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1.
Annu Rev Phytopathol ; 57: 431-457, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337277

RESUMO

Anther-smut fungi provide a powerful system to study host-pathogen specialization and coevolution, with hundreds of Microbotryum species specialized on diverse Caryophyllaceae plants, castrating their hosts through manipulation of the hosts' reproductive organs to facilitate disease transmission. Microbotryum fungi have exceptional genomic characteristics, including dimorphic mating-type chromosomes, that make this genus anexcellent model for studying the evolution of mating systems and their influence on population genetics structure and adaptive potential. Important insights into adaptation, coevolution, host specialization, and mating system evolution have been gained using anther-smut fungi, with new insights made possible by the recent advent of genomic approaches. We illustrate with Microbotryum case studies how using a combination of comparative genomics, population genomics, and transcriptomics approaches enables the integration of different evolutionary perspectives across different timescales. We also highlight current challenges and suggest future studies that will contribute to advancing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive processes in populations of fungal pathogens.

2.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(3): 832-843, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793171

RESUMO

The aromatic group of Asian cultivated rice is a distinct population with considerable genetic diversity on the Indian subcontinent and includes the popular Basmati types characterized by pleasant fragrance. Genetic and phenotypic associations with other cultivated groups are ambiguous, obscuring the origin of the aromatic population. From analysis of genome-wide diversity among over 1,000 wild and cultivated rice accessions, we show that aromatic rice originated in the Indian subcontinent from hybridization between a local wild population and examples of domesticated japonica that had spread to the region from their own center of origin in East Asia. Most present-day aromatic accessions have inherited their cytoplasm along with 29-47% of their nuclear genome from the local Indian rice. We infer that the admixture occurred 4,000-2,400 years ago, soon after japonica rice reached the region. We identify aus as the original crop of the Indian subcontinent, indica and japonica as later arrivals, and aromatic a specific product of local agriculture. These results prompt a reappraisal of our understanding of the emergence and development of rice agriculture in the Indian subcontinent.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genoma de Planta , Oryza/genética , Variação Genética , Índia , Filogeografia
4.
Phytopathology ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451637

RESUMO

Knowledge of the population structure, genetic diversity and reproductive mode of plant pathogens can help to implement effective disease management strategies. Anthracnose is one of the most prominent diseases in soybean and is mainly associated with the species Colletotrichum truncatum. However, the genetic structure of C. truncatum populations associated with soybean remains unknown. We collected C. truncatum isolates from 10 sites representing two Brazilian states (Mato Grosso and Goiás) and used 13 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to investigate the population genetic structure of the pathogen. Analyses revealed high gene and haplotypic diversity within populations, as well low genetic differentiation and sharing of multilocus haplotypes among populations and regions. Bayesian and multivariate analysis revealed the presence of three distinct genetic clusters with at least two groups coexisting in all locations, and all of them coexisting in 8 locations. We found limited evidence for admixture between clusters, with only two isolates showing non-zero membership with a second cluster. Analyses of linkage disequilibrium rejected the hypothesis of random mating in all clusters, but values of the index of association were low and not consistent with long-term lack of sexual reproduction. Our findings suggest that Brazilian C. truncatum populations resulted from at least three founder events that led to three genetic clusters that spread throughout the country, raising questions with respect to the factors allowing their maintenance in syntopy without evidence of admixture between them.

5.
Mol Ecol ; 27(15): 3037-3039, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133874

RESUMO

Fungal plant symbionts can be highly specialized on a limited range of host genotypes and species. Understanding the genetic basis of this specialization, the mechanisms governing its establishment and the relationship between specialization and speciation is a major challenge for evolutionary biologists (Timms & Read, ). A deeper knowledge of evolutionary plant-microbe interactions could be exploited to improve agricultural management, by bringing fungal biodiversity and fungal biomass under greater and more durable human control. Previous studies on pathogens have shown that effectors, that is, small secreted proteins that modulate plant physiology to favour host colonization, play a key role in infection of novel hosts (e.g., Inoue et al., ) or in host specialization (e.g., Liao et al. ()). Like pathogens, endophytes also manipulate the physiology of their hosts and colonize novel hosts to which they specialize (Hardoim et al., ). These biological characteristics of endophytes raise the question of similarities in the protein arsenal contributing to the specialization of pathogens and endophytes. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Schirrmann et al. () used a combination of divergence genome scans and tests for positive selection to investigate the genetic basis of specialization of two subspecies of the symbiont Epichloë typhina occurring on two different grass hosts. Their analyses suggest a key role of effectors as determinants of host specialization. This study paves the way towards the comparative analysis of the genomics of speciation among plant symbionts.

