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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2025850, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206192

RESUMO

Importance: Epidemiologic and trial data suggest that vitamin D supplementation may reduce metastatic cancer and cancer mortality, reflecting shared biological pathways. Objective: To follow up on the possible reduction in cancer death in the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL) with an evaluation of whether vitamin D reduces the incidence of advanced (metastatic or fatal) cancer and an examination possible effect modification by body mass index. Design, Setting, and Participants: VITAL is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, 2000 IU/d) and marine omega-3 fatty acids (1 g/d). This multicenter clinical trial was conducted in the United States; participants included men aged 50 years or older and women aged 55 years or older who were free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Randomization took place from November 2011 through March 2014, and study medication ended on December 31, 2017. Data for this secondary analysis were analyzed from November 1, 2011, to December 31, 2017. Interventions: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, 2000 IU/d) and marine omega-3 fatty acids (1 g/d) supplements. Main Outcomes and Measures: For the present analysis, the primary outcome was a composite incidence of metastatic and fatal invasive total cancer, because the main VITAL study showed a possible reduction in fatal cancer with vitamin D supplementation and effect modification by body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) for total cancer incidence reduction for individuals with normal BMI, but not for individuals with overweight or obesity. Secondary analyses included examination of BMI (<25, 25 to < 30, and ≥30) as effect modifiers of the observed associations. Results: Among 25 871 randomized VITAL participants (51% female; mean [SD] age, 67.1 [7.1] years), 1617 were diagnosed with invasive cancer over a median intervention period of 5.3 years (range, 3.8-6.1 years). As previously reported, no significant differences for cancer incidence by treatment arm were observed. However, a significant reduction in advanced cancers (metastatic or fatal) was found for those randomized to vitamin D compared with placebo (226 of 12 927 assigned to vitamin D [1.7%] and 274 of 12 944 assigned to placebo [2.1%]; HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]; P = .04). When stratified by BMI, there was a significant reduction for the vitamin D arm in incident metastatic or fatal cancer among those with normal BMI (BMI<25: HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.45-0.86]) but not among those with overweight or obesity (BMI 25-<30: HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.68-1.17]; BMI≥30: HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.74-1.49]) (P = .03 for interaction by BMI). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, supplementation with vitamin D reduced the incidence of advanced (metastatic or fatal) cancer in the overall cohort, with the strongest risk reduction seen in individuals with normal weight. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01169259.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) duration on cancer incidence remains poorly understood. METHODS: We prospectively followed for cancer incidence 113 429 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1978-2014) and 45 604 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1988-2014) who were free of diabetes and cancer at baseline. Cancer incidences were ascertained by review of medical records. RESULTS: In the multivariable-adjusted model incident, T2D was associated with higher risk of cancers in the colorectum, lung, pancreas, esophagus, liver, thyroid, breast, and endometrium. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) ranged from 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.38) for colorectal cancer to 3.39 (95% CI = 2.24 to 5.12) for liver cancer. For both composite cancer outcomes and individual cancers, the elevated risks did not further increase after 8 years of T2D duration. The hazard ratio for total cancer was 1.28 (95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40) for T2D duration of 4.1-6.0 years, 1.37 (95% CI = 1.25 to 1.50) for 6.1-8.0 years, 1.21 (95% CI = 1.09 to 1.35) for 8.1-10.0 years, and 1.04 (95% CI = 0.95 to 1.14) after 15.0 years. In a cross-sectional analysis, a higher level of plasma C-peptide was found among participants with prevalent T2D of up to 8 years than those without T2D, whereas a higher level of HbA1c was found for those with prevalent T2D of up to 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Incident T2D was associated with higher cancer risk, which peaked at approximately 8 years after diabetes diagnosis. Similar duration-dependent pattern was observed for plasma C-peptide. Our findings support a role of hyperinsulinemia in cancer development.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2021701, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185675

