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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Delivery of radiation at ultrahigh dose rates, known as FLASH, has recently been shown to preferentially spare normal tissues from radiation damage compared to tumor tissues. However, the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown, with one of the most widely considered hypothesis being that the effect is related to substantial oxygen depletion upon FLASH, thereby altering the radiochemical damage during irradiation, leading to different radiation responses of normal and tumor cells. Testing of this hypothesis would be advanced by direct measurement of tissue oxygen in vivo during and after FLASH irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Oxygen measurements were performed in vitro and in vivo using the phosphorescence quenching method and a water-soluble molecular probe Oxyphor 2P. The changes in oxygen per unit dose (G-values) were quantified in response to irradiation by 10 MeV electron beam at either ultra-high dose rates (UHDR) reaching 300 Gy/s or conventional radiotherapy dose rates of 0.1 Gy/s. RESULTS: In vitro experiments with 5% BSA solutions at 23°C resulted in G-values for oxygen consumption of 0.19-0.21 mmHg/Gy (0.34-0.37 µM/Gy) for conventional irradiation and 0.16-0.17 mmHg/Gy (0.28-0.30 µM/Gy) for UHDR irradiation. In vivo, the total decrease in oxygen after a single fraction of 20 Gy FLASH irradiation was 2.3±0.3 mmHg in normal tissue and 1.0±0.2 mmHg in tumor tissue with p-value < 0.00001, while no decrease in oxygen was observed from a single fraction of 20 Gy applied in conventional mode. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that oxygen depletion to radiologically relevant levels of hypoxia is unlikely to occur in bulk tissue under FLASH irradiation. For the same dose FLASH irradiation induces less oxygen consumption than conventional irradiation in vitro, which may be related to the FLASH sparing effect. However, the difference in oxygen depletion between FLASH and conventional irradiation could not be quantified in vivo, because measurements of oxygen depletion under conventional irradiation are hampered by resupply of oxygen from the blood.

3.
Med Phys ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High dose rate conditions, coupled with problems related to small field dosimetry, make dose characterization for FLASH-RT challenging. Most conventional dosimeters show significant dependence on dose rate at ultra-high dose rate conditions or fail to provide sufficiently fast temporal data for pulse to pulse dosimetry. Here fast 2D imaging of radioluminescence from a water and quinine phantom was tested for dosimetry of individual 4 µs linac pulses. METHODS: A modified clinical linac delivered an electron FLASH beam of >50 Gy/s to clinical isocenter. This modification removed the x-ray target and flattening filter, leading to a beam that was symmetric and gaussian, as verified with GafChromic EBT-XD film. Lateral projected 2D dose distributions for each linac pulse were imaged in a quinine-doped water tank using a gated intensified camera, and an inverse Abel transform reconstruction provided 3D images for on-axis depth dose values. A total of 20 pulses were delivered with a 10 MeV, 1.5 cm circular beam, and beam with jaws wide open (40 × 40 cm2 ), and a 3D dose distribution was recovered for each pulse. Beam output was analyzed on a pulse by pulse basis. RESULTS: The Rp , Dmax , and the R50 measured with film and optical methods agreed to within 1 mm for the 1.5 cm circular beam and the beam with jaws wide open. Cross beam profiles for both beams agreed with film data with >95% passing rate (2%/2 mm gamma criteria). The optical central axis depth dose agreed with film data, except for near the surface. A temporal pulse analysis revealed a ramp-up period where the dose per pulse increased for the first few pulses and then stabilized. CONCLUSIONS: Optical imaging of radioluminescence was presented as a valuable tool for establishing a baseline for the recently initiated electron FLASH beam at our institution.