6.
Mol Ecol ; 2018 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030861

RESUMO

The competitive exclusion principle postulates that different species can only coexist in sympatry if they occupy distinct ecological niches. The goal of this study was to understand the geographical distribution of three species of Microbotryum anther-smut fungi that are distantly related but infect the same host plants, the sister species Silene vulgaris and S. uniflora, in Western Europe. We used microsatellite markers to investigate pathogen distribution in relation to host specialization and ecological factors. Microbotryum violaceo-irregulare was only found on S. vulgaris at high elevations in the Alps. Microbotryum lagerheimii could be subdivided into two genetically differentiated clusters, one on S. uniflora in the UK and the second on S. vulgaris in the Alps and Pyrenees. The most abundant pathogen species, M. silenes-inflatae, could be subdivided into four genetic clusters, co-occurring in the Alps, the UK and the Pyrenees, and was found on both S. vulgaris and S. uniflora. All three fungal species had high levels of homozygosity, in agreement with the selfing mating system generally observed in anther-smut fungi. The three pathogen species and genetic clusters had large range overlaps, but occurred at sites with different elevations, temperatures and precipitation levels. The three Microbotryum species thus do not appear to be maintained by host specialization or geographic allopatry, but instead may occupy different ecological niches in terms of environmental conditions.

7.
MBio ; 9(3)2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739908

RESUMO

In a recent article, Sepúlveda et al. (mBio 8:e01339-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01339-17) investigated the genetic structure and evolutionary history of the human pathogen Histoplasma Using whole-genome resequencing data, Sepúlveda et al. found that the Histoplasma genus is composed of at least four strongly differentiated lineages. Their tour de force is to use a smart combination of population genomic approaches to show that the advanced stage of intraspecific divergence observed within Histoplasma does not simply reflect population structure, but instead results from previously unidentified speciation events. The four independently evolving Histoplasma lineages are elevated to the species status and assigned names. The newly described species exhibit medically important differences in phenotype, and these findings, therefore, have important epidemiological implications. This work provides a blueprint for phylogenomic species recognition in fungi, opening the way for a new age of enlightenment in which fungal species are diagnosed using highly discriminatory tools within a hypothesis-testing framework.

8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5862, 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651164

RESUMO

The rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae, Magnaporthe grisea), a member of the order Magnaporthales in the class Sordariomycetes, is an important plant pathogen and a model species for studying pathogen infection and plant-fungal interaction. In this study, we generated genome sequence data from five additional Magnaporthales fungi including non-pathogenic species, and performed comparative genome analysis of a total of 13 fungal species in the class Sordariomycetes to understand the evolutionary history of the Magnaporthales and of fungal pathogenesis. Our results suggest that the Magnaporthales diverged ca. 31 millon years ago from other Sordariomycetes, with the phytopathogenic blast clade diverging ca. 21 million years ago. Little evidence of inter-phylum horizontal gene transfer (HGT) was detected in Magnaporthales. In contrast, many genes underwent positive selection in this order and the majority of these sequences are clade-specific. The blast clade genomes contain more secretome and avirulence effector genes, which likely play key roles in the interaction between Pyricularia species and their plant hosts. Finally, analysis of transposable elements (TE) showed differing proportions of TE classes among Magnaporthales genomes, suggesting that species-specific patterns may hold clues to the history of host/environmental adaptation in these fungi.

