Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 86
Filtrar
1.
Comput Biol Med ; 133: 104360, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836447

RESUMO

Ontology-based phenotype profiles have been utilised for the purpose of differential diagnosis of rare genetic diseases, and for decision support in specific disease domains. Particularly, semantic similarity facilitates diagnostic hypothesis generation through comparison with disease phenotype profiles. However, the approach has not been applied for differential diagnosis of common diseases, or generalised clinical diagnostics from uncurated text-derived phenotypes. In this work, we describe the development of an approach for deriving patient phenotype profiles from clinical narrative text, and apply this to text associated with MIMIC-III patient visits. We then explore the use of semantic similarity with those text-derived phenotypes to classify primary patient diagnosis, comparing the use of patient-patient similarity and patient-disease similarity using phenotype-disease profiles previously mined from literature. We also consider a combined approach, in which literature-derived phenotypes are extended with the content of text-derived phenotypes we mined from 500 patients. The results reveal a powerful approach, showing that in one setting, uncurated text phenotypes can be used for differential diagnosis of common diseases, making use of information both inside and outside the setting. While the methods themselves should be explored for further optimisation, they could be applied to a variety of clinical tasks, such as differential diagnosis, cohort discovery, document and text classification, and outcome prediction.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799834

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess properties such as self-renewal, resistance to apoptotic cues, quiescence, and DNA-damage repair capacity. Moreover, CSCs strongly influence the tumour microenvironment (TME) and may account for cancer progression, recurrence, and relapse. CSCs represent a distinct subpopulation in tumours and the detection, characterisation, and understanding of the regulatory landscape and cellular processes that govern their maintenance may pave the way to improving prognosis, selective targeted therapy, and therapy outcomes. In this review, we have discussed the characteristics of CSCs identified in various cancer types and the role of autophagy and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in maintaining the homeostasis of CSCs. Further, we have discussed methods to detect CSCs and strategies for treatment and relapse, taking into account the requirement to inhibit CSC growth and survival within the complex backdrop of cellular processes, microenvironmental interactions, and regulatory networks associated with cancer. Finally, we critique the computationally reinforced triangle of factors inclusive of CSC properties, the process of autophagy, and lncRNA and their associated networks with respect to hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and signalling pathways.

3.
J Biomed Semantics ; 12(1): 7, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomedical ontologies contain a wealth of metadata that constitutes a fundamental infrastructural resource for text mining. For several reasons, redundancies exist in the ontology ecosystem, which lead to the same entities being described by several concepts in the same or similar contexts across several ontologies. While these concepts describe the same entities, they contain different sets of complementary metadata. Linking these definitions to make use of their combined metadata could lead to improved performance in ontology-based information retrieval, extraction, and analysis tasks. RESULTS: We develop and present an algorithm that expands the set of labels associated with an ontology class using a combination of strict lexical matching and cross-ontology reasoner-enabled equivalency queries. Across all disease terms in the Disease Ontology, the approach found 51,362 additional labels, more than tripling the number defined by the ontology itself. Manual validation by a clinical expert on a random sampling of expanded synonyms over the Human Phenotype Ontology yielded a precision of 0.912. Furthermore, we found that annotating patient visits in MIMIC-III with an extended set of Disease Ontology labels led to semantic similarity score derived from those labels being a significantly better predictor of matching first diagnosis, with a mean average precision of 0.88 for the unexpanded set of annotations, and 0.913 for the expanded set. CONCLUSIONS: Inter-ontology synonym expansion can lead to a vast increase in the scale of vocabulary available for text mining applications. While the accuracy of the extended vocabulary is not perfect, it nevertheless led to a significantly improved ontology-based characterisation of patients from text in one setting. Furthermore, where run-on error is not acceptable, the technique can be used to provide candidate synonyms which can be checked by a domain expert.

