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1.
Epilepsy Behav ; 102: 106641, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759314

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the priorities of patients with epilepsy and caring physicians and the correspondence between these priorities. METHODS: In this multicenter cross-sectional study, patients with epilepsy attending 21 Italian epilepsy centers and their caring physicians filled anonymously questionnaires on the needs and priorities in the management of the disease. Included were questions on patients' demographics, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of epilepsy. The concordance between patients and their physicians was assessed on various aspects of the diagnosis and care of the disease. Patients' satisfaction with communication, services, and patient-doctor relationship was also assessed. RESULTS: Included were 432 women and 355 men aged 15 to 88 years (median: 41 years). Disease duration ranged from 6 months to 75 years. A structural/metabolic etiology predominated (52.7%), followed by a (presumed) genetic etiology (33.0%). Seizure remission was present in 56.5% of cases. Comorbidities requiring chronic treatment were present in 27.5%, and comorbidities affecting self-sufficiency in 9.5%. Psychiatric comorbidity was present in 35.0%. Patients' priorities included discovery of the cause (89.1%), use of right drug (98.7%), use of a drug without chronic side effects (94.0%), and a life without restrictions (90.4%). Physicians' priorities included choice of right drug (83.5%) and use of drugs without chronic side effects (86.8%). Priorities varied with patients' age, sex, education, and occupation. Patient-doctor relationships were at least good in most cases. The information imparted was considered unsatisfactory by 21-44% of cases on seizure circumstances and complications, side effects of drugs, limitations of daily activities, and management of physiologic or pathologic conditions. Patients declared overall satisfaction, except for appointments (21.5%) and emergencies (30.8%). CONCLUSION: Patients and physicians' priorities in the management of epilepsy overlap only in part. Patients are satisfied with their caring physicians and less satisfied with communication and management of routine and emergency problems.

2.
Neurol Sci ; 40(10): 2155-2161, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To generate and validate algorithms for the identification of individuals with dementia in the community setting, by the interrogation of administrative records, an inexpensive and already available source of data. METHODS: We collected and anonymized information on demented individuals 65 years of age or older from ten general practitioners (GPs) in the district of Brianza (Northern Italy) and compared this with the administrative data of the local health protection agency (Agenzia per la Tutela della Salute). Indicators of the disease in the administrative database (diagnosis of dementia in the hospital discharge records; use of cholinesterase inhibitors/memantine; neuropsychological tests; brain CT/MRI; outpatient neurological visits) were used separately and in different combinations to generate algorithms for the detection of patients with dementia. RESULTS: When used individually, indicators of dementia showed good specificity, but low sensitivity. By their combination, we generated different algorithms: I-therapy with ChEI/memantine or diagnosis of dementia at discharge or neuropsychological tests (specificity 97.9%, sensitivity 52.5%); II-therapy with ChEI/memantine or diagnosis of dementia at discharge or neuropsychological tests or brain CT/MRI or neurological visit (sensitivity 90.8%, specificity 70.6%); III-therapy with ChEI/memantine or diagnosis of dementia at discharge or neuropsychological tests or brain CT/MRIMRI and neurological visit (specificity 89.3%, sensitivity 73.3%). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that algorithms obtained from administrative data are not sufficiently accurate in classifying patients with dementia, whichever combination of variables is used for the identification of the disease. Studies in large patient cohorts are needed to develop further strategies for identifying patients with dementia in the community setting.

