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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593602

RESUMO

Elevated cutaneous nevus number has been linked to longer telomeres. Recently, a large systematic Mendelian randomization study identified a significant positive association between telomere length and risk of cancer. Here, we hypothesized that higher nevus count, as a phenotypic marker of longer telomere, may be associated with increased risk of internal cancer, and prospectively examined the association between nevus count and total as well as site-specific cancer risk among participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1986-2012) and the Nurses' Health Study 2 (NHS2, 1989-2013) using Cox proportional hazards models. During 3,900,264 person-years of follow-up, we documented a total of 23,004 internal cancer cases (15,484 in the NHS and 7,520 in the NHS2). Compared to participants who had no nevi, the multivariate hazard ratios of total cancer (excluding skin cancer) were 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.09) for women with 1-5 nevi, 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.15) for those who had 6-14 nevi, and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35) for those with 15 or more nevi (p trend <0.0001). Moreover, because nevus count has been associated with risk of breast cancer previously, we conducted a secondary analysis by excluding breast cancer from the outcomes of interest. The results were very similar to those of our primary analysis. For individual cancer, most of the associations with nevus count were positive but not statistically significant. In conclusion, we identified the number of cutaneous nevi as a phenotypic marker associated with internal cancer risk, which may be explained by telomere biology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223638, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remains unclear and published data are limited. METHODS: The analytic cohort included 99,798 women, free of cancer at baseline, from the California Teachers Study, a longitudinal cohort comprised of 133,477 female teachers and administrators who were active or recently retired members of the California State Teachers Retirement System in 1995. SSB consumption constituted caloric soft drinks, sweetened bottled waters and teas, and fruit drinks, derived from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Consumption was divided into four categories: Rare or never, >rare/never to <1 serving/week, ≥1 serving/week to <1 serving/day, and ≥1 serving/day. CRC endpoints were based on annual linkage with California Cancer Registry, defined as first diagnosis of CRC, and classified following the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program coding system. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for assessing the association between SSB consumption and incident CRC. RESULTS: A total of 1,318 incident CRC cases were identified over 20 years of follow-up (54.5% proximal colon and 45.5% distal colorectum). Compared with rare/never consumers, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.14 (0.86, 1.53) for total CRC; 1.11 (0.73, 1.68) for proximal colon; and 1.22 (0.80, 1.86) for distal colorectum cancers among women consuming ≥ 1 serving/day of SSBs. CONCLUSION: SSBs were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The biological effects of high SSB consumption make it important to continue to evaluate whether SSBs are associated with CRC. Additionally, future studies should further assess SSBs in large, racial/ethnically diverse cohorts of males and females, and, if feasible, address changes in SSB consumption over time.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the associations between calcium and various stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and whether these associations are modified by the calcium to magnesium (Ca:Mg) ratio. METHODS: We tested our hypotheses in the prostate lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial. RESULTS: Calcium intake did not show a dose-response association with incident adenoma of any size/stage (P-trend = 0.17), but followed an inverse trend when restricted to synchronous/advanced adenoma cases (P-trend = 0.05). This inverse trend was mainly in participants with Ca:Mg ratios between 1.7 and 2.5 (P-trend = 0.05). No significant associations were observed for metachronous adenoma. Calcium intake was inversely associated with CRC (P-trend = 0.03); the association was primarily present for distal CRC (P-trend = 0.01). The inverse association between calcium and distal CRC was further modified by the Ca:Mg ratio (P-interaction < 0.01); significant dose-response associations were found only in participants with a Ca:Mg ratio between 1.7 and 2.5 (P-trend = 0.04). No associations for calcium were found in the Ca:Mg ratio above 2.5 or below 1.7. CONCLUSION: Higher calcium intake may be related to reduced risks of incident advanced and/or synchronous adenoma and incident distal CRC among subjects with Ca:Mg intake ratios between 1.7 and 2.5.