9.
MBio ; 9(2)2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615506

RESUMO

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn., Pyricularia oryzae) is both a threat to global food security and a model for plant pathology. Molecular pathologists need an accurate understanding of the origins and line of descent of M. oryzae populations in order to identify the genetic and functional bases of pathogen adaptation and to guide the development of more effective control strategies. We used a whole-genome sequence analysis of samples from different times and places to infer details about the genetic makeup of M. oryzae from a global collection of isolates. Analyses of population structure identified six lineages within M. oryzae, including two pandemic on japonica and indica rice, respectively, and four lineages with more restricted distributions. Tip-dating calibration indicated that M. oryzae lineages separated about a millennium ago, long after the initial domestication of rice. The major lineage endemic to continental Southeast Asia displayed signatures of sexual recombination and evidence of DNA acquisition from multiple lineages. Tests for weak natural selection revealed that the pandemic spread of clonal lineages entailed an evolutionary "cost," in terms of the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Our findings reveal the coexistence of multiple endemic and pandemic lineages with contrasting population and genetic characteristics within a widely distributed pathogen.IMPORTANCE The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn., Pyricularia oryzae) is a textbook example of a rapidly adapting pathogen, and it is responsible for one of the most damaging diseases of rice. Improvements in our understanding of Magnaporthe oryzae's diversity and evolution are required to guide the development of more effective control strategies. We used genome sequencing data for samples from around the world to infer the evolutionary history of M. oryzae We found that M. oryzae diversified about 1,000 years ago, separating into six main lineages: two pandemic on japonica and indica rice, respectively, and four with more restricted distributions. We also found that a lineage endemic to continental Southeast Asia displayed signatures of sexual recombination and the acquisition of genetic material from multiple lineages. This work provides a population-level genomic framework for defining molecular markers for the control of rice blast and investigations of the molecular basis of differences in pathogenicity between M. oryzae lineages.

10.
MBio ; 9(1)2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487238

RESUMO

Delineating species and epidemic lineages in fungal plant pathogens is critical to our understanding of disease emergence and the structure of fungal biodiversity and also informs international regulatory decisions. Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae) is a multihost pathogen that infects multiple grasses and cereals, is responsible for the most damaging rice disease (rice blast), and is of growing concern due to the recent introduction of wheat blast to Bangladesh from South America. However, the genetic structure and evolutionary history of M. oryzae, including the possible existence of cryptic phylogenetic species, remain poorly defined. Here, we use whole-genome sequence information for 76 M. oryzae isolates sampled from 12 grass and cereal genera to infer the population structure of M. oryzae and to reassess the species status of wheat-infecting populations of the fungus. Species recognition based on genealogical concordance, using published data or extracting previously used loci from genome assemblies, failed to confirm a prior assignment of wheat blast isolates to a new species (Pyricularia graminis-tritici). Inference of population subdivisions revealed multiple divergent lineages within M. oryzae, each preferentially associated with one host genus, suggesting incipient speciation following host shift or host range expansion. Analyses of gene flow, taking into account the possibility of incomplete lineage sorting, revealed that genetic exchanges have contributed to the makeup of multiple lineages within M. oryzae These findings provide greater understanding of the ecoevolutionary factors that underlie the diversification of M. oryzae and highlight the practicality of genomic data for epidemiological surveillance in this important multihost pathogen.IMPORTANCE Infection of novel hosts is a major route for disease emergence by pathogenic microorganisms. Understanding the evolutionary history of multihost pathogens is therefore important to better predict the likely spread and emergence of new diseases. Magnaporthe oryzae is a multihost fungus that causes serious cereal diseases, including the devastating rice blast disease and wheat blast, a cause of growing concern due to its recent spread from South America to Asia. Using whole-genome analysis of 76 fungal strains from different hosts, we have documented the divergence of M. oryzae into numerous lineages, each infecting a limited number of host species. Our analyses provide evidence that interlineage gene flow has contributed to the genetic makeup of multiple M. oryzae lineages within the same species. Plant health surveillance is therefore warranted to safeguard against disease emergence in regions where multiple lineages of the fungus are in contact with one another.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(10): E2292-E2301, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463729

RESUMO

In plants and metazoans, intracellular receptors that belong to the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family are major contributors to innate immunity. Filamentous fungal genomes contain large repertoires of genes encoding for proteins with similar architecture to plant and animal NLRs with mostly unknown function. Here, we identify and molecularly characterize patatin-like phospholipase-1 (PLP-1), an NLR-like protein containing an N-terminal patatin-like phospholipase domain, a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD), and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. PLP-1 guards the essential SNARE protein SEC-9; genetic differences at plp-1 and sec-9 function to trigger allorecognition and cell death in two distantly related fungal species, Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina Analyses of Neurospora population samples revealed that plp-1 and sec-9 alleles are highly polymorphic, segregate into discrete haplotypes, and show transspecies polymorphism. Upon fusion between cells bearing incompatible sec-9 and plp-1 alleles, allorecognition and cell death are induced, which are dependent upon physical interaction between SEC-9 and PLP-1. The central NBD and patatin-like phospholipase activity of PLP-1 are essential for allorecognition and cell death, while the TPR domain and the polymorphic SNARE domain of SEC-9 function in conferring allelic specificity. Our data indicate that fungal NLR-like proteins function similar to NLR immune receptors in plants and animals, showing that NLRs are major contributors to innate immunity in plants and animals and for allorecognition in fungi.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Neurospora crassa/metabolismo , Podospora/metabolismo , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas NLR/química , Proteínas NLR/genética , Neurospora crassa/química , Neurospora crassa/citologia , Neurospora crassa/genética , Podospora/química , Podospora/citologia , Podospora/genética , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas SNARE/química , Proteínas SNARE/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 5(5)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936945

