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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets are associated with multiple health benefits and a favorable environmental impact. For prostate cancer, previous studies suggest a beneficial role of specific plant-based foods (e.g., tomatoes) and a potentially harmful role of specific animal-based foods (e.g., meat, dairy). However, less is known about plant-based dietary patterns. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between Plant-based Diet Indices and prostate cancer risk, including clinically relevant disease. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study including 47,239 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014). Overall and healthful Plant-based Diet Indices were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to examine the risk of incident prostate cancer (total and by clinical category), among men ages < 65 and ≥ 65. RESULTS: 6,655 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer over follow-up, including 515 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 956 with lethal disease (metastasis or death) and 806 prostate cancer deaths. Greater overall plant-based consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of fatal prostate cancer (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.64,1.01; p-trend = 0.04). In men age < 65, higher Plant-based Diet Index was associated with a lower risk of advanced, lethal and fatal prostate cancer. Moreover, greater consumption of a healthful plant-based diet was associated with lower risks of total (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.73,0.98; P-trend = 0.046) and lethal prostate cancer (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34,0.94; P-trend = 0.03) at age < 65. There were no associations between overall or healthful Plant-based Diet Indices with prostate cancer among men ≥ 65 years. Less than 1% of participants followed a strict vegetarian or vegan diet. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This prospective study provides supportive evidence that greater consumption of healthful plant-based foods is associated with a lower risk of aggressive forms of prostate cancer, with stronger benefit among men age < 65.

2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730560

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statin use has been examined as a potential chemopreventive strategy against colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous studies have not been able to investigate this topic with adequate follow-up time or disentangle the effects of statin use and total cholesterol level. We investigated prospectively this topic. METHODS: Eligible participants (100,300 women and 47,991 men) in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were followed for up to 24 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We documented 2,924 incident CRC cases during follow-up. In fully adjusted analyses, longer duration of statin use was associated with higher risk of colon cancer (hazard ratios, the 95% confidence interval was 1.09, 0.95-1.25 for 1-5 years; 1.16, 0.99-1.36 for 6-10 years; 1.08, 0.81-1.44 for 11-15 years; 1.85, 1.30-2.61 for >15 years; vs never users, P = 0.004 for trend) rather than rectal cancer. The risk elevation was driven by proximal colon cancer (1.16, 0.98-1.38 for 1-5 years; 1.19, 0.98-1.45 for 6-10 years; 1.25, 0.89-1.74 for 11-15 years; 2.17, 1.46-3.24 for >15 years; vs never users, P = 0.001 for trend) rather than distal colon cancer. The results remained robust in analyses among participants with hypercholesterolemia or who never received screening. Total cholesterol level was not associated with CRC risk. DISCUSSION: This study does not support benefit of statin use in CRC chemoprevention or any association between total cholesterol level and CRC risk. On the contrary, long-term statin use may be associated with increased colon cancer risk (driven by proximal colon cancer).

3.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(5): pkab077, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738070