4.
Med Phys ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735472

RESUMO

The field of medical physics has struggled with the role of research in recent years, as professional interests have dominated its growth toward clinical service. This article focuses on the subset of medical physics programs within academic medical centers and how a refocused academic mission within these centers should drive and support Discovery and Invention with Ventures and Engineering for Research Translation (DIVERT). A roadmap to a DIVERT-based scholarly research program is discussed here around the core building blocks of: (a) creativity in research and team building, (b) improved quality metrics to assess activity, (c) strategic partnerships and spinoff directions that extend capabilities, and (d) future directions driven by faculty-led initiatives. Within academia, it is the unique discoveries and inventions of faculty that lead to their recognition as scholars, and leads to financial support for their research programs and reconition of their intellectual contributions. Innovation must also be coupled to translation to demonstrate outcome successes. These ingredients are critical for research funding, and the two-decade growth in biomedical engineering research funding is an illustration of this, where technology invention has been the goal. This record can be contrasted with flat funding within radiation oncology and radiology, where a growing fraction of research is more procedure-based. However, some centers are leading the change of the definition of medical physics, by the inclusion or assimilation of researchers in fields such as biomedical engineering, machine learning, or data science, thereby widening the scope for new discoveries and inventions. New approaches to the assessment of research quality can help realize this model, revisiting the measures of success and impact. While research partnerships with large industry are productive, newer efforts that foster enterprise startups are changing how institutions see the benefits of the connection between academic innovation and affiliated startup company formation. This innovation-to-enterprise focus can help to cultivate a broader bandwidth of donor-to-investor networks. There are many predictions on future directions in medical physics, yet the actual inventive and discovery steps come from individual research faculty creativity. All success through a DIVERT model requires that faculty-led initiatives span the gap from invention to translation, with support from institutional leadership at all steps in the process. Institutional investment in faculty through endowments or clinical revenues will likely need to increase in the coming years due to the relative decreasing size of grants. Yet, radiology and radiation oncology are both high-revenue, translational fields, with the capacity to synergistically support clinical and research operations through large infrastructures that are mutually beneficial. These roadmap principles can provide a pathway for committed academic medical physics programs in scholarly leadership that will preserve medical physics as an active part of university academics.

5.
BMJ ; 372: n49, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the previously derived Canadian TIA Score to stratify subsequent stroke risk in a new cohort of emergency department patients with transient ischaemic attack. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 13 Canadian emergency departments over five years. PARTICIPANTS: 7607 consecutively enrolled adult patients attending the emergency department with transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was subsequent stroke or carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days. The secondary outcome was subsequent stroke within seven days (with or without carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting). Telephone follow-up used the validated Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status at seven and 90 days. All outcomes were adjudicated by panels of three stroke experts, blinded to the index emergency department visit. RESULTS: Of the 7607 patients, 108 (1.4%) had a subsequent stroke within seven days, 83 (1.1%) had carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days, and nine had both. The Canadian TIA Score stratified the risk of stroke, carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting, or both within seven days as low (risk ≤0.5%; interval likelihood ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.44), medium (risk 2.3%; interval likelihood ratio 0.94, 0.85 to 1.04), and high (risk 5.9% interval likelihood ratio 2.56, 2.02 to 3.25) more accurately (area under the curve 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.73) than did the ABCD2 (0.60, 0.55 to 0.64) or ABCD2i (0.64, 0.59 to 0.68). Results were similar for subsequent stroke regardless of carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days. CONCLUSION: The Canadian TIA Score stratifies patients' seven day risk for stroke, with or without carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting, and is now ready for clinical use. Incorporating this validated risk estimate into management plans should improve early decision making at the index emergency visit regarding benefits of hospital admission, timing of investigations, and prioritisation of specialist referral.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Comorbidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625468