4.
Heart ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To improve the echocardiographic assessment of heart failure in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by comparing conventional averaging of consecutive beats with an index-beat approach, whereby measurements are taken after two cycles with similar R-R interval. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed using a standardised and blinded protocol in patients enrolled in the RATE-AF (RAte control Therapy Evaluation in permanent Atrial Fibrillation) randomised trial. We compared reproducibility of the index-beat and conventional consecutive-beat methods to calculate left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), global longitudinal strain (GLS) and E/e' (mitral E wave max/average diastolic tissue Doppler velocity), and assessed intraoperator/interoperator variability, time efficiency and validity against natriuretic peptides. RESULTS: 160 patients were included, 46% of whom were women, with a median age of 75 years (IQR 69-82) and a median heart rate of 100 beats per minute (IQR 86-112). The index-beat had the lowest within-beat coefficient of variation for LVEF (32%, vs 51% for 5 consecutive beats and 53% for 10 consecutive beats), GLS (26%, vs 43% and 42%) and E/e' (25%, vs 41% and 41%). Intraoperator (n=50) and interoperator (n=18) reproducibility were both superior for index-beats and this method was quicker to perform (p<0.001): 35.4 s to measure E/e' (95% CI 33.1 to 37.8) compared with 44.7 s for 5-beat (95% CI 41.8 to 47.5) and 98.1 s for 10-beat (95% CI 91.7 to 104.4) analyses. Using a single index-beat did not compromise the association of LVEF, GLS or E/e' with natriuretic peptide levels. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with averaging of multiple beats in patients with AF, the index-beat approach improves reproducibility and saves time without a negative impact on validity, potentially improving the diagnosis and classification of heart failure in patients with AF.

5.
PLoS Med ; 18(2): e1003405, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) requires reliable methods to identify at-risk populations. Using an experimental semi-quantitative biomarker assay, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) were recently identified as the most suitable biomarkers for detecting AF in combination with simple morphometric parameters (age, sex, and body mass index [BMI]). In this study, we validated the AF model using standardised, high-throughput, high-sensitivity biomarker assays. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For this study, 1,625 consecutive patients with either (1) diagnosed AF or (2) sinus rhythm with CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or more were recruited from a large teaching hospital in Birmingham, West Midlands, UK, between September 2014 and February 2018. Seven-day ambulatory ECG monitoring excluded silent AF. Patients with tachyarrhythmias apart from AF and incomplete cases were excluded. AF was diagnosed according to current clinical guidelines and confirmed by ECG. We developed a high-throughput, high-sensitivity assay for FGF23, quantified plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and FGF23, and compared results to the previously used multibiomarker research assay. Data were fitted to the previously derived model, adjusting for differences in measurement platforms and known confounders (heart failure and chronic kidney disease). In 1,084 patients (46% with AF; median [Q1, Q3] age 70 [60, 78] years, median [Q1, Q3] BMI 28.8 [25.1, 32.8] kg/m2, 59% males), patients with AF had higher concentrations of NT-proBNP (median [Q1, Q3] per 100 pg/ml: with AF 12.00 [4.19, 30.15], without AF 4.25 [1.17, 15.70]; p < 0.001) and FGF23 (median [Q1, Q3] per 100 pg/ml: with AF 1.93 [1.30, 4.16], without AF 1.55 [1.04, 2.62]; p < 0.001). Univariate associations remained after adjusting for heart failure and estimated glomerular filtration rate, known confounders of NT-proBNP and FGF23. The fitted model yielded a C-statistic of 0.688 (95% CI 0.656, 0.719), almost identical to that of the derived model (C-statistic 0.691; 95% CI 0.638, 0.744). The key limitation is that this validation was performed in a cohort that is very similar demographically to the one used in model development, calling for further external validation. CONCLUSIONS: Age, sex, and BMI combined with elevated NT-proBNP and elevated FGF23, quantified on a high-throughput platform, reliably identify patients with AF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry IRAS ID 97753 Health Research Authority (HRA), United Kingdom.

