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1.
Work ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2, a highly transmissible and pathogenic viral infection, and was identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Three months later, it became a severe pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify scientific evidence on the use of face shields by health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic period. METHOD: An integrative literature review of articles obtained from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Science databases was undertaken. For the search, controlled, non-controlled descriptors and specific keywords: "face shield," "fluid resistance procedure," "respiratory infections," "healthcare workers," "COVID-19," "aerosols," and "personal protection infection" were used. RESULTS: The sample comprised seven studies. The available evidence has shown that face shields do not have a defined standard for their production-their effectiveness depends on the quality of the visor, structure, and fixation system. They must be used as adjuvants to other personal protective equipment (PPE), and their isolated use is not recommended due to the fragilities of peripheral face sealing, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic period. CONCLUSION: Due to the shortage of this equipment, domestic face shields can be indicated if they meet production requirements, based on scientific evidence for their efficient use.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1849, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After HIV diagnosis, people maintain, reestablish their sexual lives, or build new relationships, often with HIV seronegative partners. Therefore, understanding the factors concerning couple-vulnerability is essential in order to design effective HIV preventive strategies. We examined HIV serodiscordant couples prevalence and their associated factors from a Brazilian city. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analytical study carried out with people living with HIV (PLHIV) who had an active sex life and were engagement in HIV health care follow-up. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire during individual interviews. We analyzed data using bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: There was 72.0% of HIV serodiscordant partnerships. Those who inconsistently used condoms (aOR: 0.3[0.13-0.7]) and/or had HIV detectable viral load (aOR: 0.29 [0.12-0.7]) were less likely to have an HIV serodiscordant sexual partner. On other hand, the lack of HIV transmission counseling by the health service (aOR: 5.08 [2.02-12.76]), or those who had a casual partner (aOR: 8.12 [1.7-38.8]) or a steady and casual one concomitantly (aOR: 24.82 [1.46-420.83]), were more likely to indicate an HIV serodiscordant partnership. CONCLUSION: The findings showed a high prevalence of serodiscordant partnerships in PLHIV. Greater visibility among couples in the health services is needed as well as a reassessment in order to provide PLHIV and their sexual partners with care strategies, by the health professionals.

3.
Nurse Educ ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented important challenges for the education of nursing students to provide health care with competence, quality, and safety. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to analyze knowledge, behavior, and perception of risk regarding COVID-19 and associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2637 Brazilian undergraduate nursing students using a self-reported online survey. RESULTS: Students' knowledge about COVID-19 in general was considered inadequate. Students had limited knowledge about preventive measures in the hospital environment and recommendations for aerosol precautions. More than 90% of graduates adopted recommended prevention measures, and 86.1% perceived themselves to be at a greater risk of acquired SARS-CoV-2 during clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the need to rethink undergraduate nursing education regarding the prevention and control of infectious diseases, including the most appropriate strategies for COVID-19 prevention measures.

4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(6): e20200698, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to develop and validate a scale for assessing the quality of life of women with Human Papillomavirus infection. METHODS: a methodological study to develop the stages of item elaboration, apparent and content validation, semantic validation, pre-test, item allocation in domains, and reliability. RESULTS: 98 items were elaborated and submitted to apparent and content validation (version 2; n=05). In semantic validation, 90.9% of women considered all items clear and understandable (version 3; n=11). In pre-test, the best applicability was in the form of a self-administered questionnaire in relation to the interview (version 4; n=38). The Exploratory Factor Analysis allocated 58 items in 6 domains; (version 5; n=351). For reliability, the general Cronbach's alpha value was 0.883. CONCLUSIONS: the instrument proved to be valid and reliable for assessing the quality of life of women with Human Papillomavirus infection, consisting of 54 items allocated in 6 domains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Qualidade de Vida , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e03735, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the practice of using masks by the population of the Brazilian state of Paraíba during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study conducted with adults living in the state of Paraíba through an online instrument from April to May 2020, through the Face Mask Use Scale of Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas da Paraíba. RESULTS: The participants amounted to 1,307 (100.0%) individuals, who were predominantly female (78.0%), aged 35 to 45 (32.3%), married (53.3%) and post-graduates (46.9%). The mean score for the practice of using masks was 18.7 (SD = 8.0; minimum 6.00; maximum 30). The use of masks for self-protection scored 9.8 (DP = 3.9; minimum 3.0; maximum 15.0), whereas the score for protection of others was 8.9 (SD = 4.5; minimum 3.0; maximum 15.0). In the comparison between the scores of the practice of using masks, there was a significant statistical difference for gender, education, age group, and income (p ≤ 0.01). The practice of using masks was more frequent in health environments, 7.3 (DP = 3.2). CONCLUSION: The practice of using masks was predominant among women, people over 35, married, with an income higher than seven minimum wages, and post-graduation. The use of masks for self-protection was higher than for the protection of others and its use in health environments was higher than in the others.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173896

