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1.
Vet World ; 14(6): 1430-1436, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34316189

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Dry cow therapy (DCT) can be an effective treatment of mastitis that has not responded to conventional treatment during lactation. The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of DCT options available in reducing intramammary infections in smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: The study targeted smallholder dairy farms which were registered at the local dairy cooperatives and which had cows that were at the point of dry-off. A total of 32 cows with 121 quarters that were California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive were recruited, with the quarters randomly allocated to receive either DCT (DCT - neomycin sulfate, penethamate hydriodide, and procaine benzylpenicillin) and internal teat sealant (ITS) or ITS alone (bismuth nitrate) after aseptically collecting quarter milk samples for bacterial culture. Farm- and animal-level factors were captured through a questionnaire which was administered to the principal farmer or a person who was managing the animals. Post-calving, milk samples were also collected for bacterial culture to establish if the infection was cleared or if there was a new infection. Results: DCT with ITS significantly reduced the proportion of quarters infected with Staphylococcus aureus from 64.0% at dry-off to 44.0% post-calving (35% reduction). In the control group, ITS alone, there was a small reduction in proportions of S. aureus from 46.8% to 40.4%. Proportions of quarter infections by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in the treatment group reduced from 16.0% at dry-off to 2.0% post-calving, with a significant reduction in the control group too from 19.1% to 4.3%, which could be due to self-cure. Actinomyces species, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus species, and Pseudomonas species proportions slightly increased in the treatment group, as did E. coli and Pseudomonas species proportions in the control group. Conclusion: In smallholder dairy farms with subclinical mastitis, DCT of CMT-positive cows leads to a significant decrease of S. aureus infections at calving.

2.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104784, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593877

RESUMO

Our study aimed to evaluate farmers' compliance in implementing recommendations of farm-specific cow comfort changes, and the effects of these changes on lying time, stall cleanliness and cow cleanliness using a randomized controlled trial carried out on 100 smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, with 62 and 11 farms remaining in the intervention and control groups, respectively. On the first farm visit, data loggers were attached on lactating cows to determine lying time and questionnaires utilized to collect baseline data. Three days later, stall design and management recommendations were given to the intervention group of farmers orally and in written form. After an average of 39 ±â€¯7 days, data loggers were re-attached, compliance was assessed, and a post-intervention questionnaire was administered to the intervention group on the third visit. Three days subsequent to the first and third visits, data loggers were removed from all cows. Data were analysed in Stata 14.2® using proportion tests and Kruskal-Wallis rank tests to compare cleanliness scores and lying time, respectively. Interaction effects between treatment groups and visits were assessed using multivariable mixed linear and logistic regression models. While 46 of the 62 intervention farmers (74%) made at least one recommended change to cow comfort, 63% of the 324 overall recommendations were implemented. The odds of a recommendation being implemented were significantly higher when:1) major recommendations were given relative to minor recommendations (OR = 6.28); 2) recommendations were related to floor characteristics (floor softness and flatness) in comparison to recommendations related to stall design (OR = 3.14). The odds of compliance were lower on: 1) farms where the farm-hands received the recommendations compared to farms that had the female principal farmer receive the recommendations (OR = 0.01); 2) farms that had recommended changes related to roof, alley and sharps fixes relative to stall design fixes (OR = 0.13). Post-intervention, stall, udder and upper hind-leg cleanliness scores improved significantly (p < 0.0001, p = 0.021 and p = 0.017, respectively) in the intervention farms but not in the control farms. There was no significant difference in lying times between intervention and control farms, with 0.6 and 0.2 h/day increases being recorded in the intervention and control groups, from the 10.9 and 10.4 h/day at baseline, respectively. Giving farm-specific cow comfort recommendations to smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya, and providing them with a participatory role in the formulation and implementation of improvement recommendations ensured good acceptance and a high degree of implementation, and led to a subsequent improvement in cow comfort and cleanliness.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Fazendas/normas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino
3.
Vet World ; 11(8): 1094-1101, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250369