4.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495339

RESUMO

Dietary fibre is believed to provide important health benefits including protection from colorectal cancer. However, the evidence on the relationships with different dietary fibre sources is mixed and little is known about which fibre source provides the greatest benefits. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohorts to summarise the relationships of different fibre sources with colorectal cancer and adenoma risks. Analyses were restricted to publications that reported all fibre sources (cereals, vegetables, fruits, legumes) to increase comparability between results. PubMed and Embase were searched through August 2018 to identify relevant studies. The summary relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI were estimated using a random-effects model. This analysis included a total of ten prospective studies. The summary RR of colorectal cancer associated with each 10 g/d increase in fibre intake were 0·91 (95 % CI 0·82, 1·00; I2 = 0 %) for cereal fibre, 0·95 (95 % CI 0·87, 1·03, I2 = 0 %) for vegetable fibre, 0·91 (95 % CI 0·78, 1·06, I2 = 43 %) for fruit fibre and 0·84 (95 % CI 0·63, 1·13, I2 = 45 %) for legume fibre. For cereal fibre, the association with colorectal cancer risk remained statistically significant after adjustment for folate intake (RR 0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, I2 = 2 %). For vegetable and fruit fibres, the dose-response curve suggested evidence of non-linearity. All fibre sources were inversely associated with incident adenoma (per 10 g/d increase: RR 0·81 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·21) cereals, 0·84 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·98) for vegetables, 0·78 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·93) for fruits) but not associated with recurrent adenoma. Our data suggest that, although all fibre sources may provide some benefits, the evidence for colorectal cancer prevention is strongest for fibre from cereals/grains.

5.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556446

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is susceptible to oxidative stress and mutation. Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), with inconsistent findings. In this study, we examined the association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn and CRC risk in a case-control study of 324 female cases and 658 matched controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). Relative mtDNAcn in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by quantitative PCR-based assay. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of interest. Results showed lower log-mtDNAcn was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC, in a dose-dependent relationship (P for trend < 0.0001). Compared to the 4th quartile, multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.10 (0.69, 1.76) for the 3rd quartile, 1.40 (0.89, 2.19) for the 2nd quartile, and 2.19 (1.43, 3.35) for the 1st quartile. In analysis by anatomic subsite of CRC, we found a significant inverse association for proximal colon cancer [lowest vs. highest quartile, multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) = 3.31 (1.70, 6.45), P for trend = 0.0003]. Additionally, stratified analysis according to the follow-up time since blood collection showed that the inverse association between mtDNAcn and CRC remained significant among individuals with ≥ 5 years' follow-up, and marginally significant among those with ≥ 10 years' follow-up since mtDNAcn testing, suggesting that mtDNAcn may serve as a long-term predictor for risk of CRC. In conclusion, pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn was inversely associated with CRC risk. Further basic experimental studies are needed to explore the underlying biological mechanisms linking mtDNAcn to CRC carcinogenesis.

6.
Adv Nutr ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504082

RESUMO

Insufficient intake of total fruits and vegetables is linked to an increased cancer risk, but the relation is not understood for dried fruits. Dried fruits are generally perceived, by both consumers and researchers, as a less attractive but shelf-stable equivalent to fresh fruits and constitute a small but significant proportion of modern diets. Chemical compositions of raw and dried fruits, however, may differ substantially. Several clinical and laboratory intervention studies have reported the protective effects of dehydrated fruits against the progression of some cancers and the modulating effects of dried fruits on common cancer risk factors. In this systematic review, we identified, summarized, and critically evaluated 9 prospective cohort and 7 case-control studies that examined the relations between traditional dried fruit (raisins, prunes, dates) consumption and cancer risk in humans. Prospective cohort studies determined that significant reductions in relative risk of precancerous colorectal polyps, incidence of prostate cancer, or mortality from pancreatic cancer, by, respectively, 24%, 49%, and 65%, were associated with 3-5 or more servings of dried fruits per week. Selected case-control studies revealed inverse associations between dried fruit intake and risk of cancer as well. The reported associations were comparable to or stronger than those observed for total or raw fruits. Although the small number and high heterogeneity impede meta-analysis of these studies, we conclude that currently available data provide some initial evidence that consumption of dried fruits may be associated with a lower cancer incidence or mortality in populations. The data suggest that higher intake of raisins and other dried fruits may be important in the prevention of cancers of the digestive system. Because only a limited number of health outcome and dried fruit intake relations have been evaluated in prospective studies to date, reanalyzing existing high-quality epidemiological data may expand the knowledge base.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455888