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the non-disclosure of HIV seropositivity among people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing antiretroviral treatment. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five HIV clinics in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of HIV status disclosure. It was found that 68.5% revealed their HIV seropositivity to their most recent sexual partner. The variables "casual partner" [OR 19.08, 95% CI (4.08, 20.23), p = 0.001], "sexual partners with negative HIV or unknown HIV" [OR 4.54, 95% CI (1.58, 1.01), p = 0.005], "multiple sexual partners" [OR = 3.17, 95% CI (1.34, 7.35), p = 0.009], and "lack of communication with the partner on HIV prevention"[OR = 8.3, 95% CI (3.88, 16.61), p = 0.001] were independently associated with non-disclosure of the diagnosis. Future HIV prevention interventions should encourage open communication between sexual partners.

7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54(suppl 1): e2020600, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008721

RESUMO

This article addresses sexual violence, as part of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Guidance is provided in programmatic and operational management, focusing on the service network for people in situation of sexual violence, recommendations to health staff about pregnancy and viral and non-viral sexually transmitted infections prophylactic measures, in addition to surveillance action strategies. Sexual violence is an encompassing issue that includes wider areas than the health field. It involves conceptual and programmatic challenges for health staff, at the forefront of care for affected people and also to the implementation of prevention strategies addressed to the whole society. Sexual violence is one of the principal forms of human rights violation, affecting the right to life, health, and bodily integrity.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
9.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 30(spe1): e2020600, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729404

RESUMO

This article addresses sexual violence, a topic that makes up the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Guidance is given to managers in programmatic and operational management with a focus on the service network for people in situations of sexual violence, recommendations to health professionals about prophylactic measures of pregnancy and viral and non-viral sexually transmitted infections, in addition to strategies for surveillance actions. Sexual violence is a broad problem that goes beyond the health field and involves conceptual and programmatic challenges for both health professionals, who are at the forefront of care for affected people, and for society, in terms of possible forms of prevention.