3.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(11): 1276-1285, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the long-term prognosis of epilepsy and prognostic patterns in a large cohort of newly diagnosed patients and identify prognostic factors. METHODS: Study participants were 13 Italian epilepsy centres with accessible records dating back to 2005 or earlier, complete data on seizure outcome and treatments, precise epilepsy diagnosis, and follow-up of at least 10 years. Records were examined by trained neurology residents for demographics, seizure characteristics, neurological signs, psychiatric comorbidity, first electroencephalogram (EEG) and MRI/CT, epilepsy type and aetiology, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and 1-year, 2-year, 5-year and 10-year seizure remissions. Five predefined prognostic patterns were identified: early remission, late remission, relapsing-remitting course, worsening course and no remission. Prognostic factors were assessed using multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: 1006 children and adults were followed for 17 892 person-years (median 16 years; range 10-57). During follow-up, 923 patients (91.7%) experienced 1-year remission. 2-year, 5-year and 10-year remissions were present in 89.5%, 77.1% and 44.4% of cases. 5-year remission was associated with one to two seizures at diagnosis, generalised epilepsy, no psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment with one or two AEDs during follow-up. 10-year remission was associated with one or two AEDs. The most common prognostic pattern was relapsing-remitting (52.2%), followed by early remission (24.5%). 8.3% of cases experienced no remission. Predictors of a relapsing-remitting course were <6 seizures at diagnosis, (presumed) genetic aetiology and no psychiatric comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Few seizures at diagnosis, generalised epilepsy and no psychiatric comorbidity predict early or late seizure freedom in epilepsy. Achieving remission at any time after the diagnosis does not exclude further relapses.

4.
Epilepsy Res ; 154: 86-89, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geographic isolates are the ideal setting to study the genetic background and the epidemiology of epilepsy. There are only few published reports on the epidemiology of pediatric epilepsy in geographic isolates. METHODS: This study was performed in the Ischia island, district of Napoli (Southern Italy). The local population includes 61,086 individuals, 8381 of them aged from 0 to 14 years. We included children with two or more unprovoked seizures or one unprovoked seizure associated to a high risk of relapse, observed from 2004 to 2017. Neonatal, febrile and acute symptomatic seizures were excluded. Eligible patients were identified through the local pediatricians' medical records. All probands and their parents underwent a face-to-face interview. Clinical charts were reviewed and electroclinical diagnoses were confirmed by two authors (AC, VB). RESULTS: Thirty-six children and adolescents were included. Overall, the prevalence of epilepsy in the Ischia island was 4.3 per 1,000 (95% CI 3.0-5.9). Incidence was 51.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 36.2-71.6). Sixteen (44.4%) patients had a genetic (idiopathic) origin and 20 (55.6%) a symptomatic (structural/metabolic) etiology. Nine probands (25%) had at least one family member with epilepsy (including third-degree relatives). Their pedigrees were suggestive of dominant inheritance in six and of recessive inheritance in three families. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological features of pediatric epilepsy in this geographic isolate are similar to the general population. A family history was reported in one fourth of the patients with a wide clinical heterogeneity, likely reflecting genetic heterogeneity in this population.

5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 90: 191-196, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578096

RESUMO

Questionnaires or symptom lists have proved effective for differentiating epileptic seizures (ES) from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). However, monitoring the events, corroborated by medical history gathered by experts, remains the gold standard. We directly compared symptoms and characteristic of the events self-reported by patients/eyewitnesses (Questionnaire A/B) with the information contained in the clinical charts of 50 patients with undefined diagnosis undergoing long-term monitoring. Data extracted from medical records were reformatted to fit the questionnaires' templates (A1/B1) for comparison. Quantitatively, self-reported information was considerably greater and more complete. Calculating sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of all variables in the group with confirmed diagnosis, we identified those above the preset thresholds with the potential to discriminate between ES and PNES. Eight predictive variables were common to both methods: head injury, physical/emotional abuse, chronic fatigue (A); talked out of seizures, eyes closed, apnea, and collapsing (B). Eleven predictive variables were specific to direct questioning: preictal headache, bright light, feeling overwhelmed, heart racing, tingling and numbness, postictal trouble speaking, physical pain, history of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), self-inflicted injuries (A); on/off shaking, and side-to-side head movements (B). Thirteen predictive variables were generated by chart review: sleep deprivation, strong emotions/anxiety, preictal headache (warning), nausea/vomiting, history of PNES, cholecystectomy, depression, medications for behavioral problems (A1), sudden start/sudden stop of shaking, both sides shaking, falling during the seizure, feeling confused and disoriented postictally (B1). CONCLUSION: Self-reporting and clinical scrutiny are complementary. Structured questionnaires increase the range of predictive variables and should be utilized routinely to facilitate clinicians' quest for the correct diagnosis.