RESUMO

Importance: Erectile dysfunction, especially in younger men, is an early sign of cardiovascular disease and may decrease quality of life. Men may be motivated to adopt a healthy dietary pattern if it lowers their risk of erectile dysfunction. Objective: To assess the association between adherence to a diet quality index based on healthy dietary patterns and erectile dysfunction in men. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based prospective cohort study included men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study with follow-up from January 1, 1998, through January 1, 2014. Participants included US male health professionals aged 40 to 75 years at enrollment. Men with erectile dysfunction or a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, diabetes, stroke, or genitourinary cancer at baseline were excluded. Analyses were completed in February 2020. Exposures: A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine nutrient and food intake every 4 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diet quality was assessed by Mediterranean Diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 score, with higher scores indicating healthier diet. Dietary index scores were cumulatively updated from 1986 until men developed erectile dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, died, or were lost to follow-up. Incident erectile dysfunction was assessed with questionnaires in 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) by prespecified categories or quintiles of dietary index scores were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses stratified by age. Results: Among 21 469 men included in analysis, mean (SD) age at baseline was 62 (8.4) years. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10.8 (5.4) years and 232 522 person-years, there were 968 incident erectile dysfunction cases among men younger than 60 years, 3703 cases among men aged 60 to less than 70 years, and 4793 cases among men aged 70 years or older. Men younger than 60 years and in the highest category of the Mediterranean Diet score had the lowest relative risk of incident erectile dysfunction compared with men in the lowest category (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92). Higher Mediterranean diet scores were also inversely associated with incident erectile dysfunction among older men (age 60 to <70 years: HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.89; age ≥70 years: HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00). Men scoring in the highest quintile of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 also had a lower risk of incident erectile dysfunction, particularly among men age younger than 60 years (quintile 5 vs quintile 1: HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.97). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that adherence to healthy dietary patterns was associated with a lower risk for erectile dysfunction, suggesting that a healthy dietary pattern may play a role in maintaining erectile health.

5.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 398, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We initiated the first multi-center cluster randomized trial of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer and gastric cancer in China. The objective of the study was to report the baseline screening findings in this trial. METHODS: We recruited a total of 345 eligible clusters from seven screening centers. In the intervention group, participants from high-risk areas were screened by endoscopy; in non-high-risk areas, high-risk individuals were identified using a questionnaire and advised for endoscopy. Lugol's iodine staining in esophagus and indigo carmine dye in stomach were performed to aid in the diagnosis of suspicious lesions. The primary outcomes of this study were the detection rate (proportion of positive cases among individuals who underwent endoscopic screening) and early detection rate (the proportion of positive cases with stage 0/I among all positive cases). RESULTS: A total of 149,956 eligible subjects were included. The detection rate was 0.7% in esophagus and 0.8% in stomach, respectively. Compared with non-high-risk areas, the detection rates in high-risk areas were higher, both in esophagus (0.9% vs. 0.1%) and in stomach (0.9% vs. 0.3%). The same difference was found for early-detection rate (esophagus: 92.9% vs. 53.3%; stomach: 81.5% vs. 33.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield of both esophagus and stomach were higher in high-risk areas than in non-high-risk areas, even though in non-high-risk areas, only high-risk individuals were screened. Our study may provide important clues for evaluating and improving the effectiveness of upper-endoscopic screening in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Protocol Registration System in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-EOR-16008577. Registered 01 June 2016-Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=14372.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196913

RESUMO

Self-isolation is strongly recommended for cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, but may lead to physical inactivity and prolonged sitting time. The benefits of physical activity for cancer patients are manifold, such as reduced anxiety, fewer depressive symptoms, less fatigue, better quality of life, and improved physical function. In the last decade, several oncology-related organizations have provided guidance and summarized the evidence on the role of physical activity for cancer survivors. In this comment, we provide a brief summary of these recommendations and benefits of physical activity for cancer patients; and we recommend that oncologists and health practitioners should promote an active lifestyle for these patients during the pandemic and thereafter. Suggestions for implementing these actions in the clinical settings are also provided.