10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 6, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: After wearing powdered gloves, healthcare workers (HCW) are supposed to wash their hands instead of using alcohol-based hand-rub (ABHR). Washing hands takes longer than using ABHR, and the use of powdered gloves may be an obstacle to hand-hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of replacing powdered gloves with powder-free gloves on hand-hygiene compliance among HCW of an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a general ICU of a tertiary care university hospital in Brazil. From June 1st to July 15th, 2017, all HCW were provided with powdered latex gloves only for all clinical procedures. From July 15th to August 31st, 2017, HCW were provided with nitrile powder-free gloves only. Hand-hygiene compliance was assessed through direct observation, and evaluated according to the World Health Organization Hand Hygiene guidelines. We calculated that a sample size of 544 hand hygiene opportunities needed to be observed per period. Data analysis were performed using the STATA SE® version 14, and we compared the individual's percentage of compliance using the t test for paired data before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Overall, 40 HCW were assessed before and after the introduction of nitrile powder-free gloves, with 1114 and 1139 observations of hand hygiene opportunities, respectively. The proportion of compliance with hand hygiene was 55% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51-59%) using powdered latex gloves and 60% (95% CI 57-63%) using powder-free gloves. The difference in proportions between the two types of gloves was 5.1% (95% CI 2.5-7.6%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that replacing powdered gloves with powder-free gloves positively influenced hand-hygiene compliance by HCW in an ICU setting.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 64, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) are key to preventing sexual transmission of HIV, whose sexual partners are at high risk of acquiring HIV. We aimed to determine the factors associated with PrEP and PEP's knowledge as secondary prevention among people living with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: Cross-sectional analytical study carried out among people living with HIV/AIDS treated at five specialized services in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected from July 2016 to July 2017. Individual interviews were conducted. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with knowing PrEP and PEP. RESULTS: Of the 397 participants, 140 (35.26%) were heterosexual women aged 40 to 49 years (36.2%).Participants with less than 11 years of study (adjusted odds: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.60); who did not have a low viral load or did not know their viral load (adjusted odds: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.83) and those with casual partners (adjusted odds: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.83) were less likely to know about the PrEP. MSM (adjusted odds: 2.88; 95% CI: 1.59-5.3) and those who used alcohol during sexual intercourse (adjusted odds: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.8) were more likely to know about the PEP. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge about PEP and PrEP is low in Brazil. This may undermine secondary prevention efforts. Educational interventions to raise awareness of these prevention methods are needed among people living with HIV and who have HIV-negative sexual partners.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 178, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colombia has the fourth highest incidence rate of HIV/AIDS among all Latin American countries and it has been increasing since the 1980s. However, the number of studies that addresses this trend is limited. Here, we employed spatial and temporal trend analyses to study the behaviour of the epidemic in the Colombian territory. METHODS: Our sample included 72,994 cases of HIV/AIDS and 21,898 AIDS-related deaths reported to the National Ministry of Health between 2008 and 2016. We employed the joinpoint regression model to analyse the annual HIV/AIDS incidence and AIDS mortality rates. In the spatial analysis, we used univariate autocorrelation techniques and the Kernel density estimator. RESULTS: While the HIV/AIDS incidence had an increasing trend in Colombia, the AIDS mortality rate was stable. HIV/AIDS incidence and AIDS mortality showed a downward trend in the 0-14 age group. An upward trend was observed for HIV/AIDS incidence in people older than 15 years and with the highest trend in the 65 years and above group. AIDS mortality showed an increasing trend among people aged 65 years or older. The comparison between the sexes showed an upward trend of HIV/AIDS incidence in all age groups and AIDS-mortality rates in 65 years and above in men, while in women, the incidence was upward among those aged 45 years and above, and concerning the AIDS-mortality rate in the 45-64 group. The high-high clusters of HIV/AIDS incidence and AIDS mortality were located in the Andean and Caribbean regions. CONCLUSION: Our study found an upward trend in HIV/AIDS incidence and a stable trend in the AIDS mortality rate in Colombia. The downward trend in HIV/AIDS incidence and AIDS mortality rate in the 0-14 age group reflects the downwards mother-to-child HIV transmission. The upward trend in HIV/AIDS incidence in older women and AIDS mortality in younger women rates, compared with men, may be due to late diagnosis and treatment. The Caribbean and the 'coffee belt' regions were the most impacted by the HIV epidemic, most likely due to sexual tourism. Our results provide crucial information that may help Colombian health authorities fight HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Epidemias , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Idoso , Região do Caribe , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(3): e20200193, 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1149305

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo Verificar o cumprimento às Precauções-Padrão por profissionais de enfermagem e fatores associados. Método Estudo descritivo, transversal, com 522 profissionais de enfermagem, realizado em dois hospitais brasileiros, entre janeiro de 2017 a março de 2018. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um formulário contendo variáveis demográficas e profissionais e a Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (versão Português-Brasil); posteriormente, analisados por estatísticas descritivas e exploratórias e um modelo de regressão linear múltiplo. Resultados O escore médio global 12,9 (DP=2,5). Técnicos de enfermagem tiveram escores médios estatisticamente significativos maiores (p <0,01) do que enfermeiros. Houve diferença significativa quanto à categoria profissional (p <0,01) e escolaridade (p <0,01), e, marginalmente significativa em relação à idade (p = 0,06). Não houve diferenças quanto à experiência profissional (p = 077), participação em treinamentos (p = 0,79), tipo de hospital (p = 0,13), respectivamente. A escolaridade não contribuiu para um maior cumprimento às medidas (p <0,01), assim como o ensino superior (p ≤ 0,01). Conclusão e Implicações para a prática O aumento na escolaridade e experiência profissional não contribuiu para maior cumprimento às Precações. Por contemplar aspectos da prática de enfermagem, estratégias de prevenção de exposição ocupacional podem ser revistas e aperfeiçoadas.


