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3.
J Pediatr ; 228: 199-207.e3, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the national prevalence of inadequate sleep among school-age children and its relationship with childhood flourishing. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study analyzed 49 050 parental responses from the 2016-2017 National Survey of Children's Health for school-age children. Inadequate sleep duration was defined as <9 hours for 6- to 12-year-olds and <8 hours for 13- to 17-year-olds on an average weeknight. Five markers of flourishing were examined individually and as a combined measure. Logistic regression was used with complex survey design and applied weights. RESULTS: Inadequate sleep was found in 36.4% of 6- to 12-year-olds and in 31.9% of 13- to 17-year-olds. Compared with children with adequate sleep, 6- to 12-year-olds with inadequate sleep had increased odds of not showing interest and curiosity in learning (aOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.34-1.94), not caring about doing well in school (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.23-1.71), not doing homework (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.68), and not finishing tasks (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.03-1.35). Children aged 13-17 years with inadequate sleep had increased odds of not doing homework (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.17-1.58), not staying calm and in control when challenged (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.54), not showing interest and curiosity in learning (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.58), not finishing tasks (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40), and not demonstrating the combined flourishing measure (aOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Nationally representative data show that one-third of school-age children have inadequate sleep. Inadequate sleep is associated with decreased flourishing. These data will help inform sleep policies and optimize child development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Saúde da Criança , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Pediatr ; 228: 278-284, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between obesity and select childhood flourishing markers including academic skills and coping strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study utilizing parental reported data for children aged 10-17 years (n = 22 914) from the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health. Multiple binary regressions assessed the association between body mass index-for-age and 5 school-related and behavioral childhood flourishing markers independently and combined, including completing homework, showing interest in learning, finishing tasks, staying calm when challenged, and caring about academics. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, depression, sleep, digital media exposure, poverty, and parental education level. RESULTS: Only 28.9% of children with obesity were reported to have all 5 markers, compared with 38% with overweight, and 40.5% with normal body mass index. In an adjusted model, children with obesity had significantly decreased odds of demonstrating 4 of 5 markers: showing interest in learning (aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.97), finishing tasks (aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.94), staying calm when challenged (aOR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59-0.90), and caring about academics (aOR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55-0.86). Completing homework was not associated with obesity. Youth with obesity also had 23% decreased odds (aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.98) of meeting the combined measure for flourishing markers. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity is associated with poor academic skills and coping strategies which may lead to worse individual and public health outcomes. Further studies are needed to create validated flourishing measures and identify interventions that promote healthy youth behavior and academic success.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Atten Disord ; 25(8): 1187-1195, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838947

RESUMO

Background: Children with ADHD should engage in physical activity, given its known role as a treatment adjunct. Objective: The main objective of this study is to assess the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and physical activity among children in the United States. Methods: This retrospective population-based cross-sectional study used data from the 2016 caregiver reported, National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Results: In the adjusted binary model, children with an ADHD diagnosis had 21% lower odds of engaging in daily physical activity than their nondiagnosed counterparts. In the adjusted multinomial model, children with ADHD were increasingly unlikely to report additional days of physical activity as compared to those without a diagnosis. Conclusion: Given the known benefits of physical activity for those with ADHD, this study underscores the need for enhanced access to an important treatment adjunct for this population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
7.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 10(2): 68-73, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612911

RESUMO

Background: Studies from high-income countries (HIC) support restrictive blood transfusion thresholds in medical patients. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the etiologies of anemia and baseline health states differ greatly; optimal transfusion thresholds are unknown. This study evaluated the association of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion with mortality outcomes across hemoglobin levels amongst emergency center (EC) patients presenting with medical pathology in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed using a random sample of patients presenting to the EC at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali. Patients ≥15 years of age, treated for medical emergencies during 2013-16, with EC hemoglobin measurements were included. The relationship between EC PRBC transfusion and patient mortality was evaluated using logistic regression, with stratified analyses performed at hemoglobin levels of 7 mg/dL and 5 mg/dL. Results: Of 3609 cases sampled, 1116 met inclusion. The median age was 42 years (IQR 29, 60) and 45.2% were female. Transfusion occurred in 12.1% of patients. Hematologic (24.4%) and gastrointestinal pathologies (20.7%) were the primary diagnoses of those transfused. Proportional mortality was higher amongst those receiving transfusions, although not statistically significant (23.7% vs 17.0%, p = 0.06). No significant difference in adjusted odds of overall mortality by PRBC transfusion was found. In stratified analysis, patients receiving EC transfusions with a hemoglobin >5.0 mg/dL, had 2.21 times the odds of mortality (95% CI 1.51-3.21) as compared to those ≤5.0 mg/dL. Conclusions: No association between PRBC transfusion and odds of mortality was observed amongst EC patients in this LMIC setting. An increased mortality association was found for patients receiving PRBC transfusions with an initial hemoglobin >5 mg/dL. Results suggest benefits from PRBC transfusion are limited as compared to HIC. Further research evaluating emergent transfusion thresholds for medical pathologies should be performed in LMICs to guide practice.