7.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In contrast to many observational studies, large-scale randomized trials do not support the protective role of vitamin D for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia. However, in previous studies, individuals with blunted parathyroid hormone (PTH) response to vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (BPRVID), were not differentiated from those with high PTH response to vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (HPRVID). Individuals with BPRVID are responsive to magnesium treatment, particularly treatment of magnesium plus vitamin D while those with HPRVID are responsive to vitamin D treatment. We prospectively compared these two distinct groups (i.e. BPRVID and HPRVID) for risk of incident adenoma, metachronous adenoma, and incident colorectal cancer (CRC) METHODS: Three nested case-control studies in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial. RESULTS: We found optimal 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significantly reduced risk of CRC, primarily among women. The associations between 25(OH)D and CRC risk significantly differed by PTH levels, particularly among women. Compared to individuals with optimal levels for both 25(OH)D and PTH, all others were at an elevated risk of incident CRC, primarily in women. We found those with BPRVID had 2.56-fold significantly increased risk of CRC compared to 1.65-fold non-significantly increased risk for those with HPRVID. Among women, we observed those with BPRVID had 4.79-6.25-fold significantly increased risks of incident CRC and adenoma whereas those with HPRVID had 3.65-fold significantly increased risk of CRC. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with BPRVID are at higher risks of incident adenoma and CRC compared to those with HPRVID, particularly among women.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of poor diet quality in the rising incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed under age 50 has not been explored. Based on molecular features of early-onset CRC, early-onset adenomas are emerging surrogate endpoints. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study (Nurses' Health Study II), we evaluated two empirical dietary patterns (Western and prudent) and three recommendation-based indexes (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH], Alternative Mediterranean Diet [AMED], and Alternative Healthy Eating Index [AHEI]-2010) with risk of early-onset adenoma overall and by malignant potential (high-risk: ≥1 cm, tubulovillous/villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or ≥ 3 adenomas), among 29474 women with ≥1 lower endoscopy before age 50 (1991-2011). Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We documented 1157 early-onset adenomas with 375 of high-risk. Western diet was positively, whereas prudent diet, DASH, AMED, and AHEI-2010 were inversely associated with risk of early-onset adenoma. The associations were largely confined to high-risk adenomas (OR [95% CI] for the highest versus lowest quintile: Western = 1.67 [1.18 to 2.37]; prudent = 0.69 [0.48 to 0.98]; DASH = 0.65 [0.45 to 0.93]; AMED = 0.55 [0.38 to 0.79]; AHEI-2010 = 0.71 [0.51 to 1.01]; all P  trend≤.03), driven by those identified in the distal colon and rectum (all P  trend≤.04 except AMED: Ptrend=.14). CONCLUSION: Poor diet quality was associated with an increased risk of early-onset distal and rectal adenomas of high malignant potential. These findings provide preliminary but strong support to the role of diet in early-onset CRC.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(19): 2181-2193, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. Diet modulates inflammation; however, it remains unknown whether dietary patterns with higher inflammatory potential are associated with long-term CVD risk. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether proinflammatory diets are associated with increased CVD risk. METHODS: We prospectively followed 74,578 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (1984-2016), 91,656 women from the NHSII (1991-2015), and 43,911 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016) who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. The inflammatory potential of diet was evaluated using a food-based empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score that was pre-defined based on levels of 3 systemic inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: During 5,291,518 person-years of follow-up, we documented 15,837 incident CVD cases, including 9,794 coronary heart disease (CHD) cases and 6,174 strokes. In pooled analyses of the 3 cohorts, after adjustment for use of anti-inflammatory medications and CVD risk factors including body mass index, a higher dietary inflammatory potential, as indicated by higher EDIP scores, was associated with an increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] comparing the highest to lowest quintiles: 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31 to 1.46; p for trend <0.001), CHD (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.56; p for trend <0.001), and stroke (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.17- to 1.39; p for trend <0.001). These associations were consistent across cohorts and between sexes, and they remained significant after further adjustment for other dietary quality indices. In a subset of study participants (n = 33,719), a higher EDIP was associated with a higher circulating profile of proinflammatory biomarkers, lower levels of adiponectin, and an unfavorable blood lipid profile (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary patterns with a higher proinflammatory potential were associated with higher CVD risk. Reducing the inflammatory potential of the diet may potentially provide an effective strategy for CVD prevention.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038280

RESUMO

Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory state characterized by continued secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Experimental and epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating adipokines may be associated with the development of obesity-related cancers, but it is unclear if these associations are causal or confounded. We examined potential causal associations of specific adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, soluble leptin receptor [sOB-R] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) with five obesity-related cancers (colorectal, pancreatic, renal cell carcinoma [RCC], ovarian and endometrial) using Mendelian randomization (MR) methods. We used summary-level data from large genetic consortia for 114 530 cancer cases and 245 284 controls. We constructed genetic instruments using 18 genetic variants for adiponectin, 2 for leptin and 4 for both sOB-R and PAI-1 (P value for inclusion<5 × 10-8 ). Causal estimates were obtained using two-sample MR methods. In the inverse-variance weighted models, we found an inverse association between adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio per 1 µg/mL increment in adiponectin concentration: 0.90 [95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.97]; P = .01); but, evidence of horizontal pleiotropy was detected and the association was not present when this was taken into consideration. No association was found for adiponectin and risks of pancreatic cancer, RCC, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer. Leptin, sOB-R and PAI-1 were also similarly unrelated to risk of obesity-related cancers. Despite the large sample size, our MR analyses do not support causal effects of circulating adiponectin, leptin, sOB-R and PAI-1 concentrations on the development of five obesity-related cancers.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2023500, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125497