6.
Comput Biol Med ; 130: 104216, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484944

RESUMO

Negation detection is an important task in biomedical text mining. Particularly in clinical settings, it is of critical importance to determine whether findings mentioned in text are present or absent. Rule-based negation detection algorithms are a common approach to the task, and more recent investigations have resulted in the development of rule-based systems utilising the rich grammatical information afforded by typed dependency graphs. However, interacting with these complex representations inevitably necessitates complex rules, which are time-consuming to develop and do not generalise well. We hypothesise that a heuristic approach to determining negation via dependency graphs could offer a powerful alternative. We describe and implement an algorithm for negation detection based on grammatical distance from a negatory construct in a typed dependency graph. To evaluate the algorithm, we develop two testing corpora comprised of sentences of clinical text extracted from the MIMIC-III database and documents related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients routinely collected at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS trust. Gold-standard validation datasets were built by a combination of human annotation and examination of algorithm error. Finally, we compare the performance of our approach with four other rule-based algorithms on both gold-standard corpora. The presented algorithm exhibits the best performance by f-measure over the MIMIC-III dataset, and a similar performance to the syntactic negation detection systems over the HCM dataset. It is also the fastest of the dependency-based negation systems explored in this study. Our results show that while a single heuristic approach to dependency-based negation detection is ignorant to certain advanced cases, it nevertheless forms a powerful and stable method, requiring minimal training and adaptation between datasets. As such, it could present a drop-in replacement or augmentation for many-rule negation approaches in clinical text-mining pipelines, particularly for cases where adaptation and rule development is not required or possible.

7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 23, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS2) is currently recommended in the UK for the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients, but little is known about its ability to detect severe cases. We aimed to evaluate NEWS2 for the prediction of severe COVID-19 outcome and identify and validate a set of blood and physiological parameters routinely collected at hospital admission to improve upon the use of NEWS2 alone for medium-term risk stratification. METHODS: Training cohorts comprised 1276 patients admitted to King's College Hospital National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust with COVID-19 disease from 1 March to 30 April 2020. External validation cohorts included 6237 patients from five UK NHS Trusts (Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, University Hospitals Southampton, University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust, University College London Hospitals, University Hospitals Birmingham), one hospital in Norway (Oslo University Hospital), and two hospitals in Wuhan, China (Wuhan Sixth Hospital and Taikang Tongji Hospital). The outcome was severe COVID-19 disease (transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) or death) at 14 days after hospital admission. Age, physiological measures, blood biomarkers, sex, ethnicity, and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory and kidney diseases) measured at hospital admission were considered in the models. RESULTS: A baseline model of 'NEWS2 + age' had poor-to-moderate discrimination for severe COVID-19 infection at 14 days (area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in training cohort = 0.700, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.680, 0.722; Brier score = 0.192, 95% CI 0.186, 0.197). A supplemented model adding eight routinely collected blood and physiological parameters (supplemental oxygen flow rate, urea, age, oxygen saturation, C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, neutrophil count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio) improved discrimination (AUC = 0.735; 95% CI 0.715, 0.757), and these improvements were replicated across seven UK and non-UK sites. However, there was evidence of miscalibration with the model tending to underestimate risks in most sites. CONCLUSIONS: NEWS2 score had poor-to-moderate discrimination for medium-term COVID-19 outcome which raises questions about its use as a screening tool at hospital admission. Risk stratification was improved by including readily available blood and physiological parameters measured at hospital admission, but there was evidence of miscalibration in external sites. This highlights the need for a better understanding of the use of early warning scores for COVID.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Escore de Alerta Precoce , Idoso , /virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(Suppl 10): 311, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ontologies are widely used throughout the biomedical domain. These ontologies formally represent the classes and relations assumed to exist within a domain. As scientific domains are deeply interlinked, so too are their representations. While individual ontologies can be tested for consistency and coherency using automated reasoning methods, systematically combining ontologies of multiple domains together may reveal previously hidden contradictions. METHODS: We developed a method that tests for hidden unsatisfiabilities in an ontology that arise when combined with other ontologies. For this purpose, we combined sets of ontologies and use automated reasoning to determine whether unsatisfiable classes are present. In addition, we designed and implemented a novel algorithm that can determine justifications for contradictions across extremely large and complicated ontologies, and use these justifications to semi-automatically repair ontologies by identifying a small set of axioms that, when removed, result in a consistent and coherent set of ontologies. RESULTS: We tested the mutual consistency of the OBO Foundry and the OBO ontologies and find that the combined OBO Foundry gives rise to at least 636 unsatisfiable classes, while the OBO ontologies give rise to more than 300,000 unsatisfiable classes. We also applied our semi-automatic repair algorithm to each combination of OBO ontologies that resulted in unsatisfiable classes, finding that only 117 axioms could be removed to account for all cases of unsatisfiability across all OBO ontologies. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a large set of hidden unsatisfiability across a broad range of biomedical ontologies, and we find that this large set of unsatisfiable classes is the result of a relatively small amount of axiomatic disagreements. Our results show that hidden unsatisfiability is a serious problem in ontology interoperability; however, our results also provide a way towards more consistent ontologies by addressing the issues we identified.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Semântica , Algoritmos , Humanos
9.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 178, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarker identification is one of the major and important goal of functional genomics and translational medicine studies. Large scale -omics data are increasingly being accumulated and can provide vital means for the identification of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of complex disease and/or for advanced patient/diseases stratification. These tasks are clearly interlinked, and it is essential that an unbiased and stable methodology is applied in order to address them. Although, recently, many, primarily machine learning based, biomarker identification approaches have been developed, the exploration of potential associations between biomarker identification and the design of future experiments remains a challenge. METHODS: In this study, using both simulated and published experimentally derived datasets, we assessed the performance of several state-of-the-art Random Forest (RF) based decision approaches, namely the Boruta method, the permutation based feature selection without correction method, the permutation based feature selection with correction method, and the backward elimination based feature selection method. Moreover, we conducted a power analysis to estimate the number of samples required for potential future studies. RESULTS: We present a number of different RF based stable feature selection methods and compare their performances using simulated, as well as published, experimentally derived, datasets. Across all of the scenarios considered, we found the Boruta method to be the most stable methodology, whilst the Permutation (Raw) approach offered the largest number of relevant features, when allowed to stabilise over a number of iterations. Finally, we developed and made available a web interface ( https://joelarkman.shinyapps.io/PowerTools/ ) to streamline power calculations thereby aiding the design of potential future studies within a translational medicine context. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a RF-based biomarker discovery framework and provide a web interface for our framework, termed PowerTools, that caters the design of appropriate and cost-effective subsequent future omics study.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19848, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199838