8.
Prev Med ; 134: 106063, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197975

RESUMO

Vaccination coverage among United States (U.S.) adults for tetanus continues to be lower than the national goals. Education has demonstrated a positive impact on vaccination coverage. However, recently there have been outbreaks of vaccine preventable conditions in areas with high college completion rates. This study assessed the relationship between education and tetanus vaccination. Data from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a self-reported annual survey for non-institutionalized adults in the US from the Centers for Disease Control, was analyzed in 2019. The outcome was up-to-date tetanus vaccination if received within the last 10 years. Education was categorized into 1) grade 11 or less, 2) grade 12/GED, 3) college 1-3 years, and 4) college 4 or more years. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression were conducted on the analytic sample (n = 417,473) using Stata 15, accounting for weighting and the complex survey design. In 2016, 59.9% of U.S. adults had up-to-date tetanus vaccination. Higher education level was associated with increased odds of up-to-date tetanus vaccination. The highest odds were for those with 4 or more years of college education [aOR = 1.31; 95% (CI: 1.26-1.35)]. Female sex, Black (non-Hispanic), unemployed, not being married, not having insurance or a personal health care provider, and above 45 years of age had lower odds of up-to-date tetanus vaccination. Targeted community specific vaccination education programs for those without tertiary education may help enhance the knowledge and thus the overall vaccination status in the U.S.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Toxoide Tetânico/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Tétano/epidemiologia , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lack of access to basic health services is thought to increase emergency department (ED) utilization. This study assessed the relationship between unmet health care needs and pediatric ED utilization in the United States. METHODS: The National Survey of Children's Health was used (2016-2017; n = 71,360). Parent/guardians reported number of ED visits and the presence of unmet health needs (medical, dental, mental health, vision, hearing, other) in the last 12 months. Associations were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression modeling and accounted for the weighting and complex survey design of the National Survey of Children's Health. RESULTS: Children with 2 or more unmet health needs had 3.72 times (95% confidence interval, 2.25-6.16) risk of ≥2 ED visits when compared with those with 0 unmet health needs. This risk became nonsignificant when adjusted for race, ethnicity, age, insurance, having asthma, current medication status, health description, number of preventative health visits, and place to go for preventative health (aRR, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-3.27). The adjusted association was also nonsignificant for specific types of unmet needs. Race, insurance status, age 0 to 3 years, current medication status, having asthma, ≥2 preventative visits, and poorer health were associated with ≥2 ED visits. CONCLUSIONS: Unmet health needs were not found to be a significant driving force for ED utilization. Other factors were found to be more strongly associated with it. Future studies to understand the perception, motives, and complex interaction of various factors leading to ED use in high-risk populations may optimize care for these children.

10.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 58(14): 1478-1483, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544507