RESUMO

Background: Smoking has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in previous studies, but current evidence on smoking in association with survival after CRC diagnosis is limited. Methods: We pooled data from 12 345 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 11 epidemiologic studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of prediagnostic smoking behavior with overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival. Results: Among 12 345 patients with CRC, 4379 (35.5%) died (2515 from CRC) over a median follow-up time of 7.5 years. Smoking was strongly associated with worse survival in stage I-III patients, whereas no association was observed among stage IV patients. Among stage I-III patients, clear dose-response relationships with all survival outcomes were seen for current smokers. For example, current smokers with 40 or more pack-years had statistically significantly worse overall, CRC-specific, and non-CRC-specific survival compared with never smokers (hazard ratio [HR] =1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.68 to 2.25; HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.78; and HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.19 to 3.26, respectively). Similar associations with all survival outcomes were observed for former smokers who had quit for less than 10 years, but only a weak association with non-CRC-specific survival was seen among former smokers who had quit for more than 10 years. Conclusions: This large consortium of CRC patient studies provides compelling evidence that smoking is strongly associated with worse survival of stage I-III CRC patients in a clear dose-response manner. The detrimental effect of smoking was primarily related to noncolorectal cancer events, but current heavy smoking also showed an association with CRC-specific survival.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(12): 5718-5725, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plant-based diets have been suggested to have health benefits, and risk differs by quality of plant foods. However, evidence on the association between the quality of plant-based diets and mortality are limited. This study examined the associations between 3 different types of plant-based diet indices and risk of total and disease-specific mortality. METHODS: Analyses were based on a population-based cohort of 118,577 South Korean adults (40-69 years of age) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study_Health Examinees (2004-2019). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Based on the questionnaire, we calculated 3 plant-based diet indices: overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI), and unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI). The PDI assigned higher scores for higher consumption of all plant foods. The hPDI assigned higher scores for higher consumption of only healthy plant foods. The uPDI assigned higher scores for higher consumption of only unhealthy plant foods. RESULTS: During a total of 1,191,426 person-years of follow-up, we ascertained 3074 deaths, including 447 deaths from cardiovascular disease and 1515 deaths from cancer. Comparing the highest versus lowest quintiles of PDI, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of total mortality were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68-0.85, P-trend<0.0001). Comparing the highest versus lowest quintile of uPDI, the hazard ratios were 1.30 for total mortality (95% CI, 1.15-1.48, P-trend<0.0001), 1.55 for cardiovascular disease mortality (95% CI, 1.08-2.25, P-trend = 0.06), and 1.23 for cancer mortality (95% CI, 1.02-1.47, P-trend = 0.06) after adjustment for demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. For 10-point higher in PDI score was associated with 13% (95% CI, 0.82-0.92, P < 0.0001) lower risk of total mortality. In contrast, 10-point higher in uPDI score was associated with 16% (95% CI, 1.06-1.17, P < 0.0001) higher risk of total mortality with modest association with cancer mortality. No association was observed between hPDI and any cause of mortality. The correlation coefficients were 0.39 between PDI and hPDI, -0.22 between hPDI and uPDI, and 0.07 between PDI and uPDI. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, greater adherence to a plant-based dietary pattern was associated with lower total mortality, but among those with predominantly unhealthful plant-based diets, total and disease-specific mortality rates were higher. The quality of plant foods may be crucial for reducing mortality in a population that mainly consume diets rich in plant foods.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with celiac disease, gluten triggers an immune reaction that damages small intestinal villi and may increase long-term risk of gastrointestinal cancer. However, the health impacts of gluten in the general population are understudied. We aimed to examine the association between gluten intake and risk of digestive system cancers among individuals without celiac disease. METHODS: We leveraged longitudinal data from three prospective cohorts, Nurses' Health Study (1984-2018, 73,166 women aged 65.1±10.8 years), Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2017, 90,423 women aged 49.1±8.2 years), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2016, 42,617 men aged 64.8±10.8 years). Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of digestive system cancers according to quintiles of gluten intake assessed from food frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: During 4,801,513 person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,231 incident digestive system cancer cases among three cohorts. After adjusting for a wide-range of risk factors, including body mass index, physical activity, diet quality, gluten intake was not associated with an increased risk of digestive system cancer, with a HR (95% CI) of 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of gluten intake (p-trend=0.05). Similar null associations were found for individual digestive system cancers: oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, small intestine cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gallbladder cancer, and liver cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Gluten intake was not associated with risk of digestive system cancers in adults without celiac disease. Restricting dietary gluten is unlikely to be beneficial to the prevention of digestive system cancers in the general population.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6388, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737258

RESUMO

The relationship between dietary factors and liver disease remains poorly understood. This study evaluated the associations of whole grain and dietary fiber intake with liver cancer risk and chronic liver disease mortality. The National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study cohort recruited 485, 717 retired U.S. participants in 1995-1996. Follow-up through 2011 identified 940 incident liver cancer cases and 993 deaths from chronic liver disease. Compared with the lowest, the highest quintile of whole grain intake was associated with lower liver cancer risk (Hazard ratio [HR]Q5 vs. Q1 = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63-0.96) and chronic liver disease mortality (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.35-0.55) in multivariable Cox models. Dietary fiber was also associated with lower liver cancer risk (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.53-0.90) and chronic liver disease mortality (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.29-0.48). Fiber from vegetables, beans and grains showed potential protective effect. Here, we show that higher intake of whole grain and dietary fiber are associated with lower risk of liver cancer and liver disease mortality.

