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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MetS) may both contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to examine the association of demographic factors, SLE phenotype, therapy and vitamin D levels with MetS and insulin resistance. METHODS: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) enrolled patients recently diagnosed with SLE (<15 months) from 33 centres across 11 countries from 2000. Clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data were collected. Vitamin D level was defined according to tertiles based on distribution across this cohort, which were set at T1 (10-36 nmol/l), T2 (37-60 nmol/l) and T3 (61-174 nmol/l). MetS was defined according to the 2009 consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin resistance was determined using the HOMA-IR model. Linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the association of variables with vitamin D levels. RESULTS: Of the 1847 patients, 1163 (63%) had vitamin D measured and 398 (34.2%) subjects were in the lowest 25(OH)D tertile. MetS was present in 286 of 860 (33%) patients whose status could be determined. Patients with lower 25(OH)D were more likely to have MetS and higher HOMA-IR. The MetS components, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and decreased HDL were all significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D. Increased average glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: MetS and insulin resistance are associated with lower vitamin D in patients with SLE. Further studies could determine whether vitamin D repletion confers better control of these cardiovascular risk factors and improve long-term outcomes in SLE.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus system showed high specificity, while attaining also high sensitivity. We hereby analysed the performance of the individual criteria items and their contribution to the overall performance of the criteria. METHODS: We combined the EULAR/ACR derivation and validation cohorts for a total of 1197 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and n=1074 non-SLE patients with a variety of conditions mimicking SLE, such as other autoimmune diseases, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and the 23 specific criteria items. We also tested performance omitting the EULAR/ACR criteria attribution rule, which defines that items are only counted if not more likely explained by a cause other than SLE. RESULTS: Positive ANA, the new entry criterion, was 99.5% sensitive, but only 19.4% specific, against a non-SLE population that included other inflammatory rheumatic, infectious, malignant and metabolic diseases. The specific criteria items were highly variable in sensitivity (from 0.42% for delirium and 1.84% for psychosis to 75.6% for antibodies to double-stranded DNA), but their specificity was uniformly high, with low C3 or C4 (83.0%) and leucopenia <4.000/mm³ (83.8%) at the lowest end. Unexplained fever was 95.3% specific in this cohort. Applying the attribution rule improved specificity, particularly for joint involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Changing the position of the highly sensitive, non-specific ANA to an entry criterion and the attribution rule resulted in a specificity of >80% for all items, explaining the higher overall specificity of the criteria set.

3.
J Rheumatol ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589551

RESUMO

The Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) held its annual meeting in 2020 in an online format due to travel restrictions during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19; caused by SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The virtual meeting was attended by 351 rheumatologists, dermatologists, representatives of biopharmaceutical companies, and patient research partners. Similar to previous years, GRAPPA's annual meeting focused on the 3 overlapping missions of education, research, and clinical care of psoriatic disease. Trainee sessions this year included the annual trainee symposium and a grant-writing workshop. Plenary sessions included updates on COVID-19 and psoriatic disease from multispecialty and patient perspectives, and updates on pustular psoriasis and associated musculoskeletal manifestations. Progress on research and updates were presented for the following groups: Collaborative Research Network, Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Psoriatic Arthritis Working Group, International Dermatology Outcome Measures, Composite Measures, Education Committee, and Treatment Guidelines. New this year were 3 concurrent workshops on ultrasound assessment of joints and entheses, magnetic resonance imaging of psoriatic arthritis, and pustular psoriasis efficacy endpoints; 6 "Meet the Expert" sessions; and facilitated "poster tours." In our prologue, we introduce the papers that summarize this meeting.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence and risk factors for heart failure (HF) in patients with psoriatic disease (PsD) and describe their electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings. METHODS: A cohort analysis was conducted involving patients with PsD followed prospectively from 1978 to 2018. Participants were assessed according to a standard protocol every 6 to 12-months. The primary outcome was the time to first event of HF, further classified into ischemic and non-ischemic HF (secondary outcomes). The association between cardiovascular risk factors, measures of disease activity and HF events was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings associated with HF events were described. RESULTS: A total of 1994 patients with PsD were analyzed with 64 incident HF events (38 ischemic, 26 non-ischemic). The incidence rate of first HF event was 2.85 per 1000 patient years. In all events, most common electrocardiographic findings were atrial fibrillation (22%) and bundle branch blocks (29%). Echocardiogram revealed 37% reduced ejection fraction and 63% preserved ejection fraction. In multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for all HF events were ischemic heart disease, adjusted mean (AM)-tender joint count, AM-swollen joint count, AM-erythrocyte sedimentation rate, AM-C-reactive protein, and physical function (by health assessment questionnaire) (all p<0.05). Minimal disease activity state was protective for all HF (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased risk of HF is associated with a combination of known cardiovascular risk factors and measures of disease activity, particularly in non-ischemic HF. The effect of inflammation on HF may be partially independent of atherosclerotic disease.