RESUMO

Link prediction in a complex network is a problem of fundamental interest in network science and has attracted increasing attention in recent years. It aims to predict missing (or future) links between two entities in a complex system that are not already connected. Among existing methods, local similarity indices are most popular that take into account the information of common neighbours to estimate the likelihood of existence of a connection between two nodes. In this paper, we propose global and quasi-local extensions of some commonly used local similarity indices. We have performed extensive numerical simulations on publicly available datasets from diverse domains demonstrating that the proposed extensions not only give superior performance, when compared to their respective local indices, but also outperform some of the current, state-of-the-art, local and global link-prediction methods.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Risk prediction models are widely used to inform evidence-based clinical decision making. However, few models developed from single cohorts can perform consistently well at population level where diverse prognoses exist (such as the SARS-CoV2 pandemic). This study aims at tackling this challenge by synergising prediction models from the literature using ensemble learning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study we selected and reimplemented seven prediction models for COVID-19, which were derived from diverse cohorts and used different implementation techniques. A novel ensemble learning framework was proposed to synergise them for realising personalised predictions for individual patients. Four diverse international cohorts (2 from the UK and 2 from China; total N=5,394) were used to validate all eight models on discrimination, calibration and clinical usefulness. RESULTS: Results showed that individual prediction models could perform well on some cohorts while poorly on others. Conversely, the ensemble model achieved the best performances consistently on all metrics quantifying discrimination, calibration and clinical usefulness. Performance disparities were observed in cohorts from the two countries: all models achieved better performances on the China cohorts. DISCUSSION: When individual models were learned from complementary cohorts, the synergised model will have the potential to achieve synergised performances. Results indicate that blood parameters and physiological measurements might have better predictive powers when collected early, which remains to be confirmed by further studies. CONCLUSIONS: Combining a diverse set of individual prediction models, ensemble method can synergise a robust and well-performing model by choosing the most competent ones for individual patients.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114263