7.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct an updated and comprehensive study on the risks of subsequent primary urogenital cancers for childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted using 9 cancer registries from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program with follow-up from 1975 to 2017. There were 43,991 patients diagnosed with first primary cancer from 1975 to 2016 before the age of 20 years who subsequently survived for at least 1 year. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) for urogenital cancers were calculated. RESULTS: Compared with the general population, the risk of urinary system cancer was significantly higher in both female (SIR = 5.18, 95% CI: 3.65-7.14) and male (SIR = 2.80, 95% CI: 1.94-3.92) survivors of any first cancer, with shorter median interval length between first cancer and subsequent urinary system cancer for male survivors (19.9 years) than female survivors (29.3 years). Females also had significantly higher SIR than males for subsequent urinary system cancer (SIRfemale:male=1.86, 95% CI: 1.13-3.03) and kidney cancer (SIRfemale:male = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.11-3.53). Compared with the general population, females with any first cancer had significantly higher risks for cancers of the corpus uteri (SIR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.49-3.45) and vulva (SIR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.38-9.95). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors may have greater female susceptibility for developing subsequent urinary system and kidney cancers, and these survivors may have higher risks for specific types of reproductive system cancers. Our findings may lead to better awareness and surveillance for urogenital cancer by these cancer survivors and their physicians.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insulin response is related to overall health. Diet modulates insulin response. We investigated whether insulinemic potential of diet is associated with risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 63,464 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2016) and 42,880 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016). Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. The insulinemic potential of diet was evaluated using a food-based empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH), which was predefined based on predicting circulating C-peptide concentrations. RESULTS: During 2,792,550 person-years of follow-up, 38,329 deaths occurred. In the pooled multivariable-adjusted analyses, a higher dietary insulinemic potential was associated with an increased risk of mortality from all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] comparing extreme quintiles: 1.33; 95% CI 1.29, 1.38; P-trend <0.001), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.27, 1.46; P-trend <0.001), and cancers (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.13, 1.28; P-trend<0.001). These associations were independent of BMI and remained significant after further adjustment for other well-known dietary indices. Furthermore, compared with participants whose EDIH scores were stable over an 8-year period, those with the greatest increases had a higher subsequent risk of all-cause (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.09, 1.18; P-trend<0.001) and CVD (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01, 1.21; P-trend = 0.006) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher insulinemic potential of diet was associated with increased risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. Adopting a diet with low insulinemic potential might be an effective approach to improve overall health and prevent premature death.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aspirin use has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined associations between regular aspirin use and prostate tumor angiogenesis among 572 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Participants reported aspirin use on biennial questionnaires. Prostatectomy tumor blocks were immunostained for CD34 to assess microvessel size and irregularity. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate percent differences in biomarker measures comparing use vs nonuse, and by duration and tablets per day. RESULTS: Current aspirin users had larger vessel area (14.5%) and diameter (6.5%), and lower vessel irregularity (- 8.1%) compared to non-users, indicating a less angiogenic profile. Duration of use and current tablets per day were also associated with larger vessel diameter. Similar patterns were seen for low- and high-grade prostate cancers. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aspirin use, particularly current use, can lower prostate cancer carcinogenesis through angiogenic mechanisms.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease has been associated with colorectal cancer and some form of polyps, although the findings are inconclusive. It remains unknown whether gallstone disease influences the initiation of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the association of gallstone disease with risk of colorectal cancer precursors, including conventional adenomas and serrated polyps, in the Nurses' Health Study (1992-2012), the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1992-2012). Gallstone diseases were assessed using biennial follow-up questionnaires. Self-reported polyp diagnosis was confirmed by review of medical records. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the ORs with adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Among participants who had undergone a total of 323,832 endoscopies, 16.5% had gallstone disease and 11.3% received cholecystectomy. We documented 1,724, 1,212, and 1,943 cases of conventional adenomas and 1,470, 1,090, and 1,643 serrated polyps in patients with gallstones, cholecystectomy, and either of them, respectively. The OR for adenomas was 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.06] for gallstones, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.93-1.06) for cholecystectomy, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.95-1.05) for either exposure. The corresponding ORs for serrated polyps were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.92-1.04), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.93-1.06), and 0.97(95% CI: 0.92-1.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Gallstone disease is not associated with colorectal polyps. IMPACT: Patients with gallstones appear to have similar risk of colorectal polyps compared with those without and may therefore follow average-risk colorectal cancer screening guidelines.