RESUMO

Importance: Diet has been associated with survival in patients with stage I to III colorectal cancer, but data on patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are limited. Objective: To examine the association between diet quality and overall survival among individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who were enrolled in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (Alliance) and Southwest Oncology Group 80405 trial between October 27, 2005, and February 29, 2012, and followed up through January 2018. Exposures: Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire within 4 weeks after initiation of first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Diets were categorized according to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (AMED) score, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and Western and prudent dietary patterns derived using principal component analysis. Participants were categorized into sex-specific quintiles. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for overall survival. Results: In this cohort study of 1284 individuals with metastatic colorectal cancer, the median age was 59 (interquartile range [IQR]: 51-68) years, median body mass index was 27.2 (IQR, 24.1-31.4), 521 (41%) were female, and 1102 (86%) were White. There were 1100 deaths during a median follow-up of 73 months (IQR, 64-87 months). We observed an inverse association between the AMED score and risk of death (HR quintile 5 vs quintile 1, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04; P = .04 for trend), but the point estimates were not statistically significant. None of the other diet scores or patterns were associated with overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective analysis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, diet quality assessed at initiation of first-line treatment for metastatic disease was not associated with overall survival.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown an inverse association between use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements and colorectal cancer risk. However, the association with the precursor lesion, colorectal adenoma and serrated polyp, has not been examined. METHODS: Analyses include 43,163 persons from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), and NHS2 who reported on glucosamine/chondroitin use in 2002 and who subsequently underwent ≥1 lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. By 2012, 5,715 conventional (2,016 high-risk) adenomas were detected, as were 4,954 serrated polyps. Multivariable logistic regression for clustered data was used to calculate OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Glucosamine/chondroitin use was inversely associated with high risk and any conventional adenoma in NHS and HPFS: in the pooled multivariable-adjusted model, glucosamine + chondroitin use at baseline was associated with a 26% (OR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.90; P heterogeneity = 0.23) and a 10% (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; P heterogeneity = 0.36) lower risk of high-risk adenoma and overall conventional adenoma, respectively. However, no association was observed in NHS2, a study of younger women (high-risk adenoma: OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.82-1.45; overall conventional adenoma: OR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.86-1.17), and effect estimates pooled across all three studies were not significant (high-risk: OR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.63-1.10; P heterogeneity = 0.03; overall conventional adenoma: OR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.85-1.02; P heterogeneity = 0.31). No associations were observed for serrated polyps. CONCLUSIONS: Glucosamine/chondroitin use was associated with lower risks of high-risk and overall conventional adenoma in older adults; however, this association did not hold in younger women, or for serrated polyps. IMPACT: Our study suggests that glucosamine and chondroitin may act on early colorectal carcinogenesis in older adults.

13.
Pancreas ; 49(10): 1348-1354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association of Lewis antigen phenotype with survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was investigated. METHODS: A total of 1187 patients diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were evaluated in a prospective cohort. Patients were classified into 3 different groups according to Lewis antigen phenotype: Lewis antigen (1) A positive [Le(a+b-)], (2) B positive [Le(a-b+)], and (3) negative [Le(a-b-)]. Risk of mortality was analyzed with Cox regression after adjusting for other predictors. RESULTS: The risk of mortality increased in the order of Le(a+b-), Le(a-b+), and Le(a-b-) [reference; hazard ratio (HR), 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI)], 1.03-1.57; P = 0.02; and HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.31-2.09; P < 0.001] after adjusting for other predictors. Among patients with serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 lower than 37 U/mL, the association seemed more apparent (reference; HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.77-2.29; P = 0.22; and HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10-4.02; P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of mortality increased in the order of Le(a+b-), Le(a-b+), and Le(a-b-). The difference in prognosis according to the Lewis antigen phenotype was more pronounced in the low CA 19-9 group, which suggests that the Lewis antigen phenotype works as a biomarker predicting the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer with undetectable CA 19-9 level.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antioxidants have been promoted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction and for the prevention of cancer. Our preliminary analysis suggested that only when selenium was present were antioxidant mixtures associated with reduced all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effect of selenium supplementation alone and of antioxidant mixtures with or without selenium on the risk of CVD, cancer, and mortality. METHODS: We identified studies using the Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase for potential CVD outcomes, cancer, and all-cause mortality following selenium supplementation alone or after antioxidant supplement mixtures with and without selenium up to June 5, 2020. RCTs of ≥24 wk were included and data were analyzed using random-effects models and classified by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: The meta-analysis identified 9423 studies, of which 43 were used in the final analysis. Overall, no association of selenium alone or antioxidants was seen with CVD and all-cause mortality. However, a decreased risk with antioxidant mixtures was seen for CVD mortality when selenium was part of the mix (RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.97; P = 0.02), with no association when selenium was absent. Similarly, when selenium was part of the antioxidant mixture, a decreased risk was seen for all-cause mortality (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.98; P = 0.02) as opposed to an increased risk when selenium was absent (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13; P = 0.0002). CONCLUSION: The addition of selenium should be considered for supplements containing antioxidant mixtures if they are to be associated with CVD and all-cause mortality risk reduction. This trial was registered at https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ as CRD42019138268.