Assuntos
Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/psicologia , Autorrelato/normas , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
6.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(1): 7-8, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563684
7.
Neuroepidemiology ; 51(3-4): 216-223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30253417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder affecting all ages but with a peak in the elderly. The association of epilepsy with age can be explained by the predominance of brain diseases with epileptogenic potential (mostly stroke and dementia) and by the effects of the aging process through a number of molecular mechanisms involving networks of neurons with focal or diffuse distribution. SUMMARY: The prevalence of active epilepsy is 6.4 per 1,000 and the lifetime prevalence is 7.6 per 1,000. The prevalence tends to increase with age, with peaks in the oldest age groups and in socially deprived individuals. The incidence of epilepsy is 61.4 per 100,000 person-years. Epilepsy has a bimodal distribution according to age with peaks in the youngest individuals and in the elderly. The increased incidence of seizures and epilepsy in the elderly can be attributed to the increase of age-related and aging-related epileptogenic conditions. Key Messages: As the world population is steadily growing with parallel increase in the number of aged subjects, in the future, epilepsy will represent a huge burden for the society. Measures must thus be taken to prevent seizures and epilepsy through the reduction of preventable epileptogenic factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência
8.
Epilepsia ; 59(9): 1764-1773, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Information about the incidence of neonatal seizures (NS) is scarce. Previous studies relied primarily on a clinical diagnosis of seizures. This population-based, retrospective study evaluated the incidence of electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed seizures in neonates born in the province of Parma and the perinatal risk factors for mortality and epilepsy. METHODS: All neonates with suspected seizures or with medical conditions at high risk for seizures from the study area were recorded in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Parma University Hospital. NS were EEG confirmed. Perinatal risk factors for mortality and epilepsy after NS were evaluated with Cox's proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In a 13-year period, 112 patients presented with NS: 102 newborns had electroclinical seizures (46 full-term and 56 preterm), whereas 10 presented only electrical seizures. The incidence was 2.29/1000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-2.72), with higher rates in preterm neonates (14.28/1000 in preterm vs 1.10/1000 in full-term infants). The incidence increased with decreasing gestational age (31-36 weeks of gestation: 5.01/1000, 28-30: 54.9/1000, and <28: 85.6/1000) and with decreasing birth weight (≥2500 g: 1.19/1000, <1000 g: 127.57/1000). Twenty-eight patients (25%) died, 16 (14.3%) had a diagnosis of epilepsy, 33 (29.5%) had cerebral palsy, and 39 (34.8%) had a developmental delay. Among the perinatal risk factors considered, the multivariate analysis showed an association between a 5-minute Apgar score of 0-7 and etiology with increased mortality and between female gender and status epilepticus with epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE: The incidence of NS is inversely associated with gestational age and birth weight. The etiology and a low Apgar score are strongly related to mortality; female gender and status epilepticus are risk factors for the development of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 81: 119-122, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454607