5.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(2): 367-386, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural damage is as an important outcome in the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set and its assessment is recommended at least once in the development of a new drug. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review (SR) to identify studies addressing the measurement properties of radiographic outcome instruments for structural damage in PsA and appraise the evidence through the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.1 Framework Instrument Selection Algorithm (OFISA). METHODS: A SR was conducted using search strategies in EMBASE and MEDLINE to identify full-text English studies which aimed to develop or assess the measurement properties of radiographic outcome instruments in PsA. Determination of eligibility and data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers with input from a third to achieve consensus. Two reviewers assessed the methodology and results of eligible studies and synthesized the evidence using OMERACT methodology. RESULTS: Twelve articles evaluating radiographic instruments were included. The articles assessed nine peripheral (hands, wrists and/or feet) and six axial (spinal and/or sacroiliac joints) radiographic instruments. The peripheral radiographic instruments with some evidence for reliability, cross-sectional construct validity and longitudinal construct validity were the Ratingen and modified Sharp van der Heijde scores. No instruments had evidence for clinical trial discrimination or thresholds of meaning. There was limited evidence for the measurement properties of all identified axial instruments. CONCLUSION: There are significant knowledge gaps in the responsiveness of peripheral radiographic instruments. Axial radiographic instruments require further validation, and the need to generate novel instruments and utilise other imaging modalities should be considered.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the ominosity of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Classification Criteria by determining its predictive role for disease severity in the first 5 years following diagnosis. METHODS: 867 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) from the Toronto Lupus Clinic were included (all first 12 months after SLE diagnosis). The EULAR/ACR criteria score was calculated based on baseline information. To determine disease severity in the first 5 years after diagnosis, adjusted mean SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (AMS), flares, remission and immunosuppressive treatment were used as outcomes. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) registry comprised the validation cohort. RESULTS: Based on receiver operating characteristic analysis, a EULAR/ACR score of 20 was used as a threshold to compare outcomes between groups. In the first 5 years of disease course, patients with a score of ≥20 had higher AMS scores (p<0.001) and were more likely to ever experience a flare (p<0.001). These patients had lower probabilities of achieving remission and higher requirements for immunosuppressives. Results were confirmed in the SLICC validation cohort. Patients with a score of ≥20 had higher AMS during the first 5 years of disease (5.4 vs 3.1% and ≥20 vs <20 respectively, p≤0.001). The score correlated with AMS (r=0.43, p≤0.001) in the same time frame. CONCLUSION: A EULAR/ACR score of ≥20 is an indicator of ominosity in SLE. Patients with a score of ≥20 were characterised by a more active disease course throughout the first 5 years. These criteria provide prognostic information regarding disease severity in the first 5 years following diagnosis.