RESUMO

Inferring the topology of a gene regulatory network (GRN) from gene expression data is a challenging but important undertaking for gaining a better understanding of gene regulation. Key challenges include working with noisy data and dealing with a higher number of genes than samples. Although a number of different methods have been proposed to infer the structure of a GRN, there are large discrepancies among the different inference algorithms they adopt, rendering their meaningful comparison challenging. In this study, we used two methods, namely the MIDER (Mutual Information Distance and Entropy Reduction) and the PLSNET (Partial least square based feature selection) methods, to infer the structure of a GRN directly from data and computationally validated our results. Both methods were applied to different gene expression datasets resulting from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) studies. For each case, gene regulators were successfully identified. For example, for the case of the IBD dataset, the UGT1A family genes were identified as key regulators while upon analysing the PDAC dataset, the SULF1 and THBS2 genes were depicted. We further demonstrate that an ensemble-based approach, that combines the output of the MIDER and PLSNET algorithms, can infer the structure of a GRN from data with higher accuracy. We have also estimated the number of the samples required for potential future validation studies. Here, we presented our proposed analysis framework that caters not only to candidate regulator genes prediction for potential validation experiments but also an estimation of the number of samples required for these experiments.

13.
Radiology ; : 202261, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078997

RESUMO

Background The prognostic value of myocardial trabecular complexity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is unknown. Purpose To explore the prognostic value of myocardial trabecular complexity using fractal analysis in participants with HCM. Materials and Methods The authors prospectively enrolled participants with HCM who underwent 3.0-T cardiovascular MRI from August 2011 to October 2017. The authors also enrolled 100 age- and sex-matched healthy participants to form a comparison group. Trabeculae were quantified with fractal analysis of cine slices to estimate the fractal dimension (FD). Participants with HCM were divided into normal and high FD groups according to the upper limit of normal reference value from the healthy group. The primary end point was defined as all-cause mortality and aborted sudden cardiac death. The secondary end point was the composite of the primary end point and readmission to the hospital owing to heart failure. Internal validation was performed using the bootstrapping method. Results A total of 378 participants with HCM (median age, 50 years; age range, 40-61 years; 207 men) and 100 healthy participants (median age, 46 years; age range, 36-59 years; 55 women) were included in this study. During the median follow-up of 33 months ± 18 (standard deviation), the increased maximal apical FD (≥1.325) had a higher risk of the primary and secondary end points than those with a normal FD (<1.325) (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). Furthermore, Cox analysis revealed that left ventricular maximal apical FD (hazard ratio range, 1.001-1.008; all P < .05) provided significant prognostic value to predict the primary and secondary end points after adjustment for the European Society of Cardiology predictors and late gadolinium enhancement. Internal validation showed that left ventricular maximal apical FD retained a good performance in predicting the primary end points with an area under the curve of 0.70 ± 0.03. Conclusion Left ventricular apical fractal dimension, which reflects myocardial trabecular complexity, was an independent predictor of the primary and secondary end points in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Captur and Moon in this issue.

15.
JCI Insight ; 5(16)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814717

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDGenomic and experimental studies suggest a role for PITX2 in atrial fibrillation (AF). To assess if this association is relevant for recurrent AF in patients, we tested whether left atrial PITX2 affects recurrent AF after AF ablation.METHODSmRNA concentrations of PITX2 and its cardiac isoform, PITX2c, were quantified in left atrial appendages (LAAs) from patients undergoing thoracoscopic AF ablation, either in whole LAA tissue (n = 83) or in LAA cardiomyocytes (n = 52), and combined with clinical parameters to predict AF recurrence. Literature suggests that BMP10 is a PITX2-repressed, atrial-specific, secreted protein. BMP10 plasma concentrations were combined with 11 cardiovascular biomarkers and clinical parameters to predict recurrent AF after catheter ablation in 359 patients.RESULTSReduced concentrations of cardiomyocyte PITX2, but not whole LAA tissue PITX2, were associated with AF recurrence after thoracoscopic AF ablation (16% decreased recurrence per 2-(ΔΔCt) increase in PITX2). RNA sequencing, quantitative PCR, and Western blotting confirmed that BMP10 is one of the most PITX2-repressed atrial genes. Left atrial size (HR per mm increase [95% CI], 1.055 [1.028, 1.082]); nonparoxysmal AF (HR 1.672 [1.206, 2.318]), and elevated BMP10 (HR 1.339 [CI 1.159, 1.546] per quartile increase) were predictive of recurrent AF. BMP10 outperformed 11 other cardiovascular biomarkers in predicting recurrent AF.CONCLUSIONSReduced left atrial cardiomyocyte PITX2 and elevated plasma concentrations of the PITX2-repressed, secreted atrial protein BMP10 identify patients at risk of recurrent AF after ablation.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT01091389, NL50069.018.14, Dutch National Registry of Clinical Research Projects EK494-16.FUNDINGBritish Heart Foundation, European Union (H2020), Leducq Foundation.