RESUMO

Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death. Arising through three major pathways, including adenoma-carcinoma sequence, serrated pathway and inflammatory pathway, CRC represents an aetiologically heterogeneous disease according to subtyping by tumour anatomical location or global molecular alterations. Genetic factors such as germline MLH1 and APC mutations have an aetiologic role, predisposing individuals to CRC. Yet, the majority of CRC is sporadic and largely attributable to the constellation of modifiable environmental risk factors characterizing westernization (for example, obesity, physical inactivity, poor diets, alcohol drinking and smoking). As such, the burden of CRC is shifting towards low-income and middle-income countries as they become westernized. Furthermore, the rising incidence of CRC at younger ages (before age 50 years) is an emerging trend. This Review provides a comprehensive summary of CRC epidemiology, with emphasis on modifiable lifestyle and nutritional factors, chemoprevention and screening. Overall, the optimal reduction of CRC incidence and mortality will require concerted efforts to reduce modifiable risk factors, to leverage chemoprevention research and to promote population-wide and targeted screening.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369145

RESUMO

The changing profile of lifestyles and their intricate relationships with smoking indicate the importance of accounting for smoking status when assessing cancer preventability. We assessed the association of body mass index, weight change, alcohol intake and physical activity with risk of total carcinoma among 53,195 smokers and 62,842 nonsmokers in two prospective cohorts. Then, leveraging the national prevalence estimates, we calculated the population attributable risk (PAR) for healthy lifestyle defined as body mass index ≥18.5 and <27.5 kg/m2 , mid-life weight change of ≤20 pounds, no or moderate alcohol drinking (≤1 and 2 drinks/day for women and men, respectively) and weekly moderate or vigorous physical activity of at least 150 min. The PAR (95% CI) for healthy lifestyle was 18% (14-22%) in nonsmokers and 14% (10-19%) in smokers among women, and 20% (12-27%) in nonsmokers and 11% (5-17%) in smokers among men. While adiposity accounted for a substantially higher proportion of carcinoma cases in nonsmokers than smokers (16% vs. 2% in women, 15% vs. 2% in men), alcohol contributed more in smokers than nonsmokers (7% vs. 3% in women, 8% vs. 1% in men). When more strict criteria were used to define healthy lifestyle, the PAR estimates further increased (for women: 37% in smokers and 32% in nonsmokers; for men: 15% and 24%, respectively). In conclusion, lifestyle modification has great potential to reduce cancer risk in both smokers and nonsmokers. Weight control and reducing alcohol consumption should be prioritized for cancer prevention in nonsmokers and smokers, respectively.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(9): 1531-1538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although low fiber intake has been considered a risk factor for diverticulitis, prospective evidence is limited in women despite having a disproportionate burden of disease, with little known about variation in the protective effects according to food sources. We assessed the associations of intakes of fiber and major food sources of fiber including fruits and vegetables with risk of diverticulitis in a large cohort of women. METHODS: We followed 50,019 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1990-2014) who were aged 43-70 years and free of diverticulitis, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline. Incident diverticulitis was identified through self-report with validity confirmed by review of medical records. RESULTS: We documented 4,343 incident cases of diverticulitis, encompassing 1,106,402 person-years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile, the multivariable hazard ratio of diverticulitis in the highest quintile of total fiber intake was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-0.95; P-trend = 0.002). Fiber from fruits and cereals, but not vegetables, was associated with a decreased risk of diverticulitis. Furthermore, intake of total whole fruit intake and specific fruits such as apples/pears and prunes were associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis with a multivariable hazard ratio for diverticulitis of 0.95 (0.92-0.98; P-trend < 0.001) for every serving increase of total whole fruit intake per day. DISCUSSION: Higher intake of dietary fiber and fiber from different food sources, except for vegetable fiber, are associated with a lower risk of diverticulitis in women. A greater intake of whole fruit is also associated with reduced risk.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length has been associated with risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer. Few prospective studies have evaluated the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with pancreatic cancer survival. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length with overall survival (OS) time among 423 participants diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 1984 and 2008 within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Nurses' Health Study, Physicians' Health Study, and Women's Health Initiative. We measured prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length in banked blood samples using quantitative PCR. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs for OS with adjustment for potential confounders. We also evaluated 10 SNPs at the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus. RESULTS: Shorter prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with reduced OS among patients with pancreatic cancer (P trend = 0.04). The multivariable-adjusted HR for OS comparing the lowest with highest quintiles of leukocyte telomere length was 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.93), corresponding to a 3-month difference in median OS time. In an analysis excluding cases with blood collected within 2 years of cancer diagnosis, the association was moderately stronger (HR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.21; comparing the lowest with highest quintiles; P trend = 0.01). No prognostic association or effect modification for the prognostic association of prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was noted in relation to the studied SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length was associated with pancreatic cancer survival. IMPACT: Prediagnostic leukocyte telomere length can be a prognostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although an association between alcohol consumption and risk of colorectal cancer is well established, little is known about the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer survival. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess this association. METHODS: Data searches were performed using PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases through December 2018. We estimated pooled RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. RESULTS: Twelve studies with 32,846 patients with colorectal cancer were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with no alcohol consumption, light (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81-0.94) and moderate (RR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-1.00) prediagnostic alcohol consumption were associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality. Light prediagnostic alcohol consumption was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer-specific mortality (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.98). However, heavy prediagnostic alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with colorectal cancer survival. In a dose-response analysis, a nonlinear association between prediagnostic alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality was observed (P nonlinearity = 0.0025), showing the reduction in RR at <30 g/day of alcohol consumption. By type of alcohol, wine consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality from all-causes and colorectal cancer, but a positive association was observed between moderate liquor consumption and all-cause mortality. There was no association between postdiagnostic alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer survival. CONCLUSIONS: Light and moderate prediagnostic alcohol consumption were associated with better survival in colorectal cancer. IMPACT: Our findings suggest that light and moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with better survival in colorectal cancer, but further studies are warranted.

14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the associations between meat intake and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was limited and inconsistent. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association between consumption of meats and meat mutagens with HCC risk using data from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for known liver-cancer risk factors. RESULTS: During up to 32 years of follow-up, we documented 163 incident HCC cases. The HRs of HCC for the highest vs the lowest tertile intake levels were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.16-2.92, Ptrend = 0.04) for processed red meats and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40-0.91, Ptrend = 0.02) for total white meats. There was a null association between unprocessed red meats and HCC risk (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.68-1.63, Ptrend = 0.85). We found both poultry (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90, Ptrend = 0.01) and fish (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.47-1.05, Ptrend = 0.10) were inversely associated with HCC risk. The HR for HCC risk was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.61-1.02) when 1 standard deviation of processed red meats was substituted with an equivalent amount of poultry or fish intake. We also found a suggestive positive association of intake of meat-derived mutagenicity or heterocyclic amines with risk of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Processed red meat intake might be associated with higher, whereas poultry or possibly fish intake might be associated with lower, risk of HCC. Replacing processed red meat with poultry or fish might be associated with reduced HCC risk.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318977

