets consumption was inversely related to the occurrence of hypoglycaemic events during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown-related lifestyle changes, albeit unhealthy, may lead to reduction in FGM-derived measures of hypoglycaemia and glycaemic variability in patients with T1D.

20.
Metabolism ; 110: 154304, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599081

RESUMO

The loss of beta-cell functional mass is a necessary and early condition in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D patients, beta-cell function is already reduced by about 50% at diagnosis and further declines thereafter. Beta-cell mass is also reduced in subjects with T2D, and islets from diabetic donors are smaller compared to non-diabetic donors. Thus, beta-cell regeneration and/or preservation of the functional islet integrity should be highly considered for T2D treatment and possibly cure. To date, the available anti-diabetes drugs have been developed as "symptomatic" medications since they act to primarily reduce elevated blood glucose levels. However, a truly efficient anti-diabetes medication, capable to prevent the onset and progression of T2D, should stop beta-cell loss and/or promote the restoration of fully functional beta-cell mass, independently of reducing hyperglycemia and ameliorating glucotoxicity on the pancreatic islets. This review provides a view of the experimental and clinical evidence on the ability of available anti-diabetes drugs to exert protective effects on beta-cells, with a specific focus on human pancreatic islets and clinical trials. Potential explanations for the lack of concordance between evidence of beta-cell protection in vitro and of persistent amelioration of beta-cell function in vivo are also discussed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia
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