7.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 29, 2021 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While cross-sectional data suggest an association between IFN-induced gene expression and SLE disease activity, interest in this as a biomarker of flare has been tempered by a lack of fluctuation with disease activity in the majority of patients. This led us to question whether IFN-induced gene expression might instead be a biomarker of overall disease severity, with patients with high levels spending more time in an active disease state. METHODS: Levels of five interferon-responsive genes were measured in the whole peripheral blood at baseline visit for 137 SLE patients subsequently followed for 5 years. Log transformed values were summed to yield a composite IFN5 score, and the correlation with various disease outcomes examined. Receiver operator characteristic analyses were performed for outcomes of interest. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to compare the proportion of flare-free patients with high and low IFN5 scores over time. RESULTS: The baseline IFN5 score was positively correlated with the adjusted mean SLE disease activity index-2000, number of flares, adjusted mean prednisone dose, and number of new immunosuppressive medications over the subsequent 5 years. Optimal cut-offs for the IFN5 score were determined using Youden's index and predicted more severe outcomes with 57-67% accuracy. A high baseline IFN5 level was associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent flare. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of the type I IFN signature is a useful tool for predicting the subsequent disease activity course.

8.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(1): 144-149, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of malignancy and its types in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and psoriasis without arthritis (PsC) patients, in comparison to the general population, and to identify the predictive factors for developing cancer in psoriatic disease (PsD). METHODS: PsA patients followed prospectively since 1978 and PsC patients followed since 2006 at 6-to-12 month intervals according to a standard protocol were included. Malignancies were recorded prospectively and linkages with Cancer Care Ontario and the Death Registry were carried out to confirm the presence and type of malignancy up to December 2016. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated for overall cancers and by age and sex. Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors associated with the development of malignancy after the diagnosis of PsD. RESULTS: 2051 patients (PsD) were included of whom 228 (11%) developed cancer. 168 patients developed cancer after first clinic visit and are included in this report. Overall SIR for malignancy was 0.83 (0.68, 1.00), SIR for females was 1.06 (0.80, 1.37), and for males was 0.67 (0.50, 0.88). The most common malignancies were skin, breast, and hematological. Skin cancer was the only specific cancer that had a higher incidence than the general population with SIR = 3.37 (1.84, 5.66). There was insufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of malignancy associated with biologics use. CONCLUSIONS: In this long-term prospective follow-up of patients with PsA and PsC the overall malignancy risk was not found to be higher than the general population, while skin cancer increased.

9.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lupus nephritis (LN) may lead to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in 22% of patients over 15 years with the risk being particularly higher in diffuse proliferative forms. The rate of kidney function decline varies. However, a catastrophic course leading to ESKD within a few years from onset is uncommon. The aim of the present study was to assess the factors associated with rapid progression to ESKD in LN patients. METHODS: Patients from the Toronto Lupus Clinic with biopsy-proven LN at presentation and eGFR≥60ml/min/1.73m2 who developed ESKD within three years were retrieved. Pathology reports were reviewed with particular emphasis on distinct histopathologic features. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic variables were also analyzed. RESULTS: Ten patients (1.8% of the total LN population) developed ESKD within three years of diagnosis. Their mean age was 34.2±7.3 years, mean time to ESKD 19.2±12.4 months, initial eGFR=90.2±24.9ml/min/1.73m2, proteinuria 2.7±1.04 grams/24h. The rate of kidney function decline was more than 43ml/min/1.73m2/year (median). One patient had LN class III, five had LN class IV, two membranous LN (class V) and another two had mixed IV/V. Moreover, two patients had extensive thrombotic microangiopathy, one collapsing glomerulonephritis and one concomitant anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephropathy. Four patients showed no unusual kidney pathology; all of them had severe non-compliance (discontinued all medications to follow alternative treatment). CONCLUSION: Catastrophic progression to ESKD is uncommon in LN. The major associated factors are poor compliance and distinct histopathologic features such as thrombotic microangiopathy, collapsing glomerulopathy and concomitant anti-GBM nephropathy.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21703, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303908