RESUMO

Family history is among the strongest known risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa). Emerging data suggest molecular subtypes of PCa, including two somatic genetic aberrations: fusions of androgen-regulated promoters with ERG and, separately, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss. We examined associations between family history and incidence of these subtypes in 44,126 men from the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. ERG and PTEN status were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Multivariable competing risks models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between self-reported family history of PCa and molecular subtypes of disease. Thirteen percent of men had a positive family history of PCa at baseline. During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 5,511 PCa cases were diagnosed. Among them, 888 were assayed for ERG status (47% ERG-positive) and 715 were assayed for PTEN loss (14% PTEN null). Family history was more strongly associated with risk of ERG-negative (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.71-2.70) than ERG-positive (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95) disease (pheterogeneity : 0.04). The strongest difference was among men with an affected father (HRERG-negative : 2.09; 95% CI: 1.64-2.66; HRERG-positive : 1.30; 95% CI: 0.96-1.76; pheterogeneity : 0.01). Family history of PCa was positively associated with both PTEN null (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.26-3.49) and PTEN intact (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.39-2.13) PCa (pheterogeneity : 0.47). Our results indicate that PCa family history may be positively associated with PCa in all ERG and PTEN subtypes, suggesting a role of genetic susceptibility in their development. It is possible that ERG-negative disease could be especially associated with positive family history.

16.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopic screening reduces incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) because precursor lesions, such as conventional adenomas or serrated polyps, are removed. Individuals with polypectomies are advised to undergo colonoscopy surveillance to prevent CRC. However, guidelines for surveillance intervals after diagnosis of a precursor lesion, particularly for individuals with serrated polyps, vary widely, and lack sufficient supporting evidence. Consequently, some high-risk patients do not receive enough surveillance and lower-risk subjects receive excessive surveillance. METHODS: We examined the association between findings from first endoscopy and CRC risk among 122,899 participants who underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy in the Nurses' Health Study 1 (1990-2012), Nurses' Health Study 2 (1989-2013), or the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1990-2012). Endoscopic findings were categorized as no polyp, conventional adenoma, or serrated polyp (hyperplastic polyp, traditional serrated adenoma, or sessile serrated adenoma, with or without cytological dysplasia). Conventional adenomas were classified as advanced (≥10 mm, high-grade dysplasia, or tubulovillous or villous histology) or non-advanced, and serrated polyps were assigned to categories of large (≥10 mm) or small (< 10 mm). We used Cox proportional hazards regression model to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of CRC incidence, after adjusting for various potential risk factors. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 10 years, we documented 491 incident cases of CRC: 51 occurred in 6161 participants with conventional adenomas, 24 in 5918 participants with serrated polyps, and 427 in 112,107 participants with no polyp. Compared to participants with no polyp detected during initial endoscopy, the multivariable HR for incident CRC in individuals with an advanced adenoma was 4.07 (95% CI, 2.89-5.72) and the HR for CRC in individuals with a large serrated polyp was 3.35 (95% CI, 1.37-8.15). In contrast, there was no significant increase in risk of CRC in patients with non-advanced adenomas (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.68-2.16, P=.52) or small serrated polyps (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.76-2.08; P=.38). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for guidelines that recommend repeat lower endoscopy within 3 years of a diagnosis of advanced adenoma and large serrated polyps. In contrast, patients with non-advanced adenoma or small serrated polyps may not require more intensive surveillance than patients without polyps.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276608