RESUMO

Wikipedia is the most commonly accessed source of health information by both healthcare professionals and the lay public worldwide. We aimed to evaluate information-seeking behavior of Internet users searching the Italian Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and its treatment. Using Pageviews Analysis, we assessed the total and mean monthly views of articles from the Italian Wikipedia devoted to epilepsy, epileptic syndromes, seizure type, and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from January 1, 2015 to October 31, 2017. We compared the views of the article on epilepsy with those of articles focusing on Alzheimer's disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, syncope, and stroke and adjusted all results for crude disease prevalence. With the only exception of the article on multiple sclerosis, the adjusted views for the Italian Wikipedia article on epilepsy were higher than those for the other neurological disorders. The most viewed articles on seizure type were devoted to tonic-clonic seizure, typical absence seizure, tonic convulsive seizures, and clonic convulsive seizures. The most frequently accessed articles on epilepsy syndromes were about temporal lobe epilepsy and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The most frequently viewed articles on AEDs were devoted to valproic acid, carbamazepine, and levetiracetam. Wikipedia searches seem to mirror patients' fears and worries about epilepsy more than its actual epidemiology. The ultimate reasons for searching online remain unknown. Epileptologists and epilepsy scientific societies should make greater efforts to work jointly with Wikipedia to convey more accurate and up-to-date information about epilepsy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Enciclopédias como Assunto , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29063790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and previous traumatic events, age of trauma, and site of injury. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was performed in five European countries (Italy, Ireland, France, United Kingdom, Serbia). Newly diagnosed ALS patients and matched controls were interviewed to collect relevant demographic factors and exposures. Key clinical features at diagnosis were collected in ALS patients. Trauma was any accidental event causing an injury. Injuries were dated and classified according to cause, severity, type, site, and complications. All exposures were censored five years before symptoms onset. Risks were computed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy-five ALS patients and 1150 controls were interviewed. Disabling traumatic events predominated in the cases (OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.24-1.92)) and maintained significance after adjustment, with a significant gradient. A history of 2 + head injuries was associated with an almost three-fold increased risk of ALS. The risk was almost two-fold when trauma occurred at age 35-54 years. Site of injury was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic events leading to functional disability or confined to the head are risk factors for ALS. Traumatic events experienced at age 35-54 years carry the highest risk.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Irlanda , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Sérvia , Reino Unido
11.
Seizure ; 53: 66-71, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132064

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Questionnaires investigating semiology and comorbidities of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have been used mainly to help physicians expedite referrals to epilepsy centres for confirmation of diagnosis rather than as alternative diagnostic tool when video-EEG monitoring (VEM), the current gold standard, is not available or is inconclusive. METHODS: We developed one structured questionnaire for patients, exploring subjective experiences and vulnerabilities and one for eyewitnesses, focused on features observable during typical events to study prospectively 50 consecutive adult patients with PNES or epileptic seizures (ES) admitted for VEM. A list of variables representing specific signs, symptoms and risk factors was obtained from each question. Specificity (SP) and sensitivity (SE) of each variable were calculated analyzing patient's and witness' responses against the final diagnosis. Statistical significance was assessed using the Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients' questionnaires (17 PNES, 11 ES) were eligible for analysis. Seven variables with high SE and SP, of which 5 statistically significant, emerged as diagnostic predictors. They comprised three historical items: head injury, physical abuse and chronic fatigue; two warning signs: heart racing and tingling or numbness; one triggering sign: headache; one postictal symptom: physical pain. Sixteen witness questionnaires (6 PNES, 10 ES) were available. Side-to-side head movements and eyes closed were the statistically significant variables. CONCLUSION: Pending further refinements, ad hoc questionnaires specifically designed for patients and eyewitnesses, may represent a practical tool for distinguishing ES from PNES in settings without sophisticated facilities or when VEM is inconclusive.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Psicometria/instrumentação , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Gravação em Vídeo
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 60(4): 1267-1274, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy with onset in adulthood increases with age, mainly due to the accumulation of brain damage. However, a significant proportion of patients experience seizures of unknown cause. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizure activity is interpreted as a secondary event related to hyperexcitability caused by amyloid-ß aggregation. OBJECTIVE: Since neurodegenerative processes begin several years before clinical symptoms, epilepsy could be more frequent in the presymptomatic stages of dementia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the prevalence of epilepsy of unknown origin with adult onset before cognitive decline in a large cohort of AD patients (EPS-AD) recruited based on clinical and neuropsychological data. Data of patients with epilepsy followed by AD were compared with two control groups: patients with AD without seizures (no EPS-AD) and a large reference population (RP). RESULTS: In AD patients, the prevalence of epilepsy of unknown origin, with onset in the adulthood before cognitive decline is 17.1 times higher compared with the RP (95% CI: 10.3-28.3). In EPS-AD, seizures begin on average 4.6 years (median 2.0) before the onset of cognitive symptoms and cognitive decline starts 3.6 years earlier compared with noEPS-AD. CONCLUSIONS: Neurodegenerative processes of dementia could play a key role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy in a subgroup of individuals intended to develop cognitive decline. Adult-onset epilepsy of undefined cause could thus represent a risk factor for the ongoing neurodegenerative damage, even preceding by years the onset of clinical symptoms of dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Escolaridade , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Seizure ; 52: 182-187, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055272