RESUMO

Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of preventable strokes. Screening asymptomatic individuals for AF may increase anticoagulant use for stroke prevention. Objective: To evaluate 2 home-based AF screening interventions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter randomized clinical trial recruited individuals from primary care practices aged 75 years or older with hypertension and without known AF. From April 5, 2015, to March 26, 2019, 856 participants were enrolled from 48 practices. Interventions: The control group received standard care (routine clinical follow-up plus a pulse check and heart auscultation at baseline and 6 months). The screening group received a 2-week continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) patch monitor to wear at baseline and at 3 months, in addition to standard care. The screening group also received automated home blood pressure (BP) machines with oscillometric AF screening capability to use twice-daily during the cECG monitoring periods. Main Outcomes and Measures: With intention-to-screen analysis, the primary outcome was AF detected by cECG monitoring or clinically within 6 months. Secondary outcomes included anticoagulant use, device adherence, and AF detection by BP monitors. Results: Of the 856 participants, 487 were women (56.9%); mean (SD) age was 80.0 (4.0) years. Median cECG wear time was 27.4 of 28 days (interquartile range [IQR], 18.4-28.0 days). In the primary analysis, AF was detected in 23 of 434 participants (5.3%) in the screening group vs 2 of 422 (0.5%) in the control group (relative risk, 11.2; 95% CI, 2.7-47.1; P = .001; absolute difference, 4.8%; 95% CI, 2.6%-7.0%; P < .001; number needed to screen, 21). Of those with cECG-detected AF, median total time spent in AF was 6.3 hours (IQR, 4.2-14.0 hours; range 1.3 hours-28 days), and median duration of the longest AF episode was 5.7 hours (IQR, 2.9-12.9 hours). Anticoagulation was initiated in 15 of 20 patients (75.0%) with cECG-detected AF. By 6 months, anticoagulant therapy had been prescribed for 18 of 434 participants (4.1%) in the screening group vs 4 of 422 (0.9%) in the control group (relative risk, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-12.8; P = .007; absolute difference, 3.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-5.3%; P = .003). Twice-daily AF screening using the home BP monitor had a sensitivity of 35.0% (95% CI, 15.4%-59.2%), specificity of 81.0% (95% CI, 76.7%-84.8%), positive predictive value of 8.9% (95% CI, 4.9%-15.5%), and negative predictive value of 95.9% (95% CI, 94.5%-97.0%). Adverse skin reactions requiring premature discontinuation of cECG monitoring occurred in 5 of 434 participants (1.2%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, among older community-dwelling individuals with hypertension, AF screening with a wearable cECG monitor was well tolerated, increased AF detection 10-fold, and prompted initiation of anticoagulant therapy in most cases. Compared with continuous ECG, intermittent oscillometric screening with a BP monitor was an inferior strategy for detecting paroxysmal AF. Large trials with hard clinical outcomes are now needed to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of AF screening. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02392754.