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1.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1314-1332, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230300

RESUMO

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event. CONCLUSION: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Metabolites ; 10(11)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120862

RESUMO

Omega-3 (n-3) treatment may lower cardiovascular risk, yet its effects on the circulating lipidome and relation to cardiovascular risk biomarkers are unclear. We hypothesized that n-3 treatment is associated with favorable changes in downstream fatty acids (FAs), oxylipins, bioactive lipids, clinical lipid and inflammatory biomarkers. We examined these VITAL200, a nested substudy of 200 subjects balanced on demographics and treatment and randomly selected from the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL). VITAL is a randomized double-blind trial of 840 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) vs. placebo among 25,871 individuals. Small polar bioactive lipid features, oxylipins and FAs from plasma and red blood cells were measured using three independent assaying techniques at baseline and one year. The Women's Health Study (WHS) was used for replication with dietary n-3 intake. Randomized n-3 treatment led to changes in 143 FAs, oxylipins and bioactive lipids (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05 in VITAL200, validated (p-values < 0.05)) in WHS with increases in 95 including EPA, DHA, n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA-n3), and decreases in 48 including DPA-n6, dihomo gamma linolenic (DGLA), adrenic and arachidonic acids. N-3 related changes in the bioactive lipidome were heterogeneously associated with changes in clinical lipid and inflammatory biomarkers. N-3 treatment significantly modulates the bioactive lipidome, which may contribute to its clinical benefits.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3368, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632093

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) was inconsistently associated with migraine and the mechanisms of BP-lowering medications in migraine prophylaxis are unknown. Leveraging large-scale summary statistics for migraine (Ncases/Ncontrols = 59,674/316,078) and BP (N = 757,601), we find positive genetic correlations of migraine with diastolic BP (DBP, rg = 0.11, P = 3.56 × 10-06) and systolic BP (SBP, rg = 0.06, P = 0.01), but not pulse pressure (PP, rg = -0.01, P = 0.75). Cross-trait meta-analysis reveals 14 shared loci (P ≤ 5 × 10-08), nine of which replicate (P < 0.05) in the UK Biobank. Five shared loci (ITGB5, SMG6, ADRA2B, ANKDD1B, and KIAA0040) are reinforced in gene-level analysis and highlight potential mechanisms involving vascular development, endothelial function and calcium homeostasis. Mendelian randomization reveals stronger instrumental estimates of DBP (OR [95% CI] = 1.20 [1.15-1.25]/10 mmHg; P = 5.57 × 10-25) on migraine than SBP (1.05 [1.03-1.07]/10 mmHg; P = 2.60 × 10-07) and a corresponding opposite effect for PP (0.92 [0.88-0.95]/10 mmHg; P = 3.65 × 10-07). These findings support a critical role of DBP in migraine susceptibility and shared biology underlying BP and migraine.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Proteínas/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/genética , Fatores de Risco , Telomerase/genética
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 268-283, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Western dietary pattern (WD) is positively associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cancer, whereas the Prudent dietary pattern (PD) may be protective. Foods may influence metabolite concentrations as well as oxidative stress and lipid dysregulation, biological mechanisms associated with CAD and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the association of 2 derived dietary pattern scores with serum metabolites and identify metabolic pathways associated with the metabolites. METHODS: We evaluated the cross-sectional association between each dietary pattern (WD, PD) and metabolites in 2199 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. With FFQ and factor analysis, we determined 2 dietary patterns consistent with WD and PD. Metabolites were measured with LC-tandem MS. Metabolite discovery among 904 WHI Observational Study (WHI-OS) participants was replicated among 1295 WHI Hormone Therapy Trial (WHI-HT) participants. We analyzed each of 495 metabolites with each dietary score (WD, PD) in linear regression models. RESULTS: The PD included higher vegetables and fruit intake compared with the WD with higher saturated fat and meat intake. Independent of energy intake, BMI, physical activity, and other confounding variables, 45 overlapping metabolites were identified (WHI-OS) and replicated (WHI-HT) with an opposite direction of associations for the WD compared with the PD [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.05]. In metabolite set enrichment analyses, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogens were positively enriched for association with WD [normalized enrichment score (NES) = 2.01, P = 0.001, FDR P = 0.005], and cholesteryl esters (NES = -1.77, P = 0.005, FDR P = 0.02), and phosphatidylcholines (NES = -1.72, P = 0.01, P = 0.03) were negatively enriched for WD. PE plasmalogens were positively correlated with saturated fat and red meat. Phosphatidylcholines and cholesteryl esters were positively correlated with fatty fish. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct metabolite signatures associated with Western and Prudent dietary patterns highlight the positive association of mitochondrial oxidative stress and lipid dysregulation with a WD and the inverse association with a PD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Verduras/metabolismo
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 646-658, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302534