RESUMO

Biological therapies have dramatically improved the therapeutic landscape of psoriatic arthritis (PsA); however, 40-50% of patients are primary non-responders with response rates declining significantly with each successive biological therapy. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop a coherent strategy for effective initial and subsequent selection of biologic agents. We interrogated 40 PsA patients initiating either tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) or interleukin-17A inhibitors (17Ai) for active PsA. Patients achieving low disease activity according to the Disease Activity Index for PsA (DAPSA) at 3 months were classified as responders. Baseline and 3-month CD4+ transcript profiling were performed, and novel signaling pathways were identified using a multi-omics profiling and integrative computational analysis approach. Using transcriptomic data at initiation of therapy, we identified over 100 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that differentiated IL-17Ai response from non-response and TNFi response from non-response. Integration of cell-type-specific DEGs with protein-protein interactions and further comprehensive pathway enrichment analysis revealed several pathways. Rho GTPase signaling pathway exhibited a strong signal specific to IL-17Ai response and the genes, RAC1 and ROCKs, are supported by results from prior research. Our detailed network and pathway analyses have identified the rewiring of Rho GTPase pathways as potential markers of response to IL17Ai but not TNFi. These results need further verification.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine bone mineral density (BMD) in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients, factors associated with undergoing BMD testing, and the effect of PsA clinical activity on BMD. METHODS: Patients attending the University of Toronto PsA Clinic with a BMD from cohort inception to January 2019 were included. Descriptive statistics summarized lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip T-scores. Cox proportional hazard regression identified predictors for BMD testing. Logistic regression analysis determined odds of having normal (T-score ≥ -1.0) versus osteoporotic range BMD (T-score ≤ -2.5). A multi-state model determined factors associated with BMD state changes over time. RESULTS: Of the 1479 patients, 214 had BMDs. Mean T-scores at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip were -0.30±0.32, -1.10±1.04 and -0.45±0.42 respectively. Osteopenia and osteoporosis occurred in 45.27% and 12.94% of patients. Increasing age, menopause, elevated acute phase reactants, biologic, methotrexate and systemic glucocorticoid use were associated with a higher chance of undergoing BMD testing. Increased BMI and biologic use were associated with a lower chance of having osteoporotic range BMD. In multi-state analysis, polyarthritis may portend lower BMDs over time, although this did not achieve statistical significance due to low patient numbers. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in the PsA cohort were similar to the general population. Clinicians are using osteoporosis risk factors and PsA disease severity markers to select patients for BMD testing. Polyarticular disease may portend worse BMDs. Biologic use and increased BMI appear to have a protective effect.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) predicts mortality and damage accrual in SLE, but its association with hospitalizations has not been described. We estimated the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with future hospitalizations in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. The number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations during follow-up were recorded. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of hospitalizations per patient-year of follow-up. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of baseline SLICC-FI scores with the proportion of follow-up time spent in hospital. Multivariable models were adjusted for relevant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (IQR) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08). During mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 614 patients (39.6%) experienced 1570 hospitalizations. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with more frequent hospitalizations during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.21; 95%CI 1.13-1.30), adjusting for baseline age, sex, corticosteroid use, immunosuppressive use, ethnicity/location, SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), and disease duration. Among patients with ≥1 hospitalization, higher baseline SLICC-FI values predicted a greater proportion of follow-up time spent hospitalized (Relative Rate 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16). CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts future hospitalizations among incident SLE patients, further supporting the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in SLE have failed to reach their respective end points, with the rates of response to placebo (plus standard-of-care treatment) being unexpectedly high. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the response to placebo in non-renal, non-neuropsychiatric lupus. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched (from 2000 to December 2019) for phase II/III RCTs assessing the efficacy and safety of biologics in non-renal, non-neuropsychiatric SLE. Data on the efficacy and safety of the placebo-treated patients were collected in a pre-established data retrieval form. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: A total of 24 RCTs (n = 11 128 in total) were included. Placebo-treated patients (n = 3899) were mostly females (93.5%), Caucasians (60.2%), of mean age 39.7 years, and having a mean disease duration of 7.4 years. Their mean initial SLEDAI 2000 was 10.4, whereas 60.5% had positive anti-dsDNA antibodies, 41.9% low C3 and 35.6% low C4 at randomization. Standard-of-care treatment included glucocorticosteroids in 85.9%, antimalarials in 72.8% and immunosuppressives in 48.5%. The response to placebo was 36.2% for the primary end point (as defined in each study), 39.8% for the SLE Responder Index-4 (SRI-4), 29.2% for SRI-5, 28.4% for SRI-6 and 30.9% for BILAG-based Combined Lupus Assessment response. Regarding safety, there were serious adverse events in 16.3% of patients, serious infections in 5.5% and malignancies in 0.3%, and death occurred in 0.56% of patients. CONCLUSION: More than one-third of the placebo-treated patients achieved their respective primary end points in RCTs with biologics in non-renal, non-neuropsychiatric SLE. The response rate was higher for certain end points, such as the SRI-4, while it decreased with more stringent end points.

