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2.
Psychiatry Res ; 306: 114237, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655926

RESUMO

The direct effect of genetic variations on clinical phenotypes within schizophrenia (SZ) remains elusive. We examined the previously identified association of reduced gray matter concentration in the insula - medial prefrontal cortex and a quantitative trait locus located in 12q24 in a SZ dataset. The main analysis was performed on 1461 SNPs and 830 participants. The highest contributing SNPs were localized in five genes including TMEM119, which encodes a microglial marker, that is associated with neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease. The gene set in 12q4 may partially explain brain alterations in SZ, but they may also relate to other psychiatric and developmental disorders.

3.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498337

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is associated with widespread alterations in subcortical brain structure. While analytic methods have enabled more detailed morphometric characterization, findings are often equivocal. In this meta-analysis, we employed the harmonized ENIGMA shape analysis protocols to collaboratively investigate subcortical brain structure shape differences between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy control participants. The study analyzed data from 2,833 individuals with schizophrenia and 3,929 healthy control participants contributed by 21 worldwide research groups participating in the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Harmonized shape analysis protocols were applied to each site's data independently for bilateral hippocampus, amygdala, caudate, accumbens, putamen, pallidum, and thalamus obtained from T1-weighted structural MRI scans. Mass univariate meta-analyses revealed more-concave-than-convex shape differences in the hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, and thalamus in individuals with schizophrenia compared with control participants, more-convex-than-concave shape differences in the putamen and pallidum, and both concave and convex shape differences in the caudate. Patterns of exaggerated asymmetry were observed across the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus in individuals with schizophrenia compared to control participants, while diminished asymmetry encompassed ventral striatum and ventral and dorsal thalamus. Our analyses also revealed that higher chlorpromazine dose equivalents and increased positive symptom levels were associated with patterns of contiguous convex shape differences across multiple subcortical structures. Findings from our shape meta-analysis suggest that common neurobiological mechanisms may contribute to gray matter reduction across multiple subcortical regions, thus enhancing our understanding of the nature of network disorganization in schizophrenia.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1836-1851, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582791

RESUMO

Many common and rare variants associated with hematologic traits have been discovered through imputation on large-scale reference panels. However, the majority of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted in Europeans, and determining causal variants has proved challenging. We performed a GWAS of total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts generated from 109,563,748 variants in the autosomes and the X chromosome in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which included data from 61,802 individuals of diverse ancestry. We discovered and replicated 7 leukocyte trait associations, including (1) the association between a chromosome X, pseudo-autosomal region (PAR), noncoding variant located between cytokine receptor genes (CSF2RA and CLRF2) and lower eosinophil count; and (2) associations between single variants found predominantly among African Americans at the S1PR3 (9q22.1) and HBB (11p15.4) loci and monocyte and lymphocyte counts, respectively. We further provide evidence indicating that the newly discovered eosinophil-lowering chromosome X PAR variant might be associated with reduced susceptibility to common allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. Additionally, we found a burden of very rare FLT3 (13q12.2) variants associated with monocyte counts. Together, these results emphasize the utility of whole-genome sequencing in diverse samples in identifying associations missed by European-ancestry-driven GWASs.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553764

RESUMO

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet related disorder genes influencing variation in platelet traits in TOPMed cohorts (not enriched for blood disorders). For example, association of GP9 with lower PLT and higher MPV was partly driven by a pathogenic Bernard-Soulier syndrome variant (rs5030764, p.Asn61Ser), and the signals at TUBB1 and CD36 were partly driven by loss of function variants not annotated as pathogenic in ClinVar (rs199948010 and rs571975065). However, residual signal remained for these gene-based signals after adjusting for lead variants, suggesting that additional variants in Mendelian genes with impacts in general population cohorts remain to be identified. Gene-based signals were also identified at several GWAS identified loci for genes not annotated for Mendelian platelet disorders (PTPRH, TET2, CHEK2), with somatic variation driving the result at TET2. These results highlight the value of whole genome sequencing in populations of diverse genetic ancestry to identify novel regulatory and coding signals, even for well-studied traits like platelet traits.