RESUMO

Genetic risk for a disease in the population may be represented as a genetic risk score (GRS) constructed as the sum of inherited risk alleles, weighted by allelic effects established in an independent population. While this formulation captures overall genetic risk, it typically does not address risk due to specific biological mechanisms or pathways that may nevertheless be important for interpretation or treatment response. Here, a GRS for disease is resolved into independent or nearly independent components pertaining to biological mechanisms inferred from pleiotropic relationships. The component GRSs' weights are derived from the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the matrix of appropriately scaled genetic effects, i.e., beta coefficients, of the disease variants across a panel of the disease-related phenotypes. The SVD-based formalism also associates combinations of disease-related phenotypes with inferred disease pathways. Applied to incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the Women's Genome Health Study (N = 23,294), component GRSs discriminate glycemic control and lipid-based genetic risk, while revealing significant interactions between specific components and BMI or physical activity, the latter not observed with a GRS for overall T2D genetic liability. Applied to coronary artery disease (CAD) in both the WGHS and in JUPITER (N = 8,749), a randomized trial of rosuvastatin for primary prevention of CVD, component GRSs discriminate genetic risk associated with LDL-C from risk associated with reciprocal genetic effects on triglycerides and HDL-C. They also inform the pharmacogenetics of statin treatment by demonstrating that benefit from rosuvastatin is as strongly related to genetic risk from triglycerides and HDL-C as from LDL-C.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos/sangue
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 163, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919418

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 289-300, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics profiling has shown promise in elucidating the biological pathways underpinning mortality, but there are limited data in female populations. METHODS: We applied a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics platform to EDTA-plasma to measure 470 metabolites at baseline in a discovery set of 943 postmenopausal women (including 417 incident deaths, median time to death of 10.6 years) with validation in an independent set of 1355 postmenopausal women (including 685 deaths, median time to death of 9.1 years) in the Women's Health Initiative. RESULTS: Eight new metabolites were discovered to be associated with all-cause mortality. Findings included protective effects of increased levels of three amino acids (asparagine, homoarginine and tryptophan) and docosatrienoic acid; and detrimental effects of increased levels of C4-OH-carnitine, hexadecanedioate and two purine/pyrimidines (N2, N2-dimethylguanosine and N4-acetylcytidine). In addition, a set of nine previously published metabolite associations were replicated. A metabolite score comprising 17 metabolites was associated with mortality (P < 10-8) after adjustment for risk factors, with a hazard ratio of 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46-2.62) for women in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of metabolite score. The score was robust among younger women and older women, for both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality, and associated with both early deaths (within the first 10 years of baseline) and later deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study fills a gap in the literature by identifying eight novel metabolite associations with all-cause mortality in women, using a robust study design involving independent discovery and validation datasets.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Metabolômica/métodos , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Purinas , Pirimidinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4957, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673082

RESUMO

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cognição , Consanguinidade , Fertilidade/genética , Nível de Saúde , Depressão por Endogamia/genética , Assunção de Riscos , Alelos , Haplótipos , Homozigoto , Humanos
10.
Blood ; 134(19): 1645-1657, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infraction (MI) using Mendelian randomization (MR) used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust MR methodologies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both CHD and MI using MR. We used both an allele score approach and pleiotropy robust MR models. The allele score was composed of 38 fibrinogen-associated variants from recent GWAS. Initial analyses using the allele score used a meta-analysis of 11 European-ancestry prospective cohorts, free of CHD and MI at baseline, to examine incidence CHD and MI. We also applied 2 sample MR methods with data from a prevalent CHD and MI GWAS. Results are given in terms of the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on the study design, and associated 95% confidence interval (CI). In single variant analyses no causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD or MI was observed. In multi-variant analyses using incidence CHD cases and the allele score approach, the estimated causal effect (HR) of a 1 g/L higher fibrinogen concentration was 1.62 (CI = 1.12, 2.36) when using incident cases and the allele score approach. In 2 sample MR analyses that accounted for pleiotropy, the causal estimate (OR) was reduced to 1.18 (CI = 0.98, 1.42) and 1.09 (CI = 0.89, 1.33) in the 2 most precise (smallest CI) models, out of 4 models evaluated. In the 2 sample MR analyses for MI, there was only very weak evidence of a causal effect in only 1 out of 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: A small causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD is observed using multi-variant MR approaches which account for pleiotropy, but not single variant MR approaches. Taken together, results indicate that even with large sample sizes and multi-variant approaches MR analyses still cannot exclude the null when estimating the causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD, but that any potential causal effect is likely to be much smaller than observed in epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Fibrinogênio/farmacologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Alelos , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Pleiotropia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Genéticos , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Razão de Chances
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Metabolismo/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Relação Cintura-Quadril
16.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1412-1425, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224653