11.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705075

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: There is an urgent need to develop vitamin D dietary recommendations for dark-skinned populations resident at high latitude. Using data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with vitamin D3-supplements/fortified foods, we undertook an individual participant data-level meta-regression (IPD) analysis of the response of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D) to total vitamin D intake among dark-skinned children and adults residing at ≥ 40° N and derived dietary requirement values for vitamin D. METHODS: IPD analysis using data from 677 dark-skinned participants (of Black or South Asian descent; ages 5-86 years) in 10 RCTs with vitamin D supplements/fortified foods identified via a systematic review and predefined eligibility criteria. Outcome measures were vitamin D intake estimates across a range of 25(OH)D thresholds. RESULTS: To maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 25 and 30 nmol/L in 97.5% of individuals, 23.9 and 27.3 µg/day of vitamin D, respectively, were required among South Asian and 24.1 and 33.2 µg/day, respectively, among Black participants. Overall, our age-stratified intake estimates did not exceed age-specific Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for vitamin D. The vitamin D intake required by dark-skinned individuals to maintain 97.5% of winter 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 50 nmol/L was 66.8 µg/day. This intake predicted that the upper 2.5% of individuals could potentially achieve serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 158 nmol/L, which has been linked to potential adverse effects in older adults in supplementation studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our IPD-derived vitamin D intakes required to maintain 97.5% of winter 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 25, 30 and 50 nmol/L are substantially higher than the equivalent estimates for White individuals. These requirement estimates are also higher than those currently recommended internationally by several agencies, which are based predominantly on data from Whites and derived from standard meta-regression based on aggregate data. Much more work is needed in dark-skinned populations both in the dose-response relationship and risk characterisation for health outcomes. TRAIL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (Registration Number: CRD42018097260).

12.
Front Nutr ; 8: 690428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616762

RESUMO

Background: Dietary patterns promoting hyperinsulinemia and chronic inflammation, including the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP), have been shown to strongly influence risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. EDIH was developed using plasma C-peptide, whereas EDIP was based on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNF-αR2). We investigated whether these dietary patterns were associated with a broader range of relevant biomarkers not previously tested. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 35,360 women aged 50-79 years from the Women's Health Initiative with baseline (1993-1998) fasting blood samples. We calculated EDIH and EDIP scores from baseline food frequency questionnaire data and tested their associations with 40 circulating biomarkers of insulin response/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, chronic systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipids, and lipid particle size. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to estimate the percent difference in biomarker concentrations per 1 standard deviation increment in dietary index. FDR-adjusted p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) were significantly associated with altered concentrations of 25 of the 40 biomarkers examined. For EDIH, the percent change in biomarker concentration in the insulin-related biomarkers ranged from +1.3% (glucose) to +8% (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance) and -9.7% for IGF-binding protein-1. EDIH impacted inflammation and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers from +1.1% (TNF-αR2) to +7.8% (CRP) and reduced adiponectin by 2.4%; and for lipid biomarkers: +0.3% (total cholesterol) to +3% (triglycerides/total cholesterol ratio) while reducing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 2.4%. EDIP showed a similar trend of associations with most biomarkers, although the magnitude of association was slightly weaker for the insulin-related biomarkers and stronger for lipids and lipid particle size. Conclusions: Dietary patterns with high potential to contribute to insulin hypersecretion and to chronic systemic inflammation, based on higher EDIH and EDIP scores, were associated with an unfavorable profile of circulating biomarkers of glucose-insulin dysregulation, chronic systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and dyslipidemia. The broad range of biomarkers further validates EDIH and EDIP as mechanisms-based dietary patterns for use in clinical and population-based studies of metabolic and inflammatory diseases.