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, procedures were developed to achieve efficient reversible conversion of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) and deliver ultrahigh-dose-rate (UHDR) electron or conventional beams to the treatment room isocenter for FLASH radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The LINAC was converted to deliver UHDR beam within 20 minutes by retracting the x-ray target from the beam's path, positioning the carousel on an empty port, and selecting 10 MV photon beam energy in the treatment console. Dose rate surface and depth dose profiles were measured in solid water phantom at different field sizes with Gafchromic film and an optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD). A pulse controller counted the pulses via scattered radiation signal and gated the delivery for a preset pulse count. A fast photomultiplier tube-based Cherenkov detector measured the per pulse beam output at a 2-ns sampling rate. After conversion back to clinical mode, conventional beam output, flatness, symmetry, field size, and energy were measured for all clinically commissioned energies. RESULTS: The surface average dose rates at the isocenter for 1-cm diameter and 1.5-in diameter circular fields and for a jaws-wide-open field were 238 ± 5 Gy/s, 262 ± 5 Gy/s, and 290 ± 5 Gy/s, respectively. The radial symmetry of the beams was within 2.4%, 0.5%, and 0.2%, respectively. The doses from simultaneous irradiation of film and OSLD were within 1%. The photomultiplier tube showed the LINAC required ramp up time in the first 4 to 6 pulses before the output stabilized, after which its stability was within 3%. CONCLUSIONS: At the isocenter of the treatment room, 10 MeV UHDR beams were achieved. The beam output was reproducible but requires further investigation of the ramp up time, equivalent to ∼1 Gy, requiring dose monitoring. The UHDR beam can irradiate both small and large subjects to investigate potential FLASH radiobiological effects in minimally modified clinical settings, and the dose rate can be further increased by reducing the source-to-surface distance.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The value of Cherenkov imaging as an on-patient, real-time, treatment delivery verification system was examined in a 64-patient cohort during routine radiation treatments in a single-center study. METHODS & MATERIALS: Cherenkov cameras were mounted in treatment rooms and used to image patients during their standard radiotherapy regimen for various sites, predominantly for whole breast and total skin electron therapy. For most patients, multiple fractions were imaged, with some involving bolus or scintillators on the skin. Measures of repeatability were calculated with a mean distance to conformity (MDC) for breast irradiation images. RESULTS: In breast treatments, Cherenkov images identified fractions when treatment delivery resulted in dose on the contralateral breast, the arm, or chin, and found non-ideal bolus positioning. In sarcoma treatments, safe positioning of the contralateral leg was monitored. For all 199 imaged breast treatment fields, the inter-fraction MDC was within 7 mm as compared to the first day of treatment (with only 7.5% of treatments exceeding 3 mm), and all but one fell within 7 mm relative to the treatment plan. The value of imaging dose through clear bolus or quantifying surface dose with scintillator dots was examined. Cherenkov imaging also was able to assess field match lines in cerebral-spinal (CSI) and breast irradiation with nodes. Treatment imaging of other anatomical sites confirmed the value of surface dose imaging more broadly. CONCLUSIONS: Daily radiotherapy can be imaged routinely via Cherenkov emissions. Both the real-time images and the post-treatment, cumulative images provide surrogate maps of surface dose delivery that can be used for incident discovery and/or continuous improvement in many delivery techniques. In this initial 64-patient cohort, we discovered six minor incidents using Cherenkov imaging, without which, would have gone undetected. In addition, imaging provides automated, quantitative metrics useful to determining the quality of radiotherapy delivery.