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genética Populacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Nutr ; 148(5): 771-780, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score has been associated with concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers in European Americans. OBJECTIVE: We used the EDIP score, a weighted sum of 18 food groups that characterizes dietary inflammatory potential based on circulating concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, to test the hypothesis that a pro-inflammatory dietary pattern is associated with inflammatory biomarker concentrations in a US multi-ethnic population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we calculated EDIP scores using baseline food frequency questionnaire data from 31,472 women, aged 50-79 y, in the Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trials. Circulating biomarkers outcomes at baseline were: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 and 2, and adiponectin. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses to estimate absolute concentrations and relative differences in biomarker concentrations, overall and in subgroups of race/ethnicity and BMI (body mass index) categories. RESULTS: Independent of energy intake, BMI, physical activity, and other potential confounding variables, higher EDIP scores were significantly associated with higher (lower for adiponectin) absolute concentrations of all 6 biomarkers. On the relative scale, the percentage of difference in the concentration of biomarkers, among women in the highest compared to the lowest EDIP quintile, was: CRP, +13% (P-trend < 0.0001); IL-6, +15% (P-trend < 0.0001); TNF-α, +7% (P-trend = 0.0007); TNFR1, +4% (P-trend = 0.0009); TNFR2, +5% (P-trend < 0.0001); and adiponectin, -13% (P-trend <0.0001). These associations differed by racial/ethnic groups and by BMI categories. Whereas the absolute biomarker concentrations were lower among European-American women and among normal-weight women, the associations with diet were stronger than among women of African-American or Hispanic/Latino origin and among overweight and obese women. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate the successful replication of an empirical hypothesis-oriented a posteriori dietary pattern score in a multi-ethnic population of postmenopausal women, with subgroup differences by race/ethnicity and body weight. Future research needs to apply the score in non-US populations.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Grupos Étnicos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 375-400, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455858

RESUMO

Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries. We identified 15 loci that were genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in stage 1 and formally replicated in stage 2. A combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analysis identified 66 additional genome-wide significant loci (13, 35, and 18 loci in European, African, and trans-ancestry, respectively). A total of 56 known BP loci were also identified by our results (p < 5 × 10-8). Of the newly identified loci, ten showed significant interaction with smoking status, but none of them were replicated in stage 2. Several loci were identified in African ancestry, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations. The identified loci show strong evidence for regulatory features and support shared pathophysiology with cardiometabolic and addiction traits. They also highlight a role in BP regulation for biological candidates such as modulators of vascular structure and function (CDKN1B, BCAR1-CFDP1, PXDN, EEA1), ciliopathies (SDCCAG8, RPGRIP1L), telomere maintenance (TNKS, PINX1, AKTIP), and central dopaminergic signaling (MSRA, EBF2).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fumar/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Diástole/genética , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sístole/genética
19.
Circulation ; 137(8): 841-853, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although metabolomic profiling offers promise for the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD), and metabolic risk factors are more strongly associated with CHD in women than men, limited data are available for women. METHODS: We applied a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics platform to measure 371 metabolites in a discovery set of postmenopausal women (472 incident CHD cases, 472 controls) with validation in an independent set of postmenopausal women (312 incident CHD cases, 315 controls). RESULTS: Eight metabolites, primarily oxidized lipids, were significantly dysregulated in cases after the adjustment for matching and CHD risk factors in both the discovery and validation data sets. One oxidized phospholipid, C34:2 hydroxy-phosphatidylcholine, remained associated with CHD after further adjustment for other validated metabolites. Subjects with C34:2 hydroxy-phosphatidylcholine levels in the highest quartile had a 4.7-fold increase in CHD odds in comparison with the lowest quartile; C34:2 hydroxy-phosphatidylcholine also significantly improved the area under the curve (P<0.01) for CHD. The C34:2 hydroxy-phosphatidylcholine findings were replicated in a third replication data set of 980 men and women (230 cardiovascular events) with a stronger association observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: These data replicate known metabolite predictors, identify novel markers, and support the relationship between lipid oxidation and subsequent CHD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Metabolômica , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(5)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have recently identified >400 loci that harbor DNA sequence variants that influence blood pressure (BP). Our earlier studies identified and validated 56 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with BP from meta-analyses of exome chip genotype data. An additional 100 variants yielded suggestive evidence of association. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we augment the sample with 140 886 European individuals from the UK Biobank, in whom 77 of the 100 suggestive SNVs were available for association analysis with systolic BP or diastolic BP or pulse pressure. We performed 2 meta-analyses, one in individuals of European, South Asian, African, and Hispanic descent (pan-ancestry, ≈475 000), and the other in the subset of individuals of European descent (≈423 000). Twenty-one SNVs were genome-wide significant (P<5×10-8) for BP, of which 4 are new BP loci: rs9678851 (missense, SLC4A1AP), rs7437940 (AFAP1), rs13303 (missense, STAB1), and rs1055144 (7p15.2). In addition, we identified a potentially independent novel BP-associated SNV, rs3416322 (missense, SYNPO2L) at a known locus, uncorrelated with the previously reported SNVs. Two SNVs are associated with expression levels of nearby genes, and SNVs at 3 loci are associated with other traits. One SNV with a minor allele frequency <0.01, (rs3025380 at DBH) was genome-wide significant. CONCLUSIONS: We report 4 novel loci associated with BP regulation, and 1 independent variant at an established BP locus. This analysis highlights several candidate genes with variation that alter protein function or gene expression for potential follow-up.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Loci Gênicos , Antiporters/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Retorno de Linfócitos/genética
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