13.
Clin Nutr ; 40(11): 5419-5429, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Unrestrained eating behavior has been thought to be a proxy for diet frequency, timing, and caloric intake. We investigated the association of unrestrained eating with mortality risk in the Nurses' Health Study prospectively. METHODS: During follow-up (1994-2016), 21,953 deaths were documented among 63,999 eligible participants in analyses of eating anything at any time, 22,120 deaths were documented among 65,839 participants in analyses of no concern with figure change. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Eating anything at any time was associated with an increased mortality from cancer (overall HR, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.00-1.13; driven by gastrointestinal tract cancer: 1.30, 1.10-1.54) and respiratory disease (1.16, 1.05-1.29), and decreased cardiovascular disease-specific mortality (0.92, 0.86-0.99), compared to those without this behavior; however, no association was observed between this behavior and all-cause mortality (1.02, 0.99-1.05). Women who reported having no concern with figure change experienced higher risk of mortality from all-cause (1.08, 1.05-1.11), cancer (1.08, 1.02-1.14), and respiratory disease (1.18, 1.08-1.30), compared to those not reporting this behavior. Their combined effect was associated with a higher all-cause (1.09, 1.04-1.14), cancer-specific (overall: 1.18, 1.09-1.28; gastrointestinal tract cancer: 1.36, 1.08-1.71; lung cancer: 1.09; 1.04-1.14), and respiratory disease-specific (1.30, 1.13-1.50) mortality, and was inversely associated with cardiovascular disease-specific mortality (0.88, 0.80-0.98), compared to those exhibiting the opposite. CONCLUSIONS: Unrestrained eating was associated with increased risk of all-cause, cancer-specific (particularly for gastrointestinal tract cancer and lung cancer), and respiratory disease-specific mortality, and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between nut consumption and cancer risk have not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the associations between nut consumption, especially specific types of nuts (peanut, tree nut, walnut, and tree nut other than walnut), and cancer risk. METHODS: Nut consumption was assessed by FFQ at baseline and updated every 2-4 y in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014), the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2015), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2018). We examined the associations between the intake of total and specific types of nuts and risk of total cancer and common cancers, including lung, colorectal, breast, bladder, and aggressive prostate cancer. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to obtain the HRs and 95% CIs in each cohort as well as pooled. RESULTS: During 5,873,671 person-years of follow-up in 180,832 women and 45,560 men, we documented 44,561 incident cancer cases. As compared with nonconsumers, the pooled multivariable HRs of total nut consumption for ≥5 times/wk were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.04; P-trend = 0.54) for total cancer, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.04; P-trend = 0.18) for lung cancer, 1.07 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.26; P-trend = 0.89) for colorectal cancer, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.14; P-trend = 0.65) for bladder cancer, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.08; P-trend = 0.36) for breast cancer, and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.51; P-trend = 0.52) for aggressive prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In 3 large prospective cohorts, frequent nut consumption was not associated with risk of total cancer and common individual cancers.

15.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. How genetically predicted BMI may be associated with colorectal cancer precursors is unknown. AIMS: Our objective was to quantify the association of genetically predicted and measured BMI with risk of colorectal cancer precursors. METHODS: We evaluated the association of genetically predicted and measured BMI with risk of conventional adenomas, serrated polyps, and synchronous polyps among 27,426 participants who had undergone at least one lower gastrointestinal endoscopy in the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Genetic risk score was derived from 97 BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated each polyp subtype compared to non-polyps. RESULTS: For conventional adenomas, the OR per 2-kg/m2 increase was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.01-1.04) for measured BMI and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.88-1.10) for genetically predicted BMI; for serrated polyps, the OR was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.04-1.08) and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.90-1.20), respectively; for synchronous polyps, the OR was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13) and 1.09 (95% CI, 0.89-1.34), respectively. Genetically predicted BMI was associated with synchronous polyps in women (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.05-1.79). CONCLUSION: Genetically predicted BMI was not associated with colorectal cancer precursor lesions. The confidence intervals were wide and encompassed those for measured BMI, indicating that null findings may be due to insufficient power.