14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about mortality rates among patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in North America and their change over the past two decades. OBJECTIVE: To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates in psoriatic patients to the general population in Ontario, Canada from 1996 to 2016. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of adult residents using administrative health data. All-cause and cause-specific standardized mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios and excess mortality rates were calculated. RESULTS: 176,858 (2,524 deaths) psoriasis patients and 15,430 (221 deaths) PsA patients were identified in 2016. Patients with psoriasis and PsA had standardized excess mortality rates of 1.44 and 2.43 per 1000 population, respectively. Standardized mortality rates decreased by approximately 30% over the study period in both disease groups, but remained significantly elevated compared to the general population. The leading causes of death in psoriasis and PsA patients were cancer, circulatory disease and respiratory conditions. LIMITATIONS: We were unable to classify patients according to disease severity. CONCLUSION: Despite improvements in psoriasis treatment, the relative excess mortality, which may be related to risk factors for psoriatic disease, remained unchanged, with an average of approximately 1-2 extra deaths per 1,000 patients in 2016.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine which composite measures are most sensitive to change when measuring psoriatic arthritis (PsA) disease activity, analyses compared the responsiveness of composite measures used in a 48-week randomized, controlled trial of MTX and etanercept in patients with PsA. METHODS: The trial randomised 851 patients to receive weekly: MTX (20 mg/week), etanercept (50 mg/week) or MTX plus etanercept. Dichotomous composite measures examined included ACR 20/50/70 responses, minimal disease activity (MDA) and very low disease activity (VLDA). Continuous composite measures examined included Disease Activity Score (28 joints) using CRP (DAS28-CRP), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), Disease Activity for Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) and Psoriatic Arthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS). RESULTS: At week 24, etanercept-treated groups were significantly more effective than MTX monotherapy to achieve ACR 20 (primary end point) and MDA (key secondary end point). When examining score changes from baseline at week 24 across the five continuous composite measures, PASDAS demonstrated relatively greater changes in the etanercept-treated groups compared with MTX monotherapy and had the largest effect size and standardized response. Joint count changes drove overall score changes at week 24 from baseline in all the continuous composite measures except for PASDAS, which was driven by the Physician and Patient Global Assessments. CONCLUSION: PASDAS was the most sensitive continuous composite measure examined with results that mirrored the protocol-defined primary and key secondary outcomes. Composite measures with multiple domains, such as PASDAS, may better quantify change in PsA disease burden. TRAIL REGISTRATION: https://ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02376790.

