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1.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032423

RESUMO

The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex, and requires tight control of disease activity, close monitoring to avoid treatment side effects, healthcare professionals with expertise in IBD and an interdisciplinary, holistic approach. Despite various efforts to standardise structures, processes and outcomes1-8, and due to the high variability at the local, national and international levels, there are still no clear definitions or outcome measures available to establish quality of care standards for IBD patients that are applicable in all contexts and all countries. For this reason, the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) supported the construction of a list of criteria summarising current standards of care in IBD. The list comprises 111 quality standard points grouped into three main domains (structure n=31, process n=42, outcomes n=38) and is based on scientific evidence, interdisciplinary expert consensus and patient-oriented perspectives. The list of proposed criteria is intended to represent the position of ECCO regarding the optimum quality of care that should be available to patients. Since healthcare systems and regulations vary considerably between countries, this list may require adaptation at local and national levels. It is recognised that not all these criteria that have been identified as optimal will be available in every unit. However, ECCO will continue its efforts to develop and coordinate projects and initiatives that will help to guarantee optimal quality of care for all IBD patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the most infamous constituent of the gastric microbiota and its presence is the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer and other gastroduodenal diseases. Although historically the healthy stomach was considered a sterile organ, we now know it is colonised with a complex microbiota. However, its role in health and disease is not well understood. AIM: To systematically explore the literature on the gastric microbiota in health and disease as well as the gut microbiota after bariatric surgery. METHODS: A systematic search of online bibliographic databases MEDLINE/EMBASE was performed between 1966 and February 2019 with screening in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and observational studies were included if they reported next-generation sequencing derived microbiota analysis on gastric aspirate/tissue or stool samples (bariatric surgical outcomes). RESULTS: Sixty-five papers were eligible for inclusion. With the exception of H pylori-induced conditions, overarching gastric microbiota signatures of health or disease could not be determined. Gastric carcinogenesis induces a progressively altered microbiota with an enrichment of oral and intestinal taxa as well as significant changes in host gastric mucin expression. Proton pump inhibitors usage increases gastric microbiota richness. Bariatric surgery is associated with an increase in potentially pathogenic proteobacterial species in patient stool samples. CONCLUSION: While H pylori remains the single most important risk factor for gastric disease, its capacity to shape the collective gastric microbiota remains to be fully elucidated. Further studies are needed to explore the intricate host/microbial and microbial/microbial interplay.

3.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Errors are very common in daily clinical practice; however, they can be prevented. Our aim was to identify the most common errors in the outpatient management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with IBD, being treated at our IBD Unit and who were referred for a second opinion were consecutively enrolled. Data on the strategies implemented by their previous physicians were obtained. These strategies were compared with the currently recommended diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. RESULTS: Seventy-four IBD patients were enrolled. Prior to care in our Unit, screening for tobacco use had been performed in 50% of Crohn's disease patients, while smoking cessation counselling had been provided in 29%. At the time of IBD diagnosis, the hepatitis B virus immunization status had been investigated in 16% of the patients, the hepatitis C virus status in 15%, and the varicella status in 7%. Seven percent of the patients had been vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, and 3% against influenza, tetanus and pneumococcus. Sixty-seven percent of the patients with an indication for use of 5-aminosalicylic acid and 37% of those with an indication for immunosuppressants had received the indicated drug. DISCUSSION: Errors in the outpatient management of IBD patients are very common and relevant.

4.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948830

RESUMO

The rate of non-adherence to medical treatment in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is around 50%, with the consequent negative impact on treatment results, morbidity and cost. OBJECTIVES: To determine through an online survey among gastroenterologists with special dedication to IBD, their knowledge about the adherence to treatment of their patients and the methods used to improve it. METHODS: An email was sent to gastroenterologists from the technical office of the Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis Spanish working group (GETECCU), with a link to the online survey. RESULTS: 760 physicians were invited. One hundred eighty-four surveys were obtained (28.5%). A total of 68% of respondents had indexed IBD publications, 13% of which were on adherence. Although almost 99% considered adherence as very important/important, 25% of physicians did not assess it. Even though 100% considered that improving adherence would imply a better prognosis, 47% did not use any system to improve it. The factors associated with the assessment and improvement of adherence were: university hospital (81.4%), combined treatment with thiopurines and biological drugs (44.6%), physician gender (female) (63.1%), dedicating≥6hours weekly to IBD (71.6%), previous published indexed papers on IBD (68.5%) and on adherence in IBD (12.5%), and considering adherence as important/very important (98.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Although knowledge about the relevance of adherence to medical treatment in IBD is widespread, among the gastroenterologists with special dedication to IBD who were surveyed, almost half do not use any objective system to quantify it. An effort must be made to quantify and improve adherence to the treatment of these patients.