15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yogurt is a commonly consumed fermented food. Regular yogurt consumption may contribute to a favorable gut microbiome and gut health, but few epidemiologic studies have considered the relation between regular yogurt consumption and the incidence of and mortality from colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVES: We used data from 2 large, prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, to examine the role of yogurt consumption on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: During 32 years of follow-up in 83,054 women (mean age at baseline, 45.7 years) and 26 years of follow-up in 43,269 men (mean age at baseline, 52.3 years), we documented a total of 2666 newly diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer in these cohorts. We modeled yogurt consumption at baseline and cumulatively updated it throughout follow-up. Results: Baseline yogurt consumption was associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer in age-adjusted analyses (P for trend < 0.001). Associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including calcium and fiber intake (P for trend = 0.03), and were restricted to proximal colon cancer. The consumption of 1 + servings per week of yogurt at baseline, compared to no yogurt consumption, was associated with a multivariable HR of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-0.99; P trend = 0.04) for the proximal colon cancer incidence. Latency analyses suggested that the most important window of opportunity for regular yogurt consumption to prevent colorectal cancer was 16-20 years in the past. When yogurt consumption was cumulatively updated, associations attenuated and were no longer significant. No statistically significant inverse trend was observed between yogurt consumption and the colorectal cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In these large cohorts, the frequency of yogurt consumption was associated with a reduced risk of proximal colon cancer with a long latency period. No significant inverse trend was observed for colorectal cancer mortality.

16.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007946

RESUMO

Given the unalterable nature of most risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) survival (e.g., disease stage), identifying modifiable determinants is critical. We investigated whether anxiety and depression were related to CRC survival using data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Health Professional Follow-up Study (HPFS). Participants who received a CRC diagnosis and provided information about anxiety (nNHS = 335; nHPFS = 232) and depression (nNHS = 893; nHPFS = 272) within 4 years of diagnosis were included. Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of overall mortality, while controlling for covariates (sociodemographics, cancer characteristics, and lifestyle factors). Pooled risk estimates were derived from fixed effects meta-analyses of the cohorts. Among 1732 CRC patients, 814 deaths occurred during the 28-year follow-up. Each 1 standard deviation increase in anxiety or depression symptoms was associated with a similar 16% higher mortality risk (anxiety: 95% CI = 1.05-1.29; depression: 95% CI = 1.07-1.26). Comparable results were observed across all sensitivity analyses (introducing a 1-year lag, restricting to CRC-related mortality, considering potential behavioral pathways) and stratified models (cancer stage, sex). Our findings suggest greater anxiety and depression symptoms can not only impede adherence to healthy habits and reduce quality of life in cancer patients but could also be a marker for accelerated CRC progression.