6.
Schizophr Res ; 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315649

RESUMO

An opportunity has opened for research into primary prevention of psychotic disorders, based on progress in endophenotypes, genetics, and genomics. Primary prevention requires reliable prediction of susceptibility before any symptoms are present. We studied a battery of measures where published data supports abnormalities of these measurements prior to appearance of initial psychosis symptoms. These neurobiological and behavioral measurements included cognition, eye movement tracking, Event Related Potentials, and polygenic risk scores. They generated an acceptably precise separation of healthy controls from outpatients with a psychotic disorder. METHODS: The Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) measured this battery in an ancestry-diverse series of consecutively recruited adult outpatients with a psychotic disorder and healthy controls. Participants include all genders, 16 to 50 years of age, 261 with psychotic disorders (Schizophrenia (SZ) 109, Bipolar with psychosis (BPP) 92, Schizoaffective disorder (SAD) 60), 110 healthy controls. Logistic Regression, and an extension of the Linear Mixed Model to include analysis of pairwise interactions between measures (Environmental kernel Relationship Matrices (ERM)) with multiple iterations, were performed to predict case-control status. Each regression analysis was validated with four-fold cross-validation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity, specificity, and Area Under the Curve of Receiver Operating Characteristic of 85%, 62%, and 86%, respectively, were obtained for both analytic methods. These prediction metrics demonstrate a promising diagnostic distinction based on premorbid risk variables. There were also statistically significant pairwise interactions between measures in the ERM model. The strong prediction metrics of both types of analytic model provide proof-of-principle for biologically-based laboratory tests as a first step toward primary prevention studies. Prospective studies of adolescents at elevated risk, vs. healthy adolescent controls, would be a next step toward development of primary prevention strategies.

7.
Biol Psychiatry ; 90(6): 373-384, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a key feature of psychiatric illness, making cognition an important tool for exploring of the genetics of illness risk. It remains unclear which measures should be prioritized in pleiotropy-guided research. Here, we generate profiles of genetic overlap between psychotic and affective disorders and cognitive measures in Caucasian and Hispanic groups. METHODS: Data were from 4 samples of extended pedigrees (N = 3046). Coefficient of relationship analyses were used to estimate genetic overlap between illness risk and cognitive ability. Results were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: Psychosis was characterized by cognitive impairments on all measures with a generalized profile of genetic overlap. General cognitive ability shared greatest genetic overlap with psychosis risk (average endophenotype ranking value [ERV] across samples from a random-effects meta-analysis = 0.32), followed by verbal memory (ERV = 0.24), executive function (ERV = 0.22), and working memory (ERV = 0.21). For bipolar disorder, there was genetic overlap with processing speed (ERV = 0.05) and verbal memory (ERV = 0.11), but these were confined to select samples. Major depressive disorder was characterized by enhanced working and face memory performance, as reflected in significant genetic overlap in 2 samples. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial genetic overlap between risk for psychosis and a range of cognitive abilities (including general intelligence). Most of these effects are largely stable across of ascertainment strategy and ethnicity. Genetic overlap between affective disorders and cognition, on the other hand, tends to be specific to ascertainment strategy, ethnicity, and cognitive test battery.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Linhagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética
8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(3): e003232, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification and understanding of therapeutic targets for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is of fundamental importance given its global health and economic burden. Inhibition of ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like 3) has demonstrated a cardioprotective effect, showing promise for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease treatment, and is currently the focus of ongoing clinical trials. Here, we assessed the genetic basis of variation in ANGPTL3 levels in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. METHODS: We assayed ANGPTL3 protein levels in ≈1000 Mexican Americans from extended pedigrees. By drawing upon existing plasma lipidome profiles and genomic data we conducted analyses to understand the genetic basis to variation in ANGPTL3 protein levels, and accordingly the correlation with the plasma lipidome. RESULTS: In a variance components framework, we identified that variation in ANGPTL3 was significantly heritable (h2=0.33, P=1.31×10-16). To explore the genetic basis of this heritability, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and identified significant linkage (logarithm of odds =6.18) to a locus on chromosome 1 at 90 centimorgans, corresponding to the ANGPTL3 gene location. In the genomes of 23 individuals from a single pedigree, we identified a loss-of-function variant, rs398122988 (N121Kfs*2), in ANGPTL3, that was significantly associated with lower ANGPTL3 levels (ß=-1.69 SD units, P=3.367×10-13), and accounted for the linkage signal at this locus. Given the known role of ANGPTL3 as an inhibitor of endothelial and lipoprotein lipase, we explored the association of ANGPTL3 protein levels and rs398122988 with the plasma lipidome and related phenotypes, identifying novel associations with phosphatidylinositols. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in ANGPTL3 protein levels is heritable and under significant genetic control. Both ANGPTL3 levels and loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 have significant associations with the plasma lipidome. These findings further our understanding of ANGPTL3 as a therapeutic target for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