9.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191198

RESUMO

The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines program was developed to aid clinicians in the management of these complex patients, as well as to provide direction to policy makers and health care systems regarding related issues. The most recent comprehensive CCS AF guidelines update was published in 2010. Since then, periodic updates were published dealing with rapidly changing areas. However, by 2020 a large number of developments had accumulated in a wide range of areas, motivating the committee to create a complete guideline review. The 2020 iteration of the CCS AF guidelines represents a comprehensive renewal that integrates, updates, and replaces the past decade of guidelines, recommendations, and practical tips. It is intended to be used by practicing clinicians across all disciplines who care for patients with AF. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations system was used to grade recommendation strength and the quality of evidence. Areas of focus include: AF classification and definitions, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical evaluation, screening and opportunistic AF detection, detection and management of modifiable risk factors, integrated approach to AF management, stroke prevention, arrhythmia management, sex differences, and AF in special populations. Extensive use is made of tables and figures to synthesize important material and present key concepts. This document should be an important aid for knowledge translation and a tool to help improve clinical management of this important and challenging arrhythmia.

10.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(22): 225013, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179612

RESUMO

In this study the metric of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was applied to Cherenkov imaging systems for the first time, and results were compared for different detector hardware, gain levels and with imaging processing for noise suppression. Intensified complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras using different image intensifier designs (Gen3 and Gen2+) were used to image Cherenkov emission from a tissue phantom in order to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) of the systems. These parameters were used to calculate the DQE for varying acquisition settings and image processing steps. MTF curves indicated that the Gen3 system had superior contrast transfer and spatial resolution than the Gen2+ system, with [Formula: see text] values of 0.52 mm-1 and 0.31 mm-1, respectively. With median filtering for noise suppression, these values decreased to 0.50 mm-1 and 0.26 mm-1. The maximum NPS values for the Gen3 and Gen2+ systems at high gain were 1.3 × 106 mm2 and 9.1 × 104 mm2 respectively, representing a 14x decrease in noise power for the Gen2+ system. Both systems exhibited increased NPS intensity with increasing gain, while median filtering lowered the NPS. The DQE of each system increased with increasing gain, and at the maximum gain levels the Gen3 system had a low-frequency DQE of 0.31%, while the Gen2+ system had a value of 1.44%. However, at a higher frequency of 0.4 mm-1, these values became 0.54% and 0.03%. Filtering improved DQE for the Gen3 system and reduced DQE for the Gen2+ system and had a mix of detrimental and beneficial qualitative effects by decreasing the spatial resolution and sharpness but also substantially lowering noise. This methodology for DQE measurement allowed for quantitative comparison between Cherenkov imaging cameras and improvements to their sensitivity, and yielded the first formal assessment of Cherenkov image formation efficiency.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The extreme microscopic heterogeneity of tumors makes it difficult to characterize tumor hypoxia. We evaluated how changes in the spatial resolution of oxygen imaging could alter measures of tumor hypoxia and their correlation to radiation therapy response. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cherenkov-Excited Luminescence Imaging (CELI) in combination with an oxygen probe, Oxyphor PtG4 was used to directly image tumor pO2 distributions with 0.2 mm spatial resolution at the time of radiation delivery. These pO2 images were analyzed with variations of reduced spatial resolution from 0.2 mm to 5 mm, to investigate the influence of how reduced imaging spatial resolution would affect the observed tumor hypoxia. As an in vivo validation test, mice bearing tumor xenografts were imaged for hypoxic fraction and median pO2 to examine the predictive link with tumor response to radiation therapy, while accounting for spatial resolution. RESULTS: In transitioning from voxel sizes of 200 µm to 3mm, the median pO2 values increased by a few mmHg, while the hypoxic fraction decreased by more than 50%. When looking at radiation-responsive tumors, the median pO2 values changed just a few mmHg as a result of treatment, while the hypoxic fractions changed by as much as 50%. This latter change, however, could only be seen when sampling was performed with high spatial resolution. Median pO2 or similar quantities obtained from low resolution measurements are commonly used in clinical practice, however these parameters are much less sensitive to changes in the tumor microenvironment than the tumor hypoxic fraction obtained from high-resolution oxygen images. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that for adequate measurements of the tumor response to radiation therapy, oxygen imaging with high spatial resolution is required in order to accurately characterize the hypoxic fraction.

13.
Med Phys ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030241

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A Geant4-based TOPAS Monte Carlo toolkit was utilized to model a Varian ProBeam proton therapy system, with the aim of providing an independent computational platform for validating advanced dosimetric methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model was tested for accuracy of dose and linear energy transfer (LET) prediction relative to the commissioning data, which included integral depth dose (IDD) in water and spot profiles in air measured at varying depths (for energies of 70 to 240 MeV in increments of 10 MeV, and 242 MeV), and absolute dose calibration. Emittance was defined based on depth-dependent spot profiles and Courant-Snyder's particle transport theory, which provided spot size and angular divergence along the inline and crossline plane. Energy spectra were defined as Gaussian distributions that best matched the range and maximum dose of the IDD. The validity of the model was assessed based on measurements of range, dose to peak difference, mean point to point difference, spot sizes at different depths, and spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) IDD and was compared to the current treatment planning software (TPS). RESULTS: Simulated and commissioned spot sizes agreed within 2.5%. The single spot IDD range, maximum dose, and mean point to point difference of each commissioned energy agreed with the simulated profiles generally within 0.07 mm, 0.4%, and 0.6%, respectively. A simulated SOBP plan agreed with the measured dose within 2% for the plateau region. The protons/MU and absolute dose agreed with the current TPS to within 1.6% and exhibited the greatest discrepancy at higher energies. CONCLUSIONS: The TOPAS model agreed well with the commissioning data and included inline and crossline asymmetry of the beam profiles. The discrepancy between the measured and TOPAS-simulated SOBP plan may be due to beam modeling simplifications of the current TPS and the nuclear halo effect. The model can compute LET, and motivates future studies in understanding equivalent dose prediction in treatment planning, and investigating scintillation quenching.