16.
J Nutr ; 151(10): 3223-3231, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although fruit and vegetable intake during adolescence, a potentially sensitive time period for prostate cancer (PCa) development, has been proposed to protect against PCa risk, few studies have investigated the role of adolescent plant product intake in PCa development. METHODS: Intake of various vegetables, fruit, and grains by males at ages 12-13 y was examined in relation to later PCa risk and mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs of nonadvanced (n = 14,238) and advanced (n = 2,170) PCa incidence and PCa mortality (n = 760) during 1,729,896 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: None of the plant products examined were associated consistently with all PCa outcomes. However, greater adolescent intakes of tomatoes (P-trend = 0.004) and nonstarch vegetables (P-trend = 0.025) were associated with reduced risk of nonadvanced PCa, and greater intakes of broccoli (P-trend = 0.050) and fruit juice (P-trend = 0.019-0.025) were associated with reduced risk of advanced PCa and/or PCa mortality. Positive trends were also observed for greater intakes of fruit juice (P-trend = 0.002), total fruit (P-trend = 0.014), and dark bread (P-trend = 0.035) with nonadvanced PCa risk and for greater intakes of legumes (P-trend < 0.001), fiber (P-trend = 0.001), and vegetable protein (P-trend = 0.013-0.040) with advanced PCa risk or PCa mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not provide strong evidence to suggest that adolescent plant product intake is associated with reduced PCa risk.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 161(6): 1830-1841.e8, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: China has the largest number of incident liver, esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer cases in 2020. Examining the time trend of relevant lifestyle risk factors would help project the trend of these gastrointestinal (GI) cancer incidence in China. METHODS: We estimated the time trend of the lifestyle factors based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991 to 2011. We applied the comparative risk assessment method to estimate the population attributable fraction of GI cancers attributable to each risk factor. We also projected the prevalence of lifestyle factors and the associated burden of GI cancer from 2011 to 2031. RESULTS: In 2011, 56.5% of colorectal, 59.8% of gastric, 48.5% of esophageal, and 35.2% of liver cancer in China were attributable to the lifestyle risk factors under study. Smoking, sodium intake, low vegetable intake, and low fruit intake have improved over time but remained far from optimal and are expected to be responsible for 170,000, 35,000, 22,000, and 50,000 GI cancer cases in 2031, respectively. High body mass index, red and processed meat consumption, and low physical activity are expected to contribute increasingly more GI cancer, accounting for 142,000, 185,000, 60,000, and 53,000 cases in 2031, respectively. The estimated population attributable fraction for all risk factors in 2031 is 52.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle risk factors have had an impact on the risk of GI cancer in China, and the impact is projected to increase. If everyone could adhere to the optimal lifestyle, half of all GI cancer events would be prevented by year 2031.

18.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adiposity has been consistently associated with gallstone disease risk. We aimed to characterize associations of anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], recent weight change, long-term weight change, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) with symptomatic gallstone disease according to strata of gallstone disease polygenic risk score (PRS). METHODS: We conducted analysis among 34,626 participants with available genome-wide genetic data within 3 large, prospective, U.S. cohorts-the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, and NHS II. We characterized joint associations of PRS and anthropometric measures and tested for interactions on the relative and absolute risk scales. RESULTS: Women in the highest BMI and PRS categories (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and PRS ≥1 SD above mean) had odds ratio for gallstone disease of 5.55 (95% confidence interval, 5.29 to 5.81) compared with those in the lowest BMI and PRS categories (BMI <25 kg/m2 and PRS <1 SD below the mean). The corresponding odds ratio among men was 1.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.29). Associations for BMI did not vary within strata of PRS on the relative risk scale. On the absolute risk scale, the incidence rate difference between obese and normal-weight individuals was 1086 per 100,000 person-years within the highest PRS category, compared with 666 per 100,000 person-years in the lowest PRS category, with strong evidence for interaction with the ABCG8 locus. CONCLUSIONS: While maintenance of a healthy body weight reduces gallstone disease risk among all individuals, risk reduction is higher among the subset with greater genetic susceptibility to gallstone disease.

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