RESUMO

Background. Timely access to pediatric specialty care continues to be a pervasive issue. We aimed to identify factors associated with unmet pediatric specialty care needs by assessing the association with maternal level of education. Methods. A sample was extracted from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, which identified a subset of patients with unmet specialty care needs. Logistic regression models determined the strength of association between our sample and maternal level of education. Results. An estimated 12.5% of US children had unmet specialty care needs. Independent of confounding variables, children with mothers educated at a level of high school or less were 41% more likely to have unmet specialty care needs compared to those with mothers who were educated at a level greater than high school. Conclusions. Maternal level of education can be used as a risk factor to assess whether a child will have unmet specialty care needs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Estados Unidos
11.
J Pediatr ; 213: 171-179, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the distribution of patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) among US adolescents, and to examine whether disparities exist among subgroups. STUDY DESIGN: Data on adolescents ages 12-17 years (n = 34 601) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were used in this cross-sectional study to determine what proportion had access to a PCMH. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of having a PCMH, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and special health care needs. Comparisons were made to distribution of PCMH in 2007. RESULTS: Although most US adolescents had a usual source of care (91%), only about one-half (51%) had access to a PCMH. Disparities in the prevalence of PCMHs were seen by race/ethnicity, poverty, and having special health care needs. There were lower adjusted odds in having a PCMH for Hispanic (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.45-0.68) and black adolescents (aOR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.46-0.66) compared with white adolescents. Those living below 4 times the poverty level had lower adjusted odds of PCMH access. Adolescents with 3-5 special health care needs had lower adjusted odds (aOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.35-0.52) of having a PCMH compared with adolescents without any special health care needs. Other than receiving family centered care, every component of PCMH was slightly lower in 2011-2012 compared with 2007. CONCLUSIONS: PCMH access was lower among minorities, those living in poverty, and those with multiple special health care needs. These disparities in PCMH access among these typically underserved groups call for further study and interventions that would make PCMHs more accessible to all adolescents.


Assuntos
Medicina do Adolescente/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Pobreza , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Classe Social , Estados Unidos
12.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Frequent use of the emergency department (ED) is often targeted as a quality improvement metric. The objective of this study was to assess ED visit frequency by the demographic and health characteristics of children who visit the ED to better understand risk factors for high ED utilization. METHODS: The majority of pediatric ED services in Rhode Island are provided by a hospital network that includes the state's only children's hospital. Using 10 years of data (2005-2014) from this statewide hospital network, we examined ED use in this network for all children aged 0 to 17 years. Patients' home addresses were geocoded to assess their neighborhood characteristics. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2014, 17,844 children visited 1 or more of the network EDs at least once. In their year of maximum use, 67.8% had only 1 ED visit, 20.1% had 2 visits, 6.9% had 3 visits, and 5.2% had 4 or more visits. In the adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, age, race/ethnicity, language, insurance coverage, medical complexity, neighborhood risk, and distance to the ED were found to be significantly associated with increased visit frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for frequent ED use by children include age, race/ethnicity, language, insurance coverage, medical complexity, neighborhood risk, and distance to the hospital. To decrease frequent pediatric ED use, improved medical management of complex medical problems is needed, but it is also essential to address modifiable social determinants of health care utilization in this population.

13.
Pediatrics ; 144(2)2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and protective familial and community factors with school performance and attitudes in children ages 6 to 17. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health was performed. All data were demographically weighted and included 65 680 children ages 6 to 17. The survey identified up to 9 ACEs in each child. ACE scores were categorized as 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 ACEs. Children's protective factors (PFs) included the following: safe neighborhood, supportive neighbors, 4 neighborhood amenities, well-kept neighborhood, no household smoking, ≥5 family meals per week, and a parent who can talk to the child. PFs were categorized into ≤3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 PFs. School outcomes included the following: child repeated ≥1 grade; never, rarely, or sometimes completes homework; and never, rarely, or sometimes cares about school. χ2 tests and logistic regressions assessed the relationships between ACEs and school outcomes, PFs and school outcomes, and both ACEs and PFs and school outcomes, adjusting for sex, age, race, ethnicity, and maternal education. RESULTS: Each negative school outcome is associated with higher ACE scores and lower PF scores. After adding PFs into the same model as ACEs, the negative outcomes are reduced. The strongest PF is a parent who can talk to the child about things that matter and share ideas. CONCLUSIONS: As children's ACE scores increase, their school performance and attitudes decline. Conversely, as children's PF scores increase, school outcomes improve. Pediatric providers should consider screening for both ACEs and PFs to identify risks and strengths to guide treatment, referral, and advocacy.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/tendências , Experiências Adversas da Infância/tendências , Avaliação Educacional , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção
14.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E68, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies consistently show that children living in poor neighborhoods have worse asthma outcomes. The objective of our study was to assess the association between negative neighborhood factors (ie, neighborhood risk) and pediatric asthma hospital use. METHODS: This retrospective study used data from children aged 2 to 17 years in a statewide (Rhode Island) hospital network administrative database linked to US Census Bureau data. We defined an asthma visit as an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code of 493 in any diagnosis field. We used 8 highly correlated measures for each census-block group to construct an index of neighborhood risk. We used maps and linear regression to assess the association of neighborhood risk with average annual census-block-group rates of asthma emergency department visits and hospitalizations. We used multivariable analyses to identify child characteristics and neighborhood risk associated with an asthma revisit, accounting for the child's sociodemographic information, season, and multiple measurements per child. RESULTS: From 2005 through 2014, we counted 359,195 visits for 146,889 children. Of these, 12,699 children (8.6%) had one or more asthma visits. Linear regression results showed 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.30) more average annual emergency departments visits per 100 children and 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.47) more average annual hospitalizations per 100 children in neighborhoods in the highest-risk index quintile than in neighborhoods in the lowest-risk index quintile. CONCLUSION: Interventions to improve asthma outcomes among children should move beyond primary care or clinic settings and involve a careful evaluation of social context and environmental triggers.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhode Island
15.
J Burn Care Res ; 40(4): 392-397, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051497