15.
Med Phys ; 47(9): 3861-3869, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the potential benefits of remote camera-based scintillation imaging for routine quality assurance (QA) measurements for magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) linear accelerators. METHODS: A wall-mounted CMOS camera with a time-synchronized intensifier was used to image photons produced from a scintillation screen in response to dose deposition from a 6 MV FFF x-ray beam produced by a 0.35 T MR-linac. The oblique angle of the field of view was corrected using a projective transform from a checkerboard calibration target. Output sensitivity and constancy was measured using the scintillator and benchmarked against an A28 ion chamber. Field cross-plane and in-plane profiles were measured for field sizes ranging from 1.68 × 1.66 cm2 to 20.02 × 19.92 cm2 with both scintillation imaging and using an IC profiler. Multileaf collimator (MLC) shifts were introduced to test sensitivity of the scintillation imaging system to small spatial deviations. A picket fence test and star-shot were delivered to both the scintillator and EBT3 film to compare accuracy in measuring MLC positions and isocenter size. RESULTS: The scintillation imaging system showed comparable sensitivity and linearity to the ion chamber in response to changes in machine output down to 0.5 MU (R2  = 0.99). Cross-plane profiles show strong agreement with defined field sizes using full width half maximum (FWHM) measurement of <2 mm for field sizes below 15 cm, but the oblique viewing angle was the limiting factor in accuracy of in-plane profile widths. However, the system provided high-resolution profiles in both directions for constancy measurements. Small shifts in the field position down to 0.5 mm were detectable with <0.1 mm accuracy. Multileaf collimator positions as measured with both scintillation imaging and EBT3 film were measured within ± 1 mm tolerance and both detection systems produced similar isocenter sizes from the star-shot analysis (0.81 and 0.83 mm radii). CONCLUSIONS: Remote scintillation imaging of a two-dimensional screen provided a rapid, versatile, MR-compatible solution to many routine quality assurance procedures including output constancy, profile flatness and symmetry constancy, MLC position verification and isocenter size. This method is high-resolution, does not require post-irradiation readout, and provides simple, instantaneous data acquisition. Full automation of the readout and processing could make this a very simple but effective QA tool, and is adaptable to all medical accelerators.

16.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 7(3): 034002, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509916

RESUMO

Purpose: Quality assurance (QA) of dose homogeneity in total skin electron therapy (TSET) is challenging since each patient is positioned in six standing poses with two beam angles. Our study tested the feasibility of a unique approach for TSET QA through computational display of the cumulative dose, constructed and synthesized by computer animation methods. Approach: Dose distributions from Cherenkov emission images were projected onto a scanned 3D body model. Topographically mapped surfaces of the patient were recorded in each of six different delivery positions, while a Cherenkov camera acquired images. Computer animation methods allowed a fitted 3D human body model of the patient to be created with deformation of the limbs and torso to each position. A two-dimensional skin map was extracted from the 3D model of the full surface of the patient. This allowed the dose mapping to be additively accumulated independent of body position, with the total dose summed in a 2D map and reinterpreted on the 3D body display. Results: For the body model, the mean Hausdorff error distance was below 2 cm, setting the spatial accuracy limit. The dose distribution over the patient's 3D model generally matched the Cherenkov/dose images. The dose distribution mapping was estimated to be near 1.5 cm accuracy based upon a phantom study. The body model must most closely match at the edges of the mesh to ensure that high dose gradients are not projected onto the wrong location. Otherwise 2 to 3 cm level errors in positioning in the mesh do not appear to cause larger than 5% dose errors. The cumulative dose images showed regions of overlap laterally and regions of low intensity in the posterior arms. Conclusions: The proposed modeling and animation can be used to visualize and analyze the accumulated dose in TSET via display of the summed dose/Cherenkov images on a single body surface.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(11): e013227, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431188