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate if psychiatrists could predict the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) by reviewing videos of seizures of various types and to compare the accuracy and the criteria leading to the diagnosis used by psychiatrists with those used by epileptologists. METHODS: Four board-certified psychiatrists were asked to review 23 videos capturing representative events of 21 unselected consecutive patients admitted to an epilepsy center for long-term video-EEG monitoring. All raters were blind to EEG and clinical information. They were requested to (1) rate the videos for quality and content; (2) choose among four diagnoses: (a) epileptic seizures; (b) PNES; (c) Other nonepileptic seizures (syncope, movement disorder, migraine, etc.); (d) "Cannot Say"; and (3) explain in their own words the main reasons leading to the diagnosis of choice. The results were compared to those of four blind epileptologists who independently reviewed the same cases. The inter-rater reliability was tested with the Kappa statistic. RESULTS: All psychiatrists were concordant and correct in 3/23 video-events, compared to 8/23 among epileptologists. Despite widespread disagreement among themselves and frequent failures as a group, individual psychiatrists scored a comparable number of correct diagnoses as did individual epileptologists. The comments provided to justify the diagnosis of choice differed from neurologists, varied among raters, and reflected considerable attention to body movements and body language. CONCLUSION: Psychiatrists, as a group, are less reliable than neurologists in differentiating seizure types on video but, as individuals, can be quite accurate in making the correct diagnosis because they are more attuned to capture the subtleties of human behaviour, of subjective experiences, as the effects of hidden internal conflicts and can contribute a new lexicon in defining PNES.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria/métodos , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos , Convulsões , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Conversivo/complicações , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/complicações , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/psicologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epilepsia ; 58(9): 1518-1523, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The new epilepsy definition adopted by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) includes patients with one unprovoked seizure with a probability of further seizures, similar to the general recurrence risk after two unprovoked seizures, occurring in a 10-year period. Long-term follow-up of patients diagnosed after a single seizure is needed to assess the applicability of the new epilepsy definition in clinical practice. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy were recruited retrospectively with a minimum follow-up of 10 years. Patients were stratified in two groups depending on the occurrence of one (new definition, ND) or two or more unprovoked seizures (traditional definition, TD) at the time of epilepsy diagnosis and compared for disease characteristics and factors predicting seizure recurrence. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a new unprovoked seizure during follow-up in the ND group. The secondary outcome was the achievement of an early remission in both groups. RESULTS: Among 1,006 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy, 152 (15.1%) were diagnosed after a single seizure. Compared to patients diagnosed using the TD, patients diagnosed according to the ND showed a higher proportion of subjects with an abnormal neurologic examination (19.9% vs. 13.7%, p = 0.0504) and with focal seizures (69.3% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.0021). The two samples differed in the presence of at least one of the factors predicting seizure recurrence (focal seizures or abnormal findings in at least one among the following: neurologic examination, electroencephalography [EEG], and neuroimaging) (94.6% vs. 89.1%, p = 0.0376). Long-term recurrence in patients diagnosed with the new definition was 83.6% at 10 years and 89.1% at 15 years. The probability of early remission did not differ between the two groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the applicability of the new epilepsy definition in clinical practice. Individual patient characteristics and a personalized diagnostic approach can justify treatment after a single unprovoked seizure.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Terminologia como Assunto , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/epidemiologia
15.
Epilepsia ; 58(9): 1524-1532, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rate, reasons, and predictors of antiepileptic drug (AED) discontinuation were investigated in a well-defined cohort of people with epilepsy to verify efficacy and tolerability of treatment up to 20 years from treatment initiation. METHODS: The history of AED usage in children and adults with epilepsy registered with 123 family physicians in an area of Northern Italy between 2000 and 2008 was recorded. Cumulative probabilities of AED withdrawal for specific reasons were estimated using cumulative incidence functions. The probabilities of withdrawing for terminal remission, and of achieving sustained remission while still on treatment, were also evaluated. The roles of sex, age at diagnosis, seizure types, duration at diagnosis, and syndrome were assessed with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Seven