RESUMO

Aim: This study was aimed at describing calf comfort and determining the individual and pen level factors that affect comfort status (in particular, calf leg hygiene scores) of smallholder dairy farms in Meru County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 52 calves that were up to 1 year old in 38 dairy farms (mean±standard deviation: Herd size=1.71±0.7 milking cows and milk production=6.7±3.1 L/day) in Meru, Kenya, in 2017, with the intention to describe their comfort and determine the factors associated with leg hygiene as a critical parameter for calf comfort assessment. Calves' biodata, health status, and leg hygiene were assessed, along with pen characteristics such as area, hygiene, and knee impact and knee wetness scores, while a questionnaire was administered to the farmers to gather information regarding calf housing management practices in the farm. Results: The calves had a mean body weight of 85.2±32.8 kg and average daily weight gain of 0.50±0.45 kg per day. 71% of calves had a good body condition score (≥2.5), and the mean space allowance per calf was 2.52±1.56 m2. Approximately 75% of the calves (39/52) were kept in pens, and the rest were reared outdoors. For 39 calves kept indoors, 26% (10/39) of them had wooden or concrete floors while 74% (29/39) had dirt floors. Nearly two-thirds (62%) of indoor calves (26/39) were reared in pens with bedding, and 23% (9/39) and 33% (13/39) of the calves reared indoors were kept in pens displaying a failed knee impact test and failed knee wetness test. Indoor housed calves had an increased probability of having dirty calf legs (cleanliness score of >2.5) by 8.6 times (p=0.031), compared to outdoor-housed calves. In the final multivariable logistic regression model of 39 calves in pens, concrete or wood floors (odds ratio [OR]=7.9, p=0.047), poor body condition (OR=17.1, p=0.020) and use of bedding (OR=12.5, p=0.046) appeared to be positively correlated with dirtiness of calf legs, compared to dirt floors, good body condition, and no bedding, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, some calf comfort aspects were covered for the majority of calves examined, but 69% of the pens were categorized as dirty, especially those with wooden or concrete floors and poor bedding management. Smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya should be trained on calf housing management to improve calf comfort and productivity.

4.
Vet World ; 9(8): 811-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651667

RESUMO

AIM: This study was undertaken to determine the household, calf management, and calf factors associated with the occurrence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and diarrhea in pre-weaned calves reared in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County of Nyeri County, Kenya. In addition, the study also evaluated factors associated with average daily weight gain in the same pre-weaned calves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 112 newborn calves (63 males and 49 females) on 111 farms (1 set of twins) were followed for 2 months between June 2013 and August 2013. Two calves were lost to follow-up. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on household characteristics and calf management practices in the 111 selected farms. On the first visit to the farm (within 7 days of the birth of the calf), blood samples were collected from the jugular vein to assess the level of maternal immunity acquired by the calf, by determining the serum total protein and selenium concentration. At 4 and 6 weeks of age, fecal samples from the calves were collected to assess the presence of Cryptosporidia and Eimeria oocysts. Every 2 weeks for 2 months, the calves and their environments were examined, their 2-week consumption and health history were recorded, and weights were estimated with a weight tape. Each of the factors was evaluated in a univariable regression model and only those found to be significant (p≤0.20) were included in a multivariable model. Elimination of non-significant factors was done in the multivariable model through a backward elimination procedure so that only those variables which were confounders, and/or significant at (p≤0.05) remained in the final model. RESULTS: About 37% (41/110) of the calves experienced diarrhea at least once during the 2-month study period. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria and Cryptosporidia was 42.7% (47/110) and 13.6% (15/110), respectively. Low serum protein was associated with 1.8 and 2.4 times the odds of Eimeria and Cryptosporidia infections, respectively. Lack of supervision of calf birth and low serum total protein were both associated with 1.3 times the odds of diarrhea incidence. Dirty calf pens, feeding <5 L of milk/day, and infection with Eimeria were associated with 0.105, 0.087, and 0.059 kg, respectively, reduced average daily weight gain of the calves. CONCLUSION: In the Kenyan context, calf diarrhea risk could be reduced through better supervision of parturition and colostrum provision. Specifically, the risk of Eimeria and Cryptosporidia infections could be reduced by optimizing the passive transfer of immunity to the newborn calves. Average weight gains of calves could be improved by good colostrum provision, pen hygiene, and preventing Eimeria infections.