RESUMO

The first eukaryotic genome to be sequenced was fungal, and there continue to be more sequenced genomes in the kingdom Fungi than in any other eukaryotic kingdom. Comparison of these genomes reveals many sources of genetic variation, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to horizontal gene transfer and on to changes in the arrangement and number of chromosomes, not to mention endofungal bacteria and viruses. Population genomics shows that all sources generate variation all the time and implicate natural selection as the force maintaining genome stability. Variation in wild populations is a rich resource for associating genetic variation with phenotypic variation, whether through quantitative trait locus mapping, genome-wide association studies, or reverse ecology. Subjects of studies associating genetic and phenotypic variation include model fungi, e.g., Saccharomyces and Neurospora, but pioneering studies have also been made with fungi pathogenic to plants, e.g., Pyricularia (= Magnaporthe), Zymoseptoria, and Fusarium, and to humans, e.g., Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Candida.


Assuntos
Fungos/genética , Variação Genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma Fúngico , Fenótipo
13.
Mol Ecol ; 26(7): 1877-1890, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28231407

RESUMO

Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps. In contrast to prior studies on this pathogen genus, a range of overlapping host specificities was observed for four delineated Microbotryum lineages on Dianthus hosts, and their frequent co-occurrence within single-host populations was quantified at local and regional scales. In addition to potential consequences for direct pathogen competition, the sympatry of Microbotryum lineages led to hybridization between them in many populations, and these admixed genotypes suffered significant meiotic sterility. Therefore, this investigation of the anther-smut fungi reveals how variation in the degrees of host specificity can have major implications for ecological interactions and genetic integrity of differentiated pathogen lineages.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/genética , Dianthus/microbiologia , Hibridização Genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Repetições de Microssatélites , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Simpatria
14.
Mol Ecol ; 26(7): 2063-2076, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27761941

RESUMO

Recent advancements in sequencing technology allowed researchers to better address the patterns and mechanisms involved in microbial environmental adaptation at large spatial scales. Here we investigated the genomic basis of adaptation to climate at the continental scale in Suillus brevipes, an ectomycorrhizal fungus symbiotically associated with the roots of pine trees. We used genomic data from 55 individuals in seven locations across North America to perform genome scans to detect signatures of positive selection and assess whether temperature and precipitation were associated with genetic differentiation. We found that S. brevipes exhibited overall strong population differentiation, with potential admixture in Canadian populations. This species also displayed genomic signatures of positive selection as well as genomic sites significantly associated with distinct climatic regimes and abiotic environmental parameters. These genomic regions included genes involved in transmembrane transport of substances and helicase activity potentially involved in cold stress response. Our study sheds light on large-scale environmental adaptation in fungi by identifying putative adaptive genes and providing a framework to further investigate the genetic basis of fungal adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Agaricales/genética , Genética Populacional , Seleção Genética , Basidiomycota/genética , Canadá , Clima , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Micorrizas/genética , América do Norte , Pinus/microbiologia , Chuva , Neve , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
Elife ; 52016 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28008850

RESUMO

Understanding how fungi specialize on their plant host is crucial for developing sustainable disease control. A traditional, centuries-old rice agro-system of the Yuanyang terraces was used as a model to show that virulence effectors of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzaeh play a key role in its specialization on locally grown indica or japonica local rice subspecies. Our results have indicated that major differences in several components of basal immunity and effector-triggered immunity of the japonica and indica rice varieties are associated with specialization of M. oryzae. These differences thus play a key role in determining M. oryzae host specificity and may limit the spread of the pathogen within the Yuanyang agro-system. Specifically, the AVR-Pia effector has been identified as a possible determinant of the specialization of M. oryzae to local japonica rice.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Magnaporthe/patogenicidade , Oryza/imunologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Magnaporthe/fisiologia
16.
BMC Biol ; 14(1): 84, 2016 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27716181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In February 2016, a new fungal disease was spotted in wheat fields across eight districts in Bangladesh. The epidemic spread to an estimated 15,000 hectares, about 16 % of the cultivated wheat area in Bangladesh, with yield losses reaching up to 100 %. Within weeks of the onset of the epidemic, we performed transcriptome sequencing of symptomatic leaf samples collected directly from Bangladeshi fields. RESULTS: Reinoculation of seedlings with strains isolated from infected wheat grains showed wheat blast symptoms on leaves of wheat but not rice. Our phylogenomic and population genomic analyses revealed that the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh was most likely caused by a wheat-infecting South American lineage of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that genomic surveillance can be rapidly applied to monitor plant disease outbreaks and provide valuable information regarding the identity and origin of the infectious agent.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Bangladesh , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
17.
New Phytol ; 212(3): 668-679, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27500396