hundred thirty-one of 747 individuals were treated with one or more AEDs during the disease course. The three commonest drugs were valproate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital. Reported reasons for AED withdrawal were, in decreasing order, terminal remission, ineffectiveness, and adverse events. The probability of withdrawing the first AED for terminal remission was 1.0% at 1 year and increased to 20.0% at 20 years. Corresponding rates were 2.9% and 12.6% for ineffectiveness and 0.5% and 3.3% for adverse events. Reasons for withdrawal varied with individuals' age, sex, disease characteristics, and drugs. SIGNIFICANCE: The initial AED given was retained in the majority of cases. Terminal remission, lack of efficacy, and adverse effects were, in decreasing order, the commonest reasons for AED discontinuation. Withdrawal could be predicted by age at diagnosis, sex, and clinical characteristics and varies among drugs.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 39: 8-23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders are heterogeneous clinical conditions with variable course and outcome. SUMMARY: The basic aspects of the commonest neurological disorders are addressed along with the proposed structure of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Dementing disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), are clinical conditions in which altered cognitive functions are associated with behavioral and personality changes. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder characterized by motor dysfunction associated with dysautonomia, sleep and olfactory disturbances, cognitive changes, and depression. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an invariably fatal clinical condition involving motor neurons. The available treatments are purely symptomatic for PD but virtually ineffective for AD and ALS. Headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy, three diseases characterized by recurrent symptoms and chronic or episodic course, can be fairly easily controlled by current treatments, but cannot be prevented nor cured. The objectives of treatments of neurodegenerative disorders include primary prevention, slowing or arrest of disease progression, and control of symptoms. Stroke is an acute clinical condition causing frequent disability and death, with only one approved treatment. There are many challenges to acute stroke clinical trials; among them, the very short therapeutic window and the issue of stroke heterogeneity. In this chapter, only the core elements of the study designs are outlined. KEY MESSAGES: The design of an RCT must be adapted to the basic characteristics of each clinical condition.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (5): CD007144, 2016 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27150433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable disagreement about the risk of recurrence following a first unprovoked epileptic seizure. A decision about whether to start antiepileptic drug treatment following a first seizure should be informed by information on the size of any reduction in risk of future seizures, the impact on long-term seizure remission, and the risk of adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To review the probability of seizure recurrence, seizure remission, mortality, and adverse effects of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment given immediately after the first seizure compared to controls, in children and adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases: Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (accessed 13 October 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library September 2015, issue 9, accessed 13 October 2015), PUBMED (accessed 22 April 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 13 October 2015), EMBASE (accessed 22 April 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (accessed 15 October 2015), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP, accessed 13 October 2015). There were no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that could be blinded or unblinded. People of any age with a first unprovoked seizure of any type. Included studies compared participants receiving immediate antiepileptic treatment versus those receiving deferred treatment, those assigned to placebo, and those untreated. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the studies identified by the search strategy for inclusion in the review and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was classified in four categories according to the GRADE approach. Dichotomous outcomes were expressed as Risk Ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Time-to-event outcomes were expressed as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% CI. Only one trial used a double-blind design, and the two largest studies were unblinded. Most of the recurrences were generalized tonic-clonic seizures, a major type of seizures that is easily recognised, which should reduce the risk of outcome reporting bias. MAIN RESULTS: After exclusion of uninformative papers, only six studies (nine reports) were selected for inclusion. For the two largest studies data were available for individual participant meta-analysis. Compared to controls, participants randomised to immediate treatment had a lower probability of relapse at one year (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.58, high quality evidence), at five years (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89; high quality evidence) and