7.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(1): 89-98, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Due to the poor eradication rates of standard triple therapy, the addition of bismuth salts has been proposed for first-line eradication of Helicobacter pylori. We assessed the effectiveness and safety of the combination of bismuth and the standard, clarithromycin-containing triple therapy in eradication of H pylori infection, using data from a large multi-center registry. METHODS: We performed an interim analysis of data from the European Registry on H pylori Management, a prospective trial registering clinical data and outcomes from infected patients from 27 countries in Europe since 2013. We extracted data on 1141 treatment-naïve patients who received first-line treatment with bismuth salts (240 mg) and a proton pump inhibitor (57% received esomeprazole, 18% received omeprazole, 11% received pantoprazole, and 14% received rabeprazole), amoxicillin (1 g), and clarithromycin (500 mg), all taken twice daily. RESULTS: Intention to treat and per-protocol rates of eradication were 88% and 94%, respectively. Intention to treat eradication increased to 93% in patients who received 14-day treatments. Adverse events occurred in 36% of patients; 76% of these events were mild, with a mean duration of 6 days. In multivariate analysis, eradication was associated with treatment compliance (odds ratio [OR], 13.0), a double dose (equivalent to 40 mg omeprazole) of proton pump inhibitor (OR, 4.7), and 14-day duration of treatment (OR, 2.0). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from a large multi-center registry, we found the addition of bismuth to 14-day standard triple therapy with clarithromycin and amoxicillin to eradicate H pylori infection in more than 90% of patients, based on intention to treat analysis, with an acceptable safety profile and level of adherence. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02328131.

8.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e10862, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793743

RESUMO

Pathological angiogenesis contributes to cancer progression and chronic inflammatory diseases. In inflammatory bowel disease, the microvasculature expands by intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA), a poorly characterized mechanism involving increased blood flow and splitting of pre-existing capillaries. In this report, mice lacking the protease MT1-MMP in endothelial cells (MT1iΔ EC ) presented limited IA in the capillary plexus of the colon mucosa assessed by 3D imaging during 1% DSS-induced colitis. This resulted in better tissue perfusion, preserved intestinal morphology, and milder disease activity index. Combined in vivo intravital microscopy and lentiviral rescue experiments with in vitro cell culture demonstrated that MT1-MMP activity in endothelial cells is required for vasodilation and IA, as well as for nitric oxide production via binding of the C-terminal fragment of MT1-MMP substrate thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) to CD47/αvß3 integrin. Moreover, TSP1 levels were significantly higher in serum from IBD patients and in vivo administration of an anti-MT1-MMP inhibitory antibody or a nonamer peptide spanning the αvß3 integrin binding site in TSP1 reduced IA during mouse colitis. Our results identify MT1-MMP as a new actor in inflammatory IA and a promising therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel disease.

9.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present only monoclonal EIA (enzyme-immunoassay) stool antigen-tests have obtained optimal accuracy in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of two stool antigen-tests, the validated Premier Platinum HpSA PLUS (EIA test) and the newly available ImmunoCard STAT! HpSA HD (rapid test) for the initial diagnosis and the confirmation of eradication of H. pylori infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with indication of H. pylori diagnosis, or confirmation after treatment were included. Data were coded to protect personal data and ensure blindness between tests. Accuracy was considered as coincident diagnosis with the gold standard (13C-urea breath test, UBT). The EIA was used as a bench standard. All stool tests were performed in duplicate. RESULTS: 264 patients completed the protocol (100 naïve, 164 post-eradication). Average age was 52 years, 61% women, 11% ulcer. Positive diagnoses by UBT were 41% for naïve and 17% for post-eradication. Overall ImmunoCard and EIA accuracies were respectively 91% (95%C.I.=88-94%) and 89% (86-93%), sensitivities 72% (67-78%) and 72% (67-78%), and specificities 98% (96-100%), and 95% (92-97%). Concordance between ImmunoCard and EIA was 95% (93-98%). DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that the newly available ImmunoCard rapid stool antigen-test achieves 90% accuracy, with high specificity but suboptimal sensitivity. The ImmunoCard attained equivalent accuracies as the EIA bench standard, with 95% concordance.