9.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e29, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Questions remain regarding whether genetic influences on early life psychopathology overlap with cognition and show developmental variation. METHODS: Using data from 9,421 individuals aged 8-21 from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, factors of psychopathology were generated using a bifactor model of item-level data from a psychiatric interview. Five orthogonal factors were generated: anxious-misery (mood and anxiety), externalizing (attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorder), fear (phobias), psychosis-spectrum, and a general factor. Genetic analyses were conducted on a subsample of 4,662 individuals of European American ancestry. A genetic relatedness matrix was used to estimate heritability of these factors, and genetic correlations with executive function, episodic memory, complex reasoning, social cognition, motor speed, and general cognitive ability. Gene × Age analyses determined whether genetic influences on these factors show developmental variation. RESULTS: Externalizing was heritable (h2 = 0.46, p = 1 × 10-6), but not anxious-misery (h2 = 0.09, p = 0.183), fear (h2 = 0.04, p = 0.337), psychosis-spectrum (h2 = 0.00, p = 0.494), or general psychopathology (h2 = 0.21, p = 0.040). Externalizing showed genetic overlap with face memory (ρg = -0.412, p = 0.004), verbal reasoning (ρg = -0.485, p = 0.001), spatial reasoning (ρg = -0.426, p = 0.010), motor speed (ρg = 0.659, p = 1x10-4), verbal knowledge (ρg = -0.314, p = 0.002), and general cognitive ability (g)(ρg = -0.394, p = 0.002). Gene × Age analyses revealed decreasing genetic variance (γg = -0.146, p = 0.004) and increasing environmental variance (γe = 0.059, p = 0.009) on externalizing. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment may be a useful endophenotype of externalizing psychopathology and, therefore, help elucidate its pathophysiological underpinnings. Decreasing genetic variance suggests that gene discovery efforts may be more fruitful in children than adolescents or young adults.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Função Executiva , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 182, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753722