16.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 93: 100601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983284

RESUMO

Background: Tofacitinib and other new treatments approved for use in psoriatic arthritis have only recently been included in psoriatic arthritis treatment guidelines, and studies evaluating the relative efficacy of available therapies are important to inform treatment decisions by healthcare professionals. Objective: To perform a network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of tofacitinib, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs), and apremilast in patients with psoriatic arthritis naïve to tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy (TNFi-naïve) or with an inadequate response (TNFi-IR). Methods: A systematic literature review used searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library on October 9, 2017. Randomized controlled trials including adult patients with psoriatic arthritis receiving treatment administered as monotherapy or with conventional synthetic DMARDs were selected. Efficacy outcomes included American College of Rheumatology 20 response, change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, ≥75% improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, and change from baseline in Dactylitis Severity Score and Leeds Enthesitis Index. Treatment effects were evaluated during placebo-controlled phases, using a binomial logit model for binary outcomes and a normal identify link model for other outcomes. Discontinuations due to adverse events and serious infection events were assessed as safety outcomes. Results: The network meta-analysis included 24 published randomized controlled trials, of which 13 enrolled TNFi-naïve patients only, 3 enrolled TNFi-IR patients only, and 8 enrolled both TNFi-naïve and TNFi-IR patients. Placebo-controlled treatment durations ranged from 12 to 24 weeks. Indirect comparisons showed tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID to have similar efficacy compared with most bDMARDs and apremilast in improving joint symptoms (based on American College of Rheumatology 20 response), and with some bDMARDs in improving skin symptoms (based on Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) (tofacitinib 10 mg BID only in TNFi-IR) in patients with psoriatic arthritis who were TNFi-naïve or TNFi-IR. Results also showed that, compared with placebo, the improvement in physical functioning (based on Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index) with tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID was similar to that observed with most bDMARDs and apremilast in TNFi-naïve patients, and similar to that observed with all bDMARDs with available data in the TNFi-IR population. Improvements in Dactylitis Severity Score and Leeds Enthesitis Index scores were comparable between treatments. Tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID were median-ranked 8 and 15, respectively, for discontinuation due to any adverse events, and 5 and 16, respectively, for a serious infection event out of a total of 20 treatments in the network (lower numbers are more favorable). Conclusions: Tofacitinib provides an additional treatment option for patients with psoriatic arthritis, both in patients naïve to TNFi and in those with TNFi-IR. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2020; 81:XXX-XXX).

17.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 1158-1181, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physical function (PF) is a core domain to be measured in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), yet the discriminative performance of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for PF in RCTs has not been evaluated systematically. In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the clinical trial discrimination of PF-PROMs in PsA RCTs. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus databases in English to identify all original RCTs on biological and targeted synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) conducted in PsA. We assessed quality in each article using the OMERACT good method checklist. Effect sizes (ES) for the PF-PROMs were calculated and appraised using a priori hypotheses. Evidence supporting clinical trial discrimination for each PF-PROM was summarized to derive recommendations. RESULTS: 35 articles from 31 RCTs were included. Four PF-PROMs had data for evaluation: HAQ-Disability Index (DI), HAQ-Spondyloarthritis (S), and Short Form 36-item Health Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS) and Physical Functioning domain (SF-36 PF). As anticipated, higher ES values were observed for intervention groups than the control groups. Across all studies, for HAQ-DI, the median ES were -0.73 and -0.24 for intervention and control groups, respectively. Whereas for SF-36 PCS, the median ES were 0.77 and 0.23. For intervention and control groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Clinical trial discrimination was supported for HAQ-DI and SF-36 PCS in PsA with low risk of bias; and for SF-36 PF and HAQ-S with some caution. More studies are required for HAQ-S.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer risk factors in incident SLE. METHODS: Clinical variables and cancer outcomes were assessed annually among incident SLE patients. Multivariate hazard regression models (over-all risk, and most common cancers) included demographics and time-dependent medications (corticosteroids, antimalarial drugs, immunosuppressants), smoking, and adjusted mean SLE Disease Activity Index-2K. RESULTS: Among 1668 patients (average 9 years follow-up), 65 cancers occurred: 15 breast, 10 non-melanoma skin, seven lung, six hematological, six prostate, five melanoma, three cervical, three renal, two each gastric, head and neck, and thyroid, and one each rectal, sarcoma, thymoma, and uterine cancers. Half of cancers (including all lung cancers) occurred in past/current smokers, versus one-third of patients without cancer. Multivariate analyses indicated over-all cancer risk was related primarily to male sex and older age at SLE diagnosis. In addition, smoking was associated with lung cancer. For breast cancer risk, age was positively and anti-malarial drugs were negatively associated. Anti-malarial drugs and higher disease activity were also negatively associated with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk, whereas age and cyclophosphamide were positively associated. Disease activity was associated positively with hematologic and negatively with NMSC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a key modifiable risk factor, especially for lung cancer, in SLE. Immunosuppressive medications were not clearly associated with higher risk except for cyclophosphamide and NMSC. Antimalarials were negatively associated with breast cancer and NMSC risk. SLE activity was associated positively with hematologic cancer and negatively with NMSC. Since the absolute number of cancers was small, additional follow-up will help consolidate these findings.