RESUMO

Anthropometric measurements, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat percentage, have been used as indicators of obesity. Despite evidence that excess body fat is a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma (CRC), the magnitude of the association of BMI and other obesity indicators with the long-term risk of CRC remains unclear. Utilizing a Cox proportional hazards regression model, we examined differential associations between predicted body fat percentage and BMI with the risk of CRC (n = 2,017). The associations between CRC incidence and different adiposity measurements were also assessed. Predicted body fat percentage had a similar increased risk of CRC risk as BMI. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, the hazard ratio for CRC in the second to fifth quintiles (compared to the first quintile) of predicted body fat percentage were 1.32, 1.31, 1.53 and 2.09 for men (ptrend < 0.001) and 0.91, 0.90, 0.98 and 1.15 for women (ptrend = 0.03). Among various anthropometric measurements, predicted fat mass and waist circumference were slightly more strongly associated with CRC risk than BMI. In conclusion, the novel anthropometric prediction equations provided further evidence that a greater amount of body fat might contribute to CRC risk in both sexes. An innovative approach enabled us to estimate the susceptibilities of specific body composition with CRC risk, in an inexpensive and minimally invasive manner. Furthermore, the typically used measures of BMI and waist circumference are robust measures of adiposity to predict cancer risk in a relatively healthy population.

18.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that a food-based empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score is associated with circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Metabolomic profiling of inflammatory diets may therefore provide insights on mechanisms contributing to disease etiology and prognosis. We aimed to elucidate metabolites associated with inflammatory diets among postmenopausal women, utilizing a robust study design that incorporates independent discovery and validation datasets. METHODS: This baseline cross-sectional investigation evaluated associations between continuous EDIP scores calculated from food frequency questionnaires and 448 log-transformed plasma metabolites as outcomes in multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses. Metabolites were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Metabolite discovery was conducted among 1109 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Therapy trial participants and results were replicated in an independent dataset of 810 WHI Observational Study participants. Secondary analyses were stratified by standard body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) categories. In discovery and replication datasets statistical significance was based on false-discovery rate adjusted P < 0.05. RESULTS: After adjusting for energy intake, BMI, physical activity, and other confounding variables, 23 metabolites were significantly associated with EDIP score in the discovery dataset. Of these, the following ten were replicated: trigonelline, caffeine, acethylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil, 7-methylxanthine, 1,7-dimethyluric acid, 3-methylxanthine, C18:3CE, glycine, associated with lower dietary inflammatory potential; whereas C52:3 triacylglycerol and linoleate associated with higher dietary inflammatory potential. Four of the ten were associated [glycine (inversely), caffeine, 1,7-dimethyluric acid, C52:3 triacylglycerol, (positively)], with C-reactive protein levels. In secondary analyses, associations showed differences by BMI category. Four metabolites, related to coffee/caffeine metabolism were inversely associated among normal weight women, and 83 metabolites associated with EDIP among overweight/obese women, including 40 (48%) that were also associated with C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: Metabolites associated with coffee/caffeine and lipid metabolism may reflect the inflammatory potential of diet. Potential differences by BMI and the linkage to disease outcomes, require further study.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1469-1479, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) 2018 diet, nutrition, and physical activity recommendations aim to reduce cancer risk. We examined adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations and colorectal cancer risk in two prospective cohorts. METHODS: We followed 68,977 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 45,442 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 until 2012. We created cumulatively averaged WCRF/AICR scores using updated diet, adiposity, and physical activity data from questionnaires, and used Cox regression to estimate sex-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident colorectal cancer. RESULTS: We documented 2,449 colorectal cancer cases. Men in the highest quintile of the WCRF/AICR lifestyle score had a lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with those in the lowest quintile (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.77). The result was weaker in women (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-1.02; P heterogeneity by sex = 0.006). When analyzing the diet recommendations alone, we similarly observed stronger inverse associations in men (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90) compared with women (HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77-1.12; P heterogeneity by sex = 0.06). In men, the lifestyle score was more strongly inversely associated with risk of distal colon cancer compared with proximal colon or rectal cancer (P common effects = 0.03); we did not observe significant differences between anatomic locations in women. CONCLUSIONS: The 2018 WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations are associated with lower colorectal cancer risk in men, with weaker results in women. IMPACT: Consideration of adiposity and physical activity in conjunction with diet is important for colorectal cancer prevention.

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