5.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 85(1): 950, 2014 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24831695

RESUMO

There is limited epidemiological knowledge on udder health in Kenyan dairy cattle that would aid in a pro-active approach towards mastitis prevention. The study objectives were: (1) to investigate the prevalence and distribution of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Mukurwe-ini and Nakuru Districts, Kenya, and (2) to determine the antibacterial sensitivity of the organisms causing bovine mastitis in these districts. The study involved field-screening of milk samples from 241 dairy cows on 128 farms by use of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and, if CMT-positive, followed by bacteriological culture of the major causative agents and their respective antibiotic sensitivity to eight commonly used antibiotics. All participating farms were visited twice during the study period. The results obtained during the first and second visits showed the prevalence of clinical mastitis to be very low: 0.9% and 0.5%, respectively; 56.0% and 65.0% of cows were CMT-positive on at least one quarter and 49.6% and 58.7% of cows were culture-positive, respectively. There was no significant difference in mastitis prevalence between Nakuru and Mukurwe-ini districts (p > 0.10). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 68.0% and 77.0% of samples during the first and second visits, respectively. Other frequently isolated agents included Streptococcus agalactiae, and other Streptococcus spp., S. aureus and S. agalactiae were most sensitive to gentamycin and norfloxacin, and least sensitive to cotrimazole and ampicillin. Knowing the prevalence of mastitogenic organisms and their antibiotic sensitivities could improve treatment efficacy and cow longevity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Quênia/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 115(3-4): 130-42, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24774477

RESUMO

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important trans-boundary cattle disease which affects food security and livelihoods. A conjoint analysis-contingent valuation was carried out on 190 households in Narok South District of Kenya to measure willingness to pay (WTP) and demand for CBPP vaccine and vaccination as well as factors affecting WTP. The mean WTP was calculated at Kenya Shillings (KSh) 212.48 (USD 3.03) for vaccination using a vaccine with the characteristics that were preferred by the farmers (preferred vaccine and vaccination) and KSh -71.45 (USD -1.02) for the currently used vaccine and vaccination. The proportion of farmers willing to pay an amount greater than zero was 66.7% and 34.4% for the preferred and current vaccine and vaccination respectively. About one third (33.3%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 1162.62 (USD 13.68) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the preferred vaccine and vaccination. About two-thirds (65.6%) of farmers would need to be compensated an average amount of KSh 853.72 (USD 12.20) per animal to allow their cattle to be vaccinated against CBPP using the current vaccine and vaccination. The total amount of compensation would be KSh 61.39 million (USD 0.88 million) for the preferred vaccine and vaccination and KSh 90.15 million (USD 1.29 million) for the current vaccine and vaccination. Demand curves drawn from individual WTP demonstrated that only 59% and 27% of cattle owners with a WTP greater than zero were willing to pay a benchmark cost of KSh 34.60 for the preferred and current vaccine respectively. WTP was negatively influenced by the attitude about household economic situation (p=0.0078), presence of cross breeds in the herd (p<0.0001) and years since CBPP had been experienced in the herd (p=0.0375). It was positively influenced by education (p=0.0251) and the practice of treating against CBPP (p=0.0432). The benefit cost ratio (BCR) for CBPP vaccination was 2.9-6.1 depending on the vaccination programme. In conclusion, although a proportion of farmers was willing to pay, participation levels may be lower than those required to interrupt transmission of CBPP. Households with characteristics that influence WTP negatively need persuasion to participate in CBPP vaccination. It is economically worthwhile to vaccinate against CBPP. A benefit cost analysis (BCA) using aggregated WTP as benefits can be used as an alternative method to the traditional BCA which uses avoided production losses (new revenue) and costs saved as benefits.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/epidemiologia , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quênia/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma/fisiologia , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/microbiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vacinação/economia
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 110(3-4): 356-69, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23465609

RESUMO

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p<0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p>0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI=43.6%), price was the least important (RI=0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95-100% safety, 2h to greater than 2h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be compensated or persuaded to accept biannual and private vaccination against CBPP. There is need for consideration of farmer preferences for vaccine attribute levels during vaccine formulations and farmer preferences for vaccination attribute levels when designing delivery of vaccines.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mycoplasma/fisiologia , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Quênia , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/microbiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 45(3): 883-6, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23108587

RESUMO

The study purpose was to validate Petrifilms(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and Petrifilms(TM) (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count -3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and Petrifilm(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the Petrifilms(TM) had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. Petrifilms(TM) should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected.


Assuntos
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Feminino , Quênia/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 42(8): 1643-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20526675

RESUMO

The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of Nairobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were inconclusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1% (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Desnutrição/veterinária , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária , Sepse/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Diagnóstico , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/mortalidade , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/mortalidade , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/mortalidade , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/mortalidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
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