10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839219

RESUMO

Although most patients with ulcerative colitis should be given topical treatment, different studies have shown that they are underused in clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to answer 10 specific questions about which drugs are available for topical use in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, and their characteristics in terms of formulation, dosage, presentation, application and proximal distribution of rectal-administered drugs. The efficacy of available topical drugs and the benefits of combining different formulations and routes of administration, and their usefulness during disease remission are evaluated. Finally, a series of recommendations addressed to patients are given on the correct application of topical treatment.

11.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cure of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) leads to long-term clinical remission in the initial stages. As it is a rare disease, its management in clinical practice remains largely unknown and heterogeneity of care remains a concern. The aim was to audit the management and evolution of a large series of low-grade gastric MALT lymphomas from thirteen Spanish hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multicentre retrospective study including data on the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma from January 1998 to December 2013. Clinical, biological and pathological data were analyzed and survival curves were drawn. RESULTS: One-hundred and ninety-eight patients were included. Helicobacter pylori was present in 132 (69%) patients and 103 (82%) in tumors confined to the stomach (stage EI) and was eradicated in 92% of patients. Chemotherapy was given in 90 (45%) patients and 43 (33%) with stage EI. Marked heterogeneity in the use of diagnostic methods and chemotherapy was observed. Five-year overall survival was 86% (89% in EI). Survival was similar in EI patients receiving aggressive treatment and in those receiving only antibiotics (p=0.577). DISCUSSION: Gastric MALT lymphoma has an excellent prognosis. We observed, however, a marked heterogeneity in the use of diagnostic methods or chemotherapy in early-stage patients.

12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870681

RESUMO

Recommendations are advice that is given and considered to be beneficial; however, they are still suggestions and are therefore open to different interpretations. In this sense, the final objective of the review has been to try to homogenize, with the evidence available, the approach to the diagnosis and medical/surgical treatment of one of the most complex manifestations of Crohn's disease, such as simple and complex perianal fistulas.

13.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(13): 2822-2823, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757363
14.
Orv Hetil ; 160(47): 1856-1863, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736344

RESUMO

Introduction: The Pan-European Registry on Helicobacter pylori management was conceived in 2013 to monitor eradication practices in Europe for 10 years. Aim: To assess the efficacy of different eradication regimens in a single outpatient clinic of gastroenterology. Method: Between 2013 and 2019, 247 patients were registered in a prospective non-interventional study. The infection was diagnosed either by endoscopy, histology, rapid urease test or 13C-urea breath test. As first-line treatment, the patients received either a 7-day triple regimen (any of PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or tinidazole), 10-day modified sequential treatment (PPI + amoxicillin for 5 days + tinidazole and levofloxacin for 5 days), 10-day quadruple concomitant treatment (PPI + amoxicillin + tetracycline or doxycycline + metronidazole or tinidazole) or bismuth-based quadruple treatment. Bismuth or non-bismuth based quadruple or alternative regimens were given as second- or third-line treatment. Results: The eradication rates on per protocol basis were: 82.7% (95% confidence interval: 68.1-97.4) (first-line regimens), 85.2% (75.4-94.9) (sequential treatment), 95.1% (89.6-100) (concomitant treatment) and 82.6% (69.7-95.9) (bismuth-based quadruple regimen). Second-line regimens achieved 65.2% (48.2-83.0) and third-line therapy 54.5% (19.4-86.6), respectively. Conclusion: The first-line concomitant regimen was superior to triple and not significantly better than the sequential or bismuth-based treatment. Second- and third-line regimens achieved largely suboptimal results. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(47): 1856-1863.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742338

RESUMO

This article is the second in a series of two publications relating to the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation [ECCO] evidence-based consensus on the management of Crohn's disease. The first article covers medical management; the present article addresses surgical management, including preoperative aspects and drug management before surgery. It also provides technical advice for a variety of common clinical situations. Both articles together represent the evidence-based recommendations of the ECCO for Crohn's disease and an update of prior guidelines.