17.
Gut ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Factors that lead to metabolic dysregulation are associated with increased risk of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC diagnosed under age 50). However, the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and early-onset CRC remains unexamined. DESIGN: We conducted a nested case-control study among participants aged 18-64 in the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database (2006-2015). Incident CRC was identified using pathologist-coded International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, and controls were frequency matched. MetS was defined as presence of ≥3 conditions among obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia/type 2 diabetes, based on ICD-9-CM and use of medications. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: MetS was associated with increased risk of early-onset CRC (n=4673; multivariable adjusted OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.43), similar to CRC diagnosed at age 50-64 (n=14 928; OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.27). Compared with individuals without a metabolic comorbid condition, those with 1, 2 or ≥3 conditions had a 9% (1.09; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.17), 12% (1.12; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24) and 31% (1.31; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.51) higher risk of early-onset CRC (ptrend <0.001). No associations were observed for one or two metabolic comorbid conditions and CRC diagnosed at age 50-64. These positive associations were driven by proximal (OR per condition 1.14; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.23) and distal colon cancer (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.18), but not rectal cancer (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic dysregulation was associated with increased risk of early-onset CRC, driven by proximal and distal colon cancer, thus at least in part contribute to the rising incidence of early-onset CRC.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Asia-Pacific obesity classification recommends using lower BMI cutoffs in Asians compared with those in Western populations. However, the supporting evidence is scarce and little is known about the exact shape of the relations between adiposity and mortality in Asians. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relations of BMI (in kg/m2), waist circumference, and predicted body fat mass with mortality using a population-based prospective cohort of Korean men and women. METHODS: This analysis included 44,060 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2014 participants who agreed to mortality follow-up through 31 December, 2016. At baseline, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Using DXA data, we derived predicted body fat and fat-free mass. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for the associations with mortality, adjusting for potential confounders. We tested for nonlinearity using the likelihood ratio test comparing nonlinear restricted cubic spline models with linear models. RESULTS: During ≤9.5 y of follow-up, 1682 deaths were identified. The relations of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were J-shaped with the nadir at BMI = 25.0-29.9 (P-nonlinearity < 0.001). Among participants without a history of cancer or cardiovascular disease, waist circumference (≥95 compared with 75.0-79.9 cm: HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.86) and predicted body fat mass (highest compared with lowest sextiles: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.60, 4.06) were positively associated with all-cause mortality (all P-nonlinearity ≤ 0.03), as well as cancer and cardiovascular mortality. The highest mortality was observed among participants who had both high predicted fat mass and low fat-free mass. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a strong positive association between adiposity and mortality in a population without pre-existing disease. We observed the lowest mortality at BMI = 25.0-29.9, suggesting that the current cutoff for overweight (BMI ≥23) may require re-evaluation and that BMI alone may not be a useful measure for indicating adiposity in Asians.

19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake persists in much of the world, posing ongoing threats to public health that warrant further elucidation. Published evidence suggests a positive association of self-reported TFA intake with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. OBJECTIVES: To confirm those reports, we conducted a prospective study of prediagnosis RBC membrane TFA levels and risk of NHL and common NHL histologic subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study participants with archived RBC specimens and no history of cancer at blood draw (1989-1090 and 1994-1995, respectively). We confirmed 583 incident NHL cases (332 women and 251 men) and individually matched 583 controls on cohort (sex), age, race, and blood draw date/time. We analyzed RBC membrane TFA using GLC (in 2013-2014) and expressed individual TFA levels as a percentage of total fatty acids. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching factors to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for overall NHL risk per 1 SD increase in TFA level and assessed histologic subtype-specific associations with multivariable polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Total and individual TFA levels were not associated with risk of all NHL or most subtypes. We observed a positive association of total TFA levels with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk [n = 98 cases; OR (95% CI) per 1 SD increase: 1.30 (1.05, 1.61); P = 0.015], driven by trans 18:1n-9(ω-9)/elaidic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.08, 1.66); P = 0.007], trans 18:1n-7/vaccenic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58); P = 0.023], and trans 18:2n-6t,t [OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01, 1.57); P = 0.037]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extended evidence for TFA intake and DLBCL risk but not for other NHL subtypes. Reduced TFA consumption through dietary choices or health policy measures may support prevention of DLBCL, an aggressive NHL subtype.

20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(12): 1051-1055, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057873

RESUMO

The association between obesity and prostate cancer has been extensively studied, but clear answers have evaded us. Most of the studies have been based on a single time-point measure, most commonly of body mass index (BMI) during adulthood. Emerging data suggest a complex pattern that may be better understood through a life course approach. The data suggest that early life adiposity, possibly before or during puberty, as being associated with lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. In contrast, moderate weight gain in men who were initially lean during pre-adulthood or early adulthood may increase risk of advanced prostate cancer. This pattern suggests competing factors associated with overall adiposity, some protective and some adverse. Factors that may increase risk appear to show more strongly in men who maintain a relatively low BMI but have a high waist circumference or waist:hip ratio. Possibly, this pattern may be associated with relatively high levels of factors associated with insulin resistance and related metabolic abnormalities (mostly central adiposity) while avoiding the protective factors (mostly generalized or subcutaneous adiposity). Broad measures at one time-point, such as adult BMI, are not likely to contribute further to our understanding. Instead, direct measures of visceral fat might be useful. For feasibility, combined measures, such as examining waist:hip ratio among men with normal BMI in relation to risk, might be useful. It may be informative to better determine the precise point in early life when adiposity may be protective and through what mechanisms, such as delay in puberty.

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