a higher probability of an immediate five-year remission (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.54, high quality evidence). However there was no difference between immediate treatment and control in terms of five year remission at any time (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.21, high quality evidence). Antiepileptic drugs did not affect overall mortality after a first seizure (RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.95, high quality evidence). Compared to deferred treatment (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.79, moderate quality evidence), treatment of the first seizure was associated with a significantly higher risk of adverse events. Moderate to low quality imprecise evidence was available for the association of treatment of the first seizure compared to no treatment or placebo (RR 14.50, 95% CI 1.93 to 108.76) and(RR 4.91, 95% CI 1.10 to 21.93) respectively) AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of the first unprovoked seizure reduces the risk of a subsequent seizure but does not affect the proportion of patients in remission in the long-term. Antiepileptic drugs are associated with adverse events, and there is no evidence that they reduce mortality. In light of this review, the decision to start antiepileptic drug treatment following a first unprovoked seizure should be individualized and based on patient preference, clinical, legal, and socio-cultural factors.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Risco , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Conduta Expectante
19.
Epilepsia ; 57(5): 777-85, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26949106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if, when, and to what extent visual information contained in a video-recorded event allows experienced epileptologists to predict the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) without the aid of electroencephalography (EEG). METHODS: Five neurologists actively practicing in epilepsy centers in Italy and the United States were asked to review 23 videos capturing representative events of 21 unselected consecutive patients admitted for long-term video-EEG monitoring (VEM). Four raters were blind to EEG and clinical information; one rater was not. They were requested to (1) rate the videos for quality and content; (2) choose among four diagnoses: (a) epileptic seizures (ES); (b) PNES; (c) Other nonepileptic seizures (NES; (syncope, movement disorder, migraine, etc.); (d) "Cannot Say"; and (3) explain in their own words the main reasons leading to the diagnosis of choice. RESULTS: All raters predicted the diagnosis correctly in 7 of 23 videos (all ES or PNES) (30.4%), whereas all raters failed in 5 of 23 cases (three Other NES, one PNES, one Cannot Say) (21.7%). The conditions that facilitate, and those that interfere with, a confident diagnosis were predictable. Degree of accuracy among raters was not uniform and was consistently better in three raters. Two among the four blind raters were as accurate as the rater who was not blinded. Interrater agreement was "moderate" (k = 0.52) for the overall group; "moderate" for ES (k = 0.53); "substantial" for PNES (k = 0.63); "fair" for Other NES (k = 0.21)-similar to the results obtained in a previous study evaluating the reliability of combined video-EEG. SIGNIFICANCE: In about one third of cases, a confident diagnosis of PNES/ES can be established on clinical grounds based on video data alone. Our results benefit all affected patients, particularly those with no access to video-EEG monitoring units.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo/psicologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Epilepsia/psicologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Conversivo/complicações , Transtorno Conversivo/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/complicações , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/diagnóstico , Estatística como Assunto , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 55: 30-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26731716

RESUMO

Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is defined by the International League Against Epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of two tolerated, appropriately chosen, and used antiepileptic drugs to achieve sustained seizure freedom. Our aim was to calculate the following: (1) the prevalence of active epilepsy and DRE in a well-defined population of Northern Italy and (2) the proportion of incident cases developing DRE. The study population (146,506; year 2008) resided in the province of Lecco, Northern Italy. The medical records of 123 general practitioners were reviewed to identify patients with epilepsy, diagnosed by a neurologist during the period 2000-2008. The point prevalence of active epilepsy and DRE was calculated on December 31, 2008. A total of 747 prevalent patients with epilepsy, 684 patients with active epilepsy, and 342 incident cases were identified. The frequency of DRE was 15.6% (107/684) of all active epilepsies and 10.5% (36/342) of incident cases. The point prevalence was 0.73 per 1000. The standardized prevalence of DRE was 0.7 per 1000 (Italian population) and 0.8 per 1000 (world population). Our data indicate that 1/6 patients with active epilepsy in the general population has DRE, and 1/10 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy will develop DRE within nine years from the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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