19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1333-1339, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 Classification Criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been validated with high sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated the performance of the new criteria with regard to disease duration, sex and race/ethnicity, and compared its performance against the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria. METHODS: Twenty-one SLE centres from 16 countries submitted SLE cases and mimicking controls to form the validation cohort. The sensitivity and specificity of the EULAR/ACR 2019, SLICC 2012 and ACR 1982/1997 criteria were evaluated. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of female (n=1098), male (n=172), Asian (n=118), black (n=68), Hispanic (n=124) and white (n=941) patients; with an SLE duration of 1 to <3 years (n=196) and ≥5 years (n=879). Among patients with 1 to <3 years disease duration, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 81%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well in men (sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%) and women (sensitivity 97%, specificity 94%). Among women, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (97% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 82%). Among white patients, the EULAR/ACR criteria had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria (95% vs 83%) and better specificity than the SLICC criteria (94% vs 83%). The EULAR/ACR criteria performed well among black patients (sensitivity of 98%, specificity 100%), and had better sensitivity than the ACR criteria among Hispanic patients (100% vs 86%) and Asian patients (97% vs 77%). CONCLUSIONS: The EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria perform well among patients with early disease, men, women, white, black, Hispanic and Asian patients. These criteria have superior sensitivity than the ACR criteria and/or superior specificity than the SLICC criteria across many subgroups.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
RMD Open ; 6(2)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of guselkumab on enthesitis and dactylitis in a phase II trial of patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: This was a phase II, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of adults with active PsA (≥3 swollen and ≥3 tender joints and C reactive protein ≥0.3 mg/dL) despite conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and/or oral corticosteroid therapy. Patients were randomised to subcutaneous injections of guselkumab 100 mg or placebo at weeks 0, 4 and every 8 weeks, with placebo crossover to guselkumab at week 24. Dactylitis was scored on a scale of 0-3 on each digit; enthesitis was assessed using the Leeds Enthesitis Index (0-6). Other assessments included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index responses. RESULTS: Of 149 randomised patients, 107 patients had enthesitis (mean score=2.7) and 81 patients had dactylitis (mean dactylitis score=5.7) at baseline. Mean improvements in enthesitis and dactylitis at week 24 were greater in the guselkumab group versus placebo and sustained through week 56. Similar results were observed for the proportions of patients with resolution of enthesitis and dactylitis. At week 56, mean improvements in enthesitis and dactylitis among patients who switched from placebo to guselkumab treatment were similar to those in the guselkumab group. In the guselkumab group, ACR20 responders had greater improvements in enthesitis and dactylitis versus non-responders (week 24). CONCLUSIONS: At week 24, the guselkumab group had greater mean improvements in enthesitis and dactylitis and greater proportions of patients with resolution of enthesitis and dactylitis versus placebo. ACR20 response was associated with improvements in enthesitis and dactylitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02319759.URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02319759; Registered 18 December 2014.

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