RESUMO

Flame injuries are the primary cause of burns in young adults. Although drug and alcohol intoxication has been associated with other types of trauma, its role in burn injury has not been well described in this population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of intoxication and flame burn injuries in young adults in the United States. The 2014 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample was queried for burn injury visits of young adult patients, 13-25 years old. This data is weighted to allow for national estimates. Burn mechanism and intoxication status were determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of intoxication and emergency department (ED) visits due to flame burns, adjusting for patient age, gender, zip code median income, zip code rural-urban designation, timing of visit, and hospital region. Further analyses assessed the odds of admission or transfer, as a possible proxy of injury severity, in patients with flame or other burns, with and without intoxication adjusting for patient age, gender, primary insurance, and hospital trauma designation. There were 20,787 visits for patients 13-25 years old with burn injuries and 12.9% (n = 2678) had a codiagnosis of intoxication. There was an increasing proportion of intoxication by age (5.8% 13-17 years old, 25% 18-20 years old, 69% 21-25 years old, P < .001). ED visits for burns with a codiagnosis of intoxication had 1.34 times ([95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.52], P < .01) higher odds of having flame burns compared to other burn mechanisms. Those with flame burns and intoxication were most likely to be admitted or transferred when compared to nonflame, nonintoxication visits in the adjusted model (odds ratio [OR] 5.49, [95% CI: 4.29, 7.02], P < .01). Furthermore, the odds of admission or transfer in visits with the combined exposure of intoxication and flame mechanism were significantly higher than visits due to nonflame burns and intoxication (OR 2.75, [2.25, 3.36], P < .01) or flame burns without intoxication (OR 3.00, [95% CI: 2.61, 3.42], P < .01). This study identified a significant association between flame-burn-related ED visits and intoxication in the young adult population in the United States. In addition, the combination of flame mechanism and intoxication appears to result in more substantial injury compared with either exposure alone. The relationship seen between intoxication and flame burn injury underscores a major target for burn prevention efforts in the young adult population.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prev Med Rep ; 13: 199-204, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705806

RESUMO

Exercise has been found to be an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between depression status and weekly exercise in children ages 6 to 17 years stratifying by age and sex using a large nationally representative sample. The study data (n = 65,059) came from the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health. Depression categories were current, former, and no history of diagnosed depression. Exercise categories were exercising ≤6 days a week and 7 days a week. Multivariable regression stratified by age and by sex was conducted on the weighted survey data. Among children age 6 to 17, 95.2% were never depressed, 2.1% were formerly depressed, and 2.8% were currently depressed and 28.0% exercised daily. Currently depressed children had 0.75 (95% CI 0.56, 1.00) times and formerly depressed children had 1.09 (95% CI 0.76, 1.57) times the adjusted odds of exercising daily compared to never depressed children. Stratified separately by sex and by age, females and children age 12 to 17 with current depression had 0.63 (95% CI 0.42, 0.94) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.35, 0.66) times the adjusted odds of exercising daily compared to their counterparts with no depression. This study indicates a significant difference in daily exercise habits between currently depressed children age 12 to 17 and females compared to their never depressed counterparts. Healthcare workers should be aware of the possible heightened risk of physical inactivity for depressed female children and children age 12 to 17.