RESUMO

Although congruence between host and pathogen phylogenies has been extensively investigated, the congruence between host and pathogen genetic structures at the within-species level has received little attention. Using an unprecedented and comprehensive collection of associated plant-pathogen samples, we investigated the degree of congruence between the genetic structures across Europe of two evolutionary and ecological model organisms, the anther-smut pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host plant Silene latifolia. We demonstrated a significant and particularly strong level of host-pathogen co-structure, with three main genetic clusters displaying highly similar spatial ranges in Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Italy, respectively. Correcting for the geographical component of genetic variation, significant correlations were still found between the genetic distances of anther-smut and host populations. Inoculation experiments suggested plant local adaptation, at the cluster level, for resistance to pathogens. These findings indicate that the pathogen remained isolated in the same fragmented southern refugia as its host plant during the last glaciation, and that little long-distance dispersal has occurred since the recolonization of Europe for either the plant or the pathogen, despite their known ability to travel across continents. This, together with the inoculation results, suggests that coevolutionary and competitive processes may be drivers of host-pathogen co-structure.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Flores/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Filogeografia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Silene/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Silene/genética
18.
PLoS Biol ; 14(4): e1002431, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27077707

RESUMO

Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as "greenbeard" genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one's own type, resulting in cooperation between non-genealogical relatives. Our findings serve as a basis for investigations into the mechanisms associated with attraction, fusion, and kind recognition in other eukaryotic species.


Assuntos
Genes Fúngicos , Neurospora crassa/genética , Alelos , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 16(4): 845-61, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26858112

RESUMO

Inferring reproductive and demographic parameters of populations is crucial to our understanding of species ecology and evolutionary potential but can be challenging, especially in partially clonal organisms. Here, we describe a new and accurate method, cloncase, for estimating both the rate of sexual vs. asexual reproduction and the effective population size, based on the frequency of clonemate resampling across generations. Simulations showed that our method provides reliable estimates of sex frequency and effective population size for a wide range of parameters. The cloncase method was applied to Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, a fungal pathogen causing stripe/yellow rust, an important wheat disease. This fungus is highly clonal in Europe but has been suggested to recombine in Asia. Using two temporally spaced samples of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici in China, the estimated sex frequency was 75% (i.e. three-quarter of individuals being sexually derived during the yearly sexual cycle), indicating strong contribution of sexual reproduction to the life cycle of the pathogen in this area. The inferred effective population size of this partially clonal organism (Nc  = 998) was in good agreement with estimates obtained using methods based on temporal variations in allelic frequencies. The cloncase estimator presented herein is the first method allowing accurate inference of both sex frequency and effective population size from population data without knowledge of recombination or mutation rates. cloncase can be applied to population genetic data from any organism with cyclical parthenogenesis and should in particular be very useful for improving our understanding of pest and microbial population biology.


Assuntos
Genética Microbiana/métodos , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genótipo , Densidade Demográfica , Recombinação Genética , Distribuição por Sexo , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , China , Triticum/microbiologia
20.
Mol Ecol ; 25(3): 811-24, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26671732

RESUMO

Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range. There was significantly greater incidence of anther smut disease in more northern latitudes and where the host locations were less dense, indicating a major influence of environmental factors and/or host demographic structure on the pathogen distribution. Genetic analyses with seven microsatellite markers on recent collections of 195 M. silenes-acaulis individuals revealed three main genetic clusters, in North America, northern Europe and southern Europe, likely corresponding to differentiation in distinct refugia during the last glaciation. The lower genetic diversity in northern Europe indicates postglacial recolonization northwards from southern refugia. This study combining herbarium surveys and population genetics thus uniquely reveals the effects of climate and environmental factors on a plant pathogen species with an arctic-alpine distribution.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Silene/microbiologia , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Fúngico/genética , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Modelos Genéticos , América do Norte , Filogeografia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
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