Resumen Objetivo Verificar la observancia de las Precauciones Estándar por parte de profesionales de enfermería, y sus factores asociados. Método Estudio descriptivo, transversal, con 522 profesionales de enfermería, realizado en dos hospitales brasileños entre enero de 2017 y marzo de 2018. Datos recolectados mediante formulario incluyendo variables sociodemográficas y profesionales, y Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (versión Portugués-Brasil); analizados por estadística descriptiva y exploratoria y un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados Puntaje medio global de 12,9 (DS=2,5). Los auxiliares de enfermería obtuvieron puntajes promedio mayores, estadísticamente significantes (p<0,01) respecto de los enfermeros. Existió diferencia significante respecto de la categoría profesional (p<0,01) y la escolarización (p<0,01); y marginalmente significante en relación a la edad (p=0,06). No hubo diferencias relativas a la experiencia profesional (p=0,77), participación en capacitaciones (p=0,79) y tipos de hospital (p=0,13). La escolarización no contribuyó a una mayor observancia de las medidas (p<0,01), al igual que los estudios superiores (p≤0,01). Conclusión e Implicaciones para la práctica Mayores grados de escolarización y experiencia profesional no contribuyeron a la observancia de las Precauciones. En razón de contemplar aspectos de la práctica de enfermería, las estrategias de prevención y exposición profesional merecen ser revisadas y perfeccionadas.


Abstract Objective To verify compliance with the Standard Precautions by nursing professionals and associated factors. Method A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out with 522 nursing professionals, in two Brazilian hospitals, between January 2017 and March 2018. Data were collected using a form containing demographic and professional variables and the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (Portuguese-Brazilian version); later, analyzed by descriptive and exploratory statistics and a multiple linear regression model. Results The global mean score was 12.9 (SD = 2.5). Nursing professionals had statistically significant higher scores (p <0.01) than nurses. There was a significant difference in terms of professional category (p < 0.01)) and education (p <0.01), and marginally significant in relation to age (p = 0.06). There were no differences regarding professional experience (p = 077), participation in training (p = 0.79), and type of hospital (p = 0.13), respectively. Education did not contribute to greater compliance with the measures (p <0.01), nor did higher education (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion and implications for practice Increased education and professional experience did not contribute to greater compliance with the Standards Precautions. By considering aspects of nursing practice, occupational exposure prevention strategies can be reviewed and improved.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicos de Enfermagem
14.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20200380, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1290276

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a cross-sectional study developed in all regions of Brazil, using an electronic form among older adults aged 60 or over. Data were collected from April 17 to May 15, 2020. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used. For comparison of means, Student's t-test and analysis of variance were applied, considering p≤0.05. For association of factors, chi-square was adopted with bivariate analyzes and logistic regression. Results: nine hundred (100.0%) older adults participated in the study. The general score for symptoms of depression was 3.8 (SD=4.4), 818 (91.9%) had no or mild depressive symptoms. Women (p <0.01) have more symptoms than men. The income variable is a predictor of depressive symptoms (OR=0.56; CI: 0.34-0.91; p=0.020). Conclusion: the main factors associated with symptoms of depression were sex, income, education and occupations that expose them to COVID-19 had the highest depression scores.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar factores asociados con síntomas de depresión entre los ancianos durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Método: estudio transversal, desarrollado en todas las regiones de Brasil, utilizando un formulario electrónico en personas mayores de 60 años o más. Los datos se recopilaron del 17 de abril al 15 de mayo de 2020.Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión. Para la comparación de medias se aplicó la prueba t de Student y el análisis de varianza, considerando p≤0.05. Para la asociación de factores se adoptó chi-cuadrado con análisis bivariados y regresión logística. Resultados: participaron en el estudio 900 (100,0%) ancianos. La puntuación general para los síntomas de depresión fue de 3,8 (DE=4,4), 818 (91,9%) tenían síntomas mínimos. Las mujeres (p <0,01) tienen más síntomas que los hombres. La variable de ingresos es un predictor de síntomas depressivos (OR= 0,56; IC: 0,34-0,91; p= 0,020). Conclusión: los principales factores asociados con los síntomas de la depresión fueron el sexo, los ingresos, la educación y los ancianos que tienen ocupaciones que los exponen al COVID-19 tuvieron los puntajes más altos de depresión.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados aos sintomas de depressão entre idosos durante a pandemia do COVID-19. Método: estudo transversal, desenvolvido em todas as regiões do Brasil, por formulário eletrônico entre idosos com 60 anos ou mais. Os dados foram coletados no período de 17 de abril até 15 de maio de 2020. Utilizou-se medidas de tendência central e de dispersão. Para a comparação das médias, aplicou-se o Teste t de Student e a Análise de Variância, considerando p≤0,05. Para a associação de fatores adotou-se qui-quadrado com as análises bivariadas e a regressão logística. Resultados: participaram do estudo 900 (100,0%) idosos. O escore geral para sintomas de depressão foi de 3,8 (DP=4,4), 818 (91,9%) apresentaram sintomas mínimos. As mulheres (p<0,01) apresentam mais sintomas que os homens. A variável renda é fator preditor de sintomas depressivos (OR= 0,56; IC: 0,34-0,91; p= 0,020). Conclusão: os principais fatores associados aos sintomas de depressão foram sexo, renda, escolaridade e os idosos que têm ocupações que os expõem à COVID-19 apresentaram os maiores escores de depressão.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isolamento Social , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Pandemias
15.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20200376, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1341742