16.
Open Biol ; 10(7): 200121, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634370

RESUMO

Gene expression programmes driving cell identity are established by tightly regulated transcription factors that auto- and cross-regulate in a feed-forward manner, forming core regulatory circuitries (CRCs). CRC transcription factors create and engage super-enhancers by recruiting acetylation writers depositing permissive H3K27ac chromatin marks. These super-enhancers are largely associated with BET proteins, including BRD4, that influence higher-order chromatin structure. The orchestration of these events triggers accessibility of RNA polymerase machinery and the imposition of lineage-specific gene expression. In cancers, CRCs drive cell identity by superimposing developmental programmes on a background of genetic alterations. Further, the establishment and maintenance of oncogenic states are reliant on CRCs that drive factors involved in tumour development. Hence, the molecular dissection of CRC components driving cell identity and cancer state can contribute to elucidating mechanisms of diversion from pre-determined developmental programmes and highlight cancer dependencies. These insights can provide valuable opportunities for identifying and re-purposing drug targets. In this article, we review the current understanding of CRCs across solid and liquid malignancies and avenues of investigation for drug development efforts. We also review techniques used to understand CRCs and elaborate the indication of discussed CRC transcription factors in the wider context of cancer CRC models.

17.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 3(3): e00140, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704561

RESUMO

Aims: To establish the prevalence of admission plasma glucose in 'diabetes' and 'at risk' ranges in emergency hospital admissions with no prior diagnosis of diabetes; characteristics of people with hyperglycaemia; and factors influencing glucose measurement. Methods: Electronic patient records for 113 097 hospital admissions over 1 year from 2014 to 2015 included 43 201 emergencies with glucose available for 31 927 (74%) admissions, comprising 22 045 people. Data are presented for 18 965 people with no prior diagnosis of diabetes and glucose available on first attendance. Results: Three quarters (14 214) were White Europeans aged 62 (43-78) years, median (IQ range); 12% (2241) South Asians 46 (32-64) years; 9% (1726) Unknown/Other ethnicities 43 (29-61) years; and 4% (784) Afro-Caribbeans 49 (33-63) years, P < .001. Overall, 5% (1003) had glucose in the 'diabetes' range (≥11.1 mmol/L) higher at 8% (175) for South Asians; 16% (3042) were 'at risk' (7.8-11.0 mmol/L), that is 17% (2379) White Europeans, 15% (338) South Asians, 14% (236) Unknown/Others and 11% (89) Afro-Caribbeans, P < .001. The prevalence for South Asians aged <30 years was 2.1% and 5.2%, respectively, 2.6% and 8.6% for Afro-Caribbeans <30 years, and 2.0% and 8.4% for White Europeans <40 years. Glucose increased with age and was more often in the 'diabetes' range for South Asians than White Europeans with South Asian men particularly affected. One third of all emergency admissions were for <24 hours with 58% of these having glucose measured compared to 82% with duration >24 hours. Conclusions: Hyperglycaemia was evident in 21% of adults admitted as an emergency; various aspects related to follow-up and initial testing, age and ethnicity need to be considered by professional bodies addressing undiagnosed diabetes in hospital admissions.