17.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(4): 522-529, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554322

RESUMO

Objectives To investigate the association of residential mobility with flourishing among school-age children. Methods Data from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health were used to examine parent/caregiver-reported information on flourishing and residential mobility for children age 6-17 (N = 63,333). Residential mobility was the number of times the child moved categorized as: none, 1-2, and 3+. Children who were reported to show interest/curiosity, finish tasks, stay calm/in control, care about doing well in school, and do all homework were coded as flourishing. Sex-specific multivariable models were used to model the relative risk of mobility on flourishing. Interactions of mobility with age and poverty were tested. Results Among US school-age children, 22% had no moves, 39% had 1-2 moves and 39% had 3+ moves in their lifetime. Nearly half (45%) were flourishing. Both boys and girls who moved 3+ times were less likely to flourish compared to children with no moves. Among poor boys moving 3+ times was associated with less flourishing (aRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71, 0.98) with no association for non-poor boy. Among girls the pattern was reversed (aRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81, 0.95 for non-poor girls and no association for poor girls). Conclusions for Practice Residential mobility may lead to lower rates of flourishing. The patterns, when stratified by age or poverty, are different for boys and girls.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/normas , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , População , Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 29(3): 914-929, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122672

RESUMO

Risk factors for depression among 179 women recently released from prison or jail in a state correctional facility in the northeastern United States were examined in this study. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) was used to measure longitudinal, self-reported depression data. In addition, potential risk factors for depression among women recently released from prison and jail were analyzed. Findings of this study indicated that approximately 83% of the women suffered depression throughout baseline and/or at least one follow up period after release. Significant risk factors for depression among these women included drug use, alcohol use, physical partner abuse, number of living children, and emotional abuse during childhood. Women who used drugs other than marijuana were eight times as likely to suffer from depression compared with women who had never used such drugs.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Breastfeed Med ; 13(6): 426-432, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the various barriers to breastfeeding, limited information is available on the relationship between prenatal stress and breastfeeding. This study investigates the association between prenatal stressful life event (SLE) exposure and breastfeeding initiation postpartum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Rhode Island Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data from 2012 to 2014, SLE was defined as self-report of prenatal exposure to 14 predefined life events such as job loss or illness. Exposure to SLE was categorized by number and type of events. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between SLE and breastfeeding initiation. Results accounted for complex survey design and were adjusted for maternal and infant characteristics (age, race, ethnicity, insurance, delivery type, parity, gestational age, birth weight for gestational age, and neonatal intensive care unit admission). RESULTS: Among 3,353 respondents, 86% reported breastfeeding initiation, 74% reported exposure to ≥1 SLE, and 17% reported exposure to ≥4 SLE. Decreased odds of breastfeeding initiation were associated with prenatal exposure to ≥4 SLE (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.95), emotional stressors (aOR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61-0.98), and traumatic stressors (aOR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50-0.91). CONCLUSION: This study underscores the impact of exposure to prenatal SLE on breastfeeding initiation among postpartum women. Findings may assist providers in identifying at-risk women for anticipatory guidance to improve breastfeeding rates.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Rhode Island/epidemiologia
20.
J Pediatr ; 197: 268-274.e2, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between digital media exposure (DME) and parental perception of childhood flourishing, or overall positive well-being. It is hypothesized that there is an inverse association between parent-reported measures of childhood flourishing and increasing daily DME. STUDY DESIGN: Parental responses for children ages 6-17 years (N = 64 464) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were analyzed. Average weekday DME that was not school work related was categorized in 2-hour intervals: 0 to <2, 2 to < 4, 4 to < 6, and ≥6 hours. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between DME and parent-reported frequency of 5 childhood flourishing markers: completing homework, caring about academics, finishing tasks, staying calm when challenged, and showing interest in learning. RESULTS: Only 31% reported <2 hours of weekday DME. For the remaining children, daily DME was 2 to <4 hours (36%), 4 to <6 hours (17%), or ≥6 hours (17%). In a model adjusted for age, sex, race, poverty level, primary language spoken at home, and highest maternal education level, there was a dose-dependent decrease in the odds of demonstrating all 5 markers of flourishing as weekday DME increased (test for trend for each outcome P < .001). In stratified analyses, this relationship held true regardless of the child's age group, sex, or poverty level. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that, among school-aged children, increasing weekday DME has an inverse dose-dependent relationship with multiple childhood flourishing markers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Computacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
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