RESUMO

Low-frequency 1q21.1 distal deletion and duplication copy number variant (CNV) carriers are predisposed to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. Human carriers display a high prevalence of micro- and macrocephaly in deletion and duplication carriers, respectively. The underlying brain structural diversity remains largely unknown. We systematically called CNVs in 38 cohorts from the large-scale ENIGMA-CNV collaboration and the UK Biobank and identified 28 1q21.1 distal deletion and 22 duplication carriers and 37,088 non-carriers (48% male) derived from 15 distinct magnetic resonance imaging scanner sites. With standardized methods, we compared subcortical and cortical brain measures (all) and cognitive performance (UK Biobank only) between carrier groups also testing for mediation of brain structure on cognition. We identified positive dosage effects of copy number on intracranial volume (ICV) and total cortical surface area, with the largest effects in frontal and cingulate cortices, and negative dosage effects on caudate and hippocampal volumes. The carriers displayed distinct cognitive deficit profiles in cognitive tasks from the UK Biobank with intermediate decreases in duplication carriers and somewhat larger in deletion carriers-the latter potentially mediated by ICV or cortical surface area. These results shed light on pathobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, by demonstrating gene dose effect on specific brain structures and effect on cognitive function.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Deleção Cromossômica , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/genética
11.
Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging ; 6(12): 1135-1144, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progress in precision psychiatry is predicated on identifying reliable individual-level diagnostic biomarkers. For psychosis, measures of structural and functional connectivity could be promising biomarkers given consistent reports of dysconnectivity across psychotic disorders using magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: We leveraged data from four independent cohorts of patients with psychosis and control subjects with observations from approximately 800 individuals. We used group-level analyses and two supervised machine learning algorithms (support vector machines and ridge regression) to test within-, between-, and across-sample classification performance of white matter and resting-state connectivity metrics. RESULTS: Although we replicated group-level differences in brain connectivity, individual-level classification was suboptimal. Classification performance within samples was variable across folds (highest area under the curve [AUC] range = 0.30) and across datasets (average support vector machine AUC range = 0.50; average ridge regression AUC range = 0.18). Classification performance between samples was similarly variable or resulted in AUC values of approximately 0.65, indicating a lack of model generalizability. Furthermore, collapsing across samples (resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, N = 888; diffusion tensor imaging, N = 860) did not improve model performance (maximal AUC = 0.67). Ridge regression models generally outperformed support vector machine models, although classification performance was still suboptimal in terms of clinical relevance. Adjusting for demographic covariates did not greatly affect results. CONCLUSIONS: Connectivity measures were not suitable as diagnostic biomarkers for psychosis as assessed in this study. Our results do not negate that other approaches may be more successful, although it is clear that a systematic approach to individual-level classification with large independent validation samples is necessary to properly vet neuroimaging features as diagnostic biomarkers.

12.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615640

RESUMO

The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis copy number variant (ENIGMA-CNV) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Groups (22q-ENIGMA WGs) were created to gain insight into the involvement of genetic factors in human brain development and related cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral manifestations. To that end, the ENIGMA-CNV WG has collated CNV and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from ~49,000 individuals across 38 global research sites, yielding one of the largest studies to date on the effects of CNVs on brain structures in the general population. The 22q-ENIGMA WG includes 12 international research centers that assessed over 533 individuals with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 40 with 22q11.2 duplications, and 333 typically developing controls, creating the largest-ever 22q11.2 CNV neuroimaging data set. In this review, we outline the ENIGMA infrastructure and procedures for multi-site analysis of CNVs and MRI data. So far, ENIGMA has identified effects of the 22q11.2, 16p11.2 distal, 15q11.2, and 1q21.1 distal CNVs on subcortical and cortical brain structures. Each CNV is associated with differences in cognitive, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric traits, with characteristic patterns of brain structural abnormalities. Evidence of gene-dosage effects on distinct brain regions also emerged, providing further insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Taken together, these results offer a more comprehensive picture of molecular mechanisms involved in typical and atypical brain development. This "genotype-first" approach also contributes to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of brain disorders. Finally, we outline future directions to better understand effects of CNVs on brain structure and behavior.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(5): 1706-1718, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597717

RESUMO

Mendelian and early-onset severe psychiatric phenotypes often involve genetic variants having a large effect, offering opportunities for genetic discoveries and early therapeutic interventions. Here, the index case is an 18-year-old boy, who at 14 years of age had a decline in cognitive functioning over the course of a year and subsequently presented with catatonia, auditory and visual hallucinations, paranoia, aggression, mood dysregulation, and disorganized thoughts. Exome sequencing revealed a stop-gain mutation in RCL1 (NM_005772.4:c.370 C > T, p.Gln124Ter), encoding an RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase-like protein that is highly conserved across eukaryotic species. Subsequent investigations across two academic medical centers identified eleven additional cases of RCL1