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major, often undetected, cardiac cause of stroke. Markers of atrial cardiopathy, including left atrial enlargement (LAE) or excessive atrial ectopy (EAE) increase the risk of AF and have shown associations with stroke. We sought to determine whether these markers improve stroke risk prediction beyond traditional vascular risk factors (eg CHA2DS2-VASc score). Methods and Results Retrospective longitudinal cohort of 32 454 consecutive community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years referred for outpatient echocardiogram or Holter in Ontario, Canada (2010-2017). Moderate-severe LAE was defined as men >47 mm and women >43 mm, and EAE was defined as >30 APBs per hour. Cause-specific competing risks Cox proportional hazards used to estimate risk of ischemic stroke (primary), incident AF, and death (secondary). C-statistics, incremental discrimination improvement and net reclassification were used to compare CHA2DS2-VASc with LAE and EAE to CHA2DS2-VASc alone. Each 10 mm increase in left atrial diameter increased 2- and 5-year adjusted cause-specific stroke hazard almost 2-fold (LAE: 2-year hazard ratio (HR), 1.72; P=0.007; 5-year HR, 1.87; P<0.0001), while EAE showed no significant associations with stroke (2-year HR, 1.00; P=0.99; 5-year HR, 1.08, P=0.70), adjusting for incident AF. Stroke risk estimation improved significantly at 2 (C-statistics=0.68-0.75, P=0.008) and 5 years (C-statistics=0.70-0.76, P=0.003) with LAE and EAE. Conclusions LAE was independently associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in the absence of AF and both LAE and EAE improved stroke risk prediction. These findings have implications for stroke risk stratification, AF screening, and stroke prevention before the onset of AF.

18.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(16): 165014, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428888

RESUMO

The goal of this work was to create a technique that could measure all possible spatial and temporal delivery rates used in pencil-beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy. The proposed system used a fast scintillation screen for full-field imaging to resolve temporal and spatial patterns as it was delivered. A fast intensified CMOS camera used continuous mode with 10 ms temporal frame rate and 1 × 1 mm2 spatial resolution, imaging a scintillation screen during clinical proton PBS delivery. PBS plans with varying dose, dose rate, energy, field size, and spot-spacing were generated, delivered and imaged. The captured images were post processed to provide dose and dose rate values after background subtraction, perspective transformation, uniformity correction for the camera and the scintillation screen, and calibration into dose. The linearity in scintillation response with respect to varying dose rate, dose, and field size was within 2%. The quenching corrected response with varying energy was also within 2%. Large spatio-temporal variations in dose rate were observed, even for plans delivered with similar dose distributions. Dose and dose rate histograms and maximum dose rate maps were generated for quantitative evaluations. With the fastest PBS delivery on a clinical system, dose rates up to 26.0 Gy s-1 were resolved. The scintillation imaging technique was able to quantify proton PBS dose rate profiles with spot weight as low as 2 MU, with spot-spacing of 2.5 mm, having a 1 × 1 mm2 spatial resolution. These dose rate temporal profiles, spatial maps, and cumulative dose rate histograms provide useful metrics for the potential evaluation and optimization of dose rate in treatment plans.


Assuntos
Imagem Molecular/métodos , Terapia com Prótons , Doses de Radiação , Calibragem , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem
20.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(6): 158-162, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The novel scintillator-based system described in this study is capable of accurately and remotely measuring surface dose during Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET); this dosimeter does not require post-exposure processing or annealing and has been shown to be re-usable, resistant to radiation damage, have minimal impact on surface dose, and reduce chances of operator error compared to existing technologies e.g. optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the workflow required to measure surface dose using this new scintillator dosimeter and compare it to that of standard OSLDs. METHODS: Disc-shaped scintillators were attached to a flat-faced phantom and a patient undergoing TSET. Light emission from these plastic discs was captured using a time-gated, intensified, camera during irradiation and converted to dose using an external calibration factor. Time required to complete each step (daily QA, dosimeter preparation, attachment, removal, registration, and readout) of the scintillator and OSLD surface dosimetry workflows was tracked. RESULTS: In phantoms, scintillators and OSLDs surface doses agreed within 3% for all data points. During patient imaging it was found that surface dose measured by OSLD and scintillator agreed within 5% and 3% for 35/35 and 32/35 dosimetry sites, respectively. The end-to-end time required to measure surface dose during phantom experiments for a single dosimeter was 78 and 202 sec for scintillator and OSL dosimeters, respectively. During patient treatment, surface dose was assessed at 7 different body locations by scintillator and OSL dosimeters in 386 and 754 sec, respectively. CONCLUSION: Scintillators have been shown to report dose nearly twice as fast as OSLDs with substantially less manual work and reduced chances of human error. Scintillator dose measurements are automatically saved to an electronic patient file and images contain a permanent record of the dose delivered during treatment.

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