16.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) -ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease- are commonly treated with biologic drugs. However, only approximately two thirds have an initial response to these therapies. Personalized medicine has the potential to optimize efficacy, decrease the risk of adverse drug events, and reduce costs by establishing the most suitable therapy for a selected patient. AIM: The present study reviews the potential predictors of short-term primary response to biologic treatment, including not only anti-TNF agents (such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) but also vedolizumab and ustekinumab. METHODS: We performed a systematic bibliographic search to identify studies investigating predictive factors of response to biologic therapy. RESULTS: For anti-TNF agents most of the evaluated factors have not demonstrated to be useful, and many others are still controversial. Thus, only a few factors may have a potential role in the prediction of the response, including disease behavior/phenotype, disease severity, C-reactive protein, albumin, cytokine expression in serum, prior anti-TNF therapy, some proteomic markers, and some colorectal mucosa markers. For vedolizumab, the availability of useful predictive markers seems to be even lower, with only some factors showing a limited value, such as the expression of α4ß7 integrin in blood, the fecal microbiota, some proteomic markers, and some colorectal mucosa markers. Finally, in the case of ustekinumab, no predictive factor has been reported yet to be helpful in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: In summary, currently, no single marker fulfils all criteria for being an appropriate prognostic indicator of response to any biologic treatment in IBD.

17.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683517

RESUMO

Bioactive peptides secreted by probiotic Bifidobacterium longum (peptide B7) and opportunistic pathogen Bacteroides fragilis (peptide B12) modulate the intestinal cytokine milieu in health. Here, we characterized their capacity to modulate both the mucosal cytokine production and the phenotype of circulating antigen presenting cells (APCs) in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The IBD mucosa produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines referred to healthy controls (HCs). Peptides B7 and B12, however, did not ameliorate the mucosal cytokine milieu in IBD. Human circulating APCs (B-cells, monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs)) were characterized by flow cytometry in presence/absence of the peptides. Circulating B-cells, monocytes, and cDCs from IBD patients were more activated than those from HCs. Peptide B7, but not B12, decreased CCR2 expression on all APC subsets from HC, but not IBD patients. Moreover, both peptides tend to further increase their pro-inflammatory profile in IBD. In summary, IBD patients display mucosal and circulating APC pro-inflammatory properties. Peptide B7 immunomodulatory capacity elicited over circulating APCs from HC, but not IBD patients, suggests the presence of disrupted modulatory mechanisms for this peptide in IBD. Future studies should address the effect of bacteria-derived immunomodulatory peptides in non-inflamed (quiescent) IBD patients.

18.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 42(9): 568-578, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606162

RESUMO

Pouchitis is a common complication in ulcerative colitis patients after total proctocolectomy. This is an unspecific inflammation of the ileo-anal pouch, the aetiology of which is not fully known. This inflammation induces the onset of symptoms such as urgency, diarrhoea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Many patients suffering from pouchitis have a lower quality of life. In addition to symptoms, an endoscopy with biopsies is mandatory in order to establish a definite diagnosis. The recommended index to assess its activity is the Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (PDAI), but its modified version (PDAIm) can be used in clinical practice. In accordance with the duration of symptoms, pouchitis can be classified as acute (<4 weeks) or chronic (>4 weeks), and, regarding its course, pouchitis can be infrequent (<4 episodes per year), recurrent (>4 episodes per year) or continuous.

19.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 12: 1756284819867848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598133

RESUMO

Background: The effect of low-frequency functional variation on anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) response in Crohn's disease (CD) patients remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of functional rare variants in clinical response to anti-TNF therapy in CD. Methods: CD anti-TNF naïve patients starting anti-TNF treatment due to active disease [Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI > 150)] were included. The whole genome was sequenced using the Illumina Hiseq4000 platform. Clinical response was defined as a CDAI score <150 at week 14 of anti-TNF treatment. Low-frequency variants were annotated and classified according to their damaging potential. The whole genome of CD patients was screened to identify homozygous loss-of-function (LoF) variants. The TNF signaling pathway was tested for overabundance of damaging variants using the SKAT-O method. Functional implication of the associated rare variation was evaluated using cell-type epigenetic enrichment analyses. Results: A total of 41 consecutive CD patients were included; 3250 functional rare variants were identified (2682 damaging and 568 LoF variants). Two homozygous LoF mutations were found in HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 genes associated with lack of response and remission, respectively. Genome-wide LoF variants were enriched in epigenetic marks specific for the gastrointestinal tissue (colon, p = 4.11e-4; duodenum, p = 0.011). The burden of damaging variation in the TNF signaling pathway was associated with response to anti-TNF therapy (p = 0.016); damaging variants were enriched in epigenetic marks from CD8+ (p = 6.01e-4) and CD4+ (p = 0.032) T cells. Conclusions: Functional rare variants are involved in the response to anti-TNF therapy in CD. Cell-type enrichment analysis suggests that the gut mucosa and CD8+ T cells are the main mediators of this response.

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