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to develop and validate a scale to measure the quality of life of people living with HIV in Brazil. Method: methodological study conducted in a Brazilian care service specialized in sexually transmissible infections/AIDS between 2017 and 2019 addressing people living with HIV. The scale's development and validation included exploratory factor analysis to describe its factor structure and psychometric properties, Multitrait-Multimethod analysis to verify its validity and Cronbach's alpha for reliability. Floor and ceiling effects were described according to the responses' frequency distribution. Results: a total of 460 people living with HIV participated. Most were men 276 (60.0%) aged 43 on average (SD=±12.4). The Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed four factors with 39.9% of explained variance. The total scale presented satisfactory reliability with a Cronbach's alpha equal to 85.0%. Most items presented satisfactory convergent and divergent validity. The presence of floor and ceiling effects were found. The scale's final version was composed of 45 items. Conclusion: the Quali-HIV Scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure the quality of life of people living with HIV.


RESUMEN Objetivo: elaborar y validar una escala para medir la calidad de vida de personas viviendo con SIDA en Brasil. Método: investigación metodológica realizada en un servicio brasileño de atención especializada en infección sexualmente transmisible/SIDA, entre 2017 y 2019, y que contempló la participación de personas viviendo con SIDA. El proceso de elaboración y validación de la escala comprendió a descripción de la estructura factorial, por medio del análisis factorial exploratorio y propiedades psicométricas, según el análisis Multi-característica Multi-método para validez, y Alfa de Cronbach para confiabilidad. Efectos floor y ceiling fueron descritos según distribución de frecuencias de las respuestas. Resultados: participaron 460 personas que viven con SIDA. La mayoría de los participantes era del sexo masculino 276 (60,0%) y la media de edades fue 43 años (DE=±12,4). En el Análisis Factorial Exploratorio fueron extraídos cuatro factores con variancia explicada de 39,9%. La confiabilidad de la escala total fue satisfactoria con Alfa de Cronbach igual a 85,0%. La mayoría de los ítems presentó validez convergente y divergente satisfactoria. Se observó la presencia de los efectos floor y ceiling en las respuestas. La versión final de la escala estuvo compuesta por 45 ítems. Conclusión: la Escala Quali-SIDA puede ser considerada una herramienta válida y fidedigna para mensurar a calidad de vida de personas que viven con SIDA.


RESUMO Objetivo: elaborar e validar uma escala para mensurar a qualidade de vida de pessoas vivendo com HIV no Brasil. Método: pesquisa metodológica realizada em um serviço brasileiro de atenção especializada em infecção sexualmente transmissível/Aids, entre 2017 e 2019, e que contemplou a participação de pessoas vivendo com HIV. O processo de elaboração e validação da escala compreendeu a descrição da estrutura fatorial, por meio da análise fatorial exploratória e propriedades psicométricas, segundo a análise Multitraço Multimétodo para validade, e Alfa de Cronbach para fidedignidade. Efeitos floor e ceiling foram descritos segundo distribuição de frequências das respostas. Resultados: participaram 460 pessoas que vivem com HIV. A maioria dos participantes é do sexo masculino 276 (60,0%) e a média de idade foi 43 anos (DP=±12,4). Na Análise Fatorial Exploratória foram extraídos quatro fatores com variância explicada de 39,9%. A fidedignidade da escala total foi satisfatória com Alfa de Cronbach igual a 85,0%. A maioria dos itens apresentou validades convergente e divergente satisfatórias. Observou-se a presença dos efeitos floor e ceiling nas respostas. A versão final da escala foi composta por 45 itens. Conclusão: a Escala Quali-HIV pode ser considerada uma ferramenta válida e fidedigna para mensurar a qualidade de vida de pessoas que vivem com HIV.

16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 74(6): e20200698, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1288420

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: to develop and validate a scale for assessing the quality of life of women with Human Papillomavirus infection. Methods: a methodological study to develop the stages of item elaboration, apparent and content validation, semantic validation, pre-test, item allocation in domains, and reliability. Results: 98 items were elaborated and submitted to apparent and content validation (version 2; n=05). In semantic validation, 90.9% of women considered all items clear and understandable (version 3; n=11). In pre-test, the best applicability was in the form of a self-administered questionnaire in relation to the interview (version 4; n=38). The Exploratory Factor Analysis allocated 58 items in 6 domains; (version 5; n=351). For reliability, the general Cronbach's alpha value was 0.883. Conclusions: the instrument proved to be valid and reliable for assessing the quality of life of women with Human Papillomavirus infection, consisting of 54 items allocated in 6 domains.


RESUMEN Objetivos: desarrollar y validar una escala para evaluar la calidad de vida de mujeres con infección por virus del papiloma humano. Métodos: estudio metodológico para el desarrollo de las etapas de elaboración de los ítems, validación aparente y de contenido, validación semántica, pre-test, asignación de ítems en dominios y confiabilidad. Resultados: se elaboraron 98 ítems, los cuales fueron sometidos a validación aparente y de contenido (versión 2; n=05). En la validación semántica, el 90,9% de las mujeres consideró los ítems claros y comprensibles (versión 3; n=11). En el pretest, la mejor aplicabilidad fue en forma de cuestionario autoadministrado en relación a la entrevista (versión 4; n=38). El Análisis Factorial Exploratorio asignó 58 ítems en 6 dominios; (versión 5; n=351). Para la confiabilidad, el valor alfa de Cronbach general fue 0,883. Conclusiones: el instrumento demostró ser válido y confiable para evaluar la calidad de vida de mujeres con infección por virus del papiloma humano, compuesto por 54 ítems distribuidos en 6 dominios


RESUMO Objetivos: elaborar e validar uma escala para avaliação da qualidade de vida de mulheres com infecção pelo Papilomavírus Humano Métodos: estudo metodológico para desenvolvimento das etapas de elaboração dos itens, validação aparente e de conteúdo, validação semântica, pré-teste, alocação dos itens em domínios e fidedignidade. Resultados: foram elaborados 98 itens, os quais foram submetidos à validação aparente e de conteúdo (versão 2; n=05). Na validação semântica, 90,9% das mulheres consideraram os itens claros e compreensíveis (versão 3; n=11). No pré-teste, a melhor aplicabilidade foi no formato de questionário autopreenchido em relação à entrevista (versão 4; n=38). A Análise Fatorial Exploratória alocou 58 itens em 6 domínios; (versão 5; n=351). Para a fidedignidade, o valor do alfa de Cronbach geral foi de 0,883. Conclusões: o instrumento mostrou-se válido e confiável para avaliação da qualidade de vida de mulheres com infecção pelo Papilomavírus Humano, constituindo-se por 54 itens alocados em 6 domínios.

17.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42: e20200310, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1289598

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To identify overweight and obesity and as associated variables in people living with HIV. Method Cross-sectional, quantitative and analytical study, developed in specialized services in southeastern Brazil. Individual specifics were carried out from 2014 to 2016. Pearson's Chi-Square test, Logistic Regression and OddsRatio (OR) were used. Results Of the 340 respondents, 47.7% were overweight. The highest abdominal circumferences and lipid changes were predominantly among the highest body mass index (BMI). The greatest chances of obtaining BMI values>25 kg/m² were among men (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.02-2.42), having metabolic syndrome (OR: 5.66; 95% CI: 3.26-9.83) and the undue (OR: 3.89; 95% CI: 2.17-7.00). However, having self-reported hypertension was configured as a protective factor (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08-0.44). Conclusion The frequency of obesity and overweight between PLHIV was high. There was an association of male gender, metabolic syndrome and smoking with weight gain. The presence of self-reported hypertension was considered a protective factor.


RESUMEN Objetivo Identificar el sobrepeso y la obesidad y como variables asociadas en personas que viven con el VIH. Método Estudio transversal, cuantitativo y analítico, desarrollado en servicios especializados en el sureste de Brasil. Se realizaron especificidades individuales de 2014 a 2016. Se utilizaron la prueba de Chi-Cuadrado de Pearson, Regresión logística y OddsRatio (OR). Resultados De los 340 encuestados, el 47,7% tenía sobrepeso. Las circunferencias abdominales más altas y los cambios de lípidos se encontraban predominantemente entre los índices de masa corporal (IMC) más altos. Las mayores probabilidades de obtener valores de IMC>25 kg/m² se dieron entre los hombres (OR: 1,87; IC del 95%: 1,02-2,42), con síndrome metabólico (OR: 5,66; IC 95%: 3,26-9,83) y lo indebido (OR: 3,89; IC 95%: 2,17-7,00). Sin embargo, tener hipertensión arterial sistémica autoinformada se configuró como un factor protector (OR: 0,18; IC del 95%: 0,08-0,44). Conclusión la frecuencia de obesidad y sobrepeso entre PVVIH fue alta. Hubo una asociación de sexo masculino, síndrome metabólico y tabaquismo con aumento de peso. La presencia de hipertensión arterial sistémica autoinformada se consideró un factor protector.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar sobrepeso e obesidade e as variáveis associadas em pessoas que vivem com o HIV. Método Estudo transversal, quantitativo e analítico, desenvolvido em serviços especializados no sudeste do Brasil. Realizaram-se entrevistas individuais de 2014 a 2016. Utilizou-se o teste de Qui-Quadrado de Pearson, Regressão Logística e o OddsRatio (OR). Resultados Dos 340 entrevistados, 47,7% estavam acima do peso. As maiores circunferências abdominais e alterações lipídicas estavam predominantemente entre os maiores índices de massa corporal (IMC). As maiores chances de se obter valores do IMC>25 kg/m² estavam entre homens (OR:1,87;IC95%:1,02-2,42), ter síndrome metabólica (OR:5,66;IC95%:3,26-9,83) e os fumantes (OR:3,89;IC95%:2,17-7,00). Entretanto, ter hipertensão arterial sistêmica autodeclarada, configurou-se como fator de proteção (OR:0,18;IC95%:0,08-0,44). Conclusão A frequência de obesidade e sobrepeso entre PVHIV foi elevada. Houve associação do sexo masculino, síndrome metabólica e o hábito de fumar do aumento de peso. A presença de HAS autodeclarada foi considerada fator de proteção.

18.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020600, 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154148

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo aborda a violência sexual, tema que compõe o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis, publicado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. São apresentadas orientações aos gestores para o manejo programático e operacional, com foco na rede de atendimento às pessoas em situações de violência sexual, recomendações aos profissionais de saúde acerca de medidas profiláticas de gravidez e de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis virais e não virais, além das estratégias para as ações de vigilância. A violência sexual constitui um problema amplo, extrapola o campo de saúde e envolve desafios conceituais e programáticos tanto para os profissionais de saúde, na linha de frente na atenção às pessoas afetadas, quanto para a sociedade, em termos de possíveis formas de prevenção.


Abstract This article addresses sexual violence, a topic that makes up the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Guidance is given to managers in programmatic and operational management with a focus on the service network for people in situations of sexual violence, recommendations to health professionals about prophylactic measures of pregnancy and viral and non-viral sexually transmitted infections, in addition to strategies for surveillance actions. Sexual violence is a broad problem that goes beyond the health field and involves conceptual and programmatic challenges for both health professionals, who are at the forefront of care for affected people, and for society, in terms of possible forms of prevention.


Resumen Este artículo aborda la violencia sexual, tema que integra el Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para la Atención Integral a Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual, publicado por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. Se brinda orientación a los gestores en la gestión programática y operativa con enfoque en la red de servicios para personas en situación de violencia sexual, recomendaciones a los profesionales de la salud sobre medidas profilácticas del embarazo e infecciones de transmisión sexual virales y no virales, además de estrategias para acciones de vigilancia. La violencia sexual es un problema amplio que va más allá del campo de la salud e implica desafíos conceptuales y programáticos tanto para los profesionales de la salud, que están a la vanguardia de la atención a las personas afectadas, como para la sociedad, en cuanto a posibles formas de prevención.

19.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020600, 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154167

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo aborda a violência sexual, tema que compõe o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis, publicado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. São apresentadas orientações aos gestores para o manejo programático e operacional, com foco na rede de atendimento às pessoas em situações de violência sexual, recomendações aos profissionais de saúde acerca de medidas profiláticas de gravidez e de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis virais e não virais, além das estratégias para as ações de vigilância. A violência sexual constitui um problema amplo, extrapola o campo de saúde e envolve desafios conceituais e programáticos tanto para os profissionais de saúde, na linha de frente na atenção às pessoas afetadas, quanto para a sociedade, em termos de possíveis formas de prevenção.


Abstract This article addresses sexual violence, a topic that makes up the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Guidance is given to managers in programmatic and operational management with a focus on the service network for people in situations of sexual violence, recommendations to health professionals about prophylactic measures of pregnancy and viral and non-viral sexually transmitted infections, in addition to strategies for surveillance actions. Sexual violence is a broad problem that goes beyond the health field and involves conceptual and programmatic challenges for both health professionals, who are at the forefront of care for affected people, and for society, in terms of possible forms of prevention.


Resumen Este artículo aborda la violencia sexual, tema que integra el Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para la Atención Integral a Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual, publicado por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. Se brinda orientación a los gestores en la gestión programática y operativa con enfoque en la red de servicios para personas en situación de violencia sexual, recomendaciones a los profesionales de la salud sobre medidas profilácticas del embarazo e infecciones de transmisión sexual virales y no virales, además de estrategias para acciones de vigilancia. La violencia sexual es un problema amplio que va más allá del campo de la salud e implica desafíos conceptuales y programáticos tanto para los profesionales de la salud, que están a la vanguardia de la atención a las personas afectadas, como para la sociedad, en cuanto a posibles formas de prevención.

20.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200129, 2021. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1149292

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo compreender o significado de qualidade de vida atribuído pelas pessoas vivendo com HIV. Método estudo de abordagem qualitativa realizado com pessoas vivendo com HIV, nos Serviços de Atendimento Especializado em um município de grande porte no interior de São Paulo. Os dados foram processados pelo software IRaMuTeQ e a análise foi embasada na técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultados após a análise das falas emergiram quatro classes principais: Dificuldades enfrentadas no tratamento; Estigma e diminuição da autoestima; Saúde como centro da qualidade de vida e; Viver com expectativas. Conclusão o significado de qualidade de vida foi compreendido pelas pessoas vivendo com HIV por diversos fatores que permeiam a vida, podendo sofrer influências positivas ou negativas. Os aspectos positivos incluíram hábitos de vida saudável, e os aspectos negativos relacionaram-se ao estigma, preconceito e a dificuldade de adesão ao tratamento.


Resumen Objetivo comprender el significado de calidad de vida atribuido por las personas que viven con el VIH. Método un estudio de enfoque cualitativo realizado con personas que viven con el VIH en los Servicios de Atención Especializada en una gran ciudad del interior de São Paulo. Los datos se procesaron utilizando el software IRaMuTeQ y el análisis se basó en la técnica de Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo. Resultados después del análisis de las declaraciones, surgieron cuatro clases principales: dificultades enfrentadas en el tratamiento; Estigma y disminución de la autoestima; La salud como centro de calidad de vida; y Vivir con expectativas. Conclusión el significado de calidad de vida fue entendido por las personas que viven con el VIH bajo varios factores que impregnan la vida y pueden sufrir influencias positivas o negativas. Los aspectos positivos incluían hábitos de vida saludables, y los aspectos negativos estaban relacionados con el estigma, los prejuicios y la dificultad para adherir al tratamiento.


Abstract Objective to understand the meaning of quality of life attributed by people living with HIV. Method a qualitative approach study carried out with people living with HIV, in the Specialized Care Services in a large city in the interior of São Paulo. Data were processed by the IRaMuTeQ software and the analysis was based on the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. Results after the analysis of the statements, four main classes emerged: Difficulties faced in the treatment; Stigma and lowering of self-esteem; Health as center of quality of life; and Living with expectations. Conclusion The meaning of quality of life was understood by people living with HIV through several factors that permeate life, and may suffer positive or negative influences. The positive aspects included healthy lifestyle habits, and the negative aspects were related to stigma, prejudice, and difficulty in adhering to treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , HIV , Autoimagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
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