18.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 52(6): 1714-1721, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenotype via conventional cardiac MRI analysis of MYH7 (ß-myosin heavy chain)- and MYBPC3 (ß-myosin-binding protein C)-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) groups is similar. Few studies exist on the genotypic-phenotypic association as assessed by machine learning in HCM patients. PURPOSE: To explore the phenotypic differences based on radiomics analysis of T1 mapping images between MYH7 and MYBPC3-associated HCM subgroups. STUDY TYPE: Prospective observational study. SUBJECTS: In all, 102 HCM patients with pathogenic, or likely pathogenic mutation, in MYH7 (n = 68) or MYBPC3 (n = 34) genes. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Cardiac MRI was performed at 3.0T with balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping sequences. ASSESSMENT: All patients underwent next-generation sequencing and Sanger genetic sequencing. Left ventricular native T1 and LGE were analyzed. One hundred and fifty-seven radiomic features were extracted and modeled using a support vector machine (SVM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). Each subgroup was randomly split 4:1 (feature selection / test validation). STATISTICAL TESTS: Mann-Whitney U-tests and Student's t-tests were performed to assess differences between subgroups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the model's ability to stratify patients based on radiomic features. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between MYH7- and MYBPC3-associated HCM subgroups based on traditional native T1 values (global, basal, and middle short-axis slice native T1 ; P = 0.760, 0.914, and 0.178, respectively). However, the SVM model combined with PCA achieved an accuracy and area under the curve (AUC) of 92.0% and 0.968 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.968-0.971), respectively. For the test validation dataset, the accuracy and AUC were 85.5% and 0.886 (95% CI: 0.881-0.901), respectively. DATA CONCLUSION: Radiomic analysis of native T1 mapping images may be able to discriminate between MYH7- and MYBPC3-associated HCM patients, exceeding the performance of conventional native T1 values. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2020;52:1714-1721.

19.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(9): 1282-1289, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that ulcerative colitis [UC] patients with endoscopic mucosal healing may still have histological inflammation. We investigated the relationship between mucosal healing defined by modified PICaSSO [Paddington International Virtual ChromoendoScopy ScOre], Mayo Endoscopic Score [MES] and probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy [pCLE] with histological indices in UC. METHODS: A prospective study enrolling 82 UC patients [male 66%] was conducted. High-definition colonoscopy was performed to evaluate the activity of the disease with MES assessed with High-Definition MES [HD-MES] and modified PICaSSO and targeted biopsies were taken; pCLE was then performed. Receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves were plotted to determine the best thresholds for modified PICaSSO and pCLE scores that predicted histological healing according to the Robarts Histopathology Index [RHI] and ECAP 'Extension, Chronicity, Activity, Plus' histology score. RESULTS: A modified PICaSSO of ≤ 4 predicted histological healing at RHI ≤ 3, with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the ROC curve [AUROC] of 89.8%, 95.7%, 91.5% and 95.9% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and AUROC of HD-MES to predict histological healing by RHI were 81.4%, 95.7%, 85.4% and 92.1%, respectively. A pCLE ≤ 10 predicted histological healing with sensitivity of 94.9%, specificity of 91.3%, accuracy of 93.9% and AUROC of 96.5%. An ECAP of ≤ 10 was predicted by modified PICaSSO ≤ 4 with accuracy of 91.5% and AUROC of 95.9%. CONCLUSION: Histological healing by RHI and ECAP is accurately predicted by HD-MES and modified virtual electronic chromoendoscopy PICaSSO, endoscopic score; and the use of pCLE did not improve the accuracy any further.

20.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 328, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857590

RESUMO

The immune response to major trauma has been analysed mainly within post-hospital admission settings where the inflammatory response is already underway and the early drivers of clinical outcome cannot be readily determined. Thus, there is a need to better understand the immediate immune response to injury and how this might influence important patient outcomes such as multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). In this study, we have assessed the immune response to trauma in 61 patients at three different post-injury time points (ultra-early (<=1 h), 4-12 h, 48-72 h) and analysed relationships with the development of MODS. We developed a pipeline using Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator and Elastic Net feature selection methods that were able to identify 3 physiological features (decrease in neutrophil CD62L and CD63 expression and monocyte CD63 expression and frequency) as possible biomarkers for MODS development. After univariate and multivariate analysis for each feature alongside a stability analysis, the addition of these 3 markers to standard clinical trauma injury severity scores yields a Generalized Liner Model (GLM) with an average Area Under the Curve value of 0.92 ± 0.06. This performance provides an 8% improvement over the Probability of Survival (PS14) outcome measure and a 13% improvement over the New Injury Severity Score (NISS) for identifying patients at risk of MODS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Aprendizado de Máquina , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/diagnóstico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/imunologia , Antígenos CD , Área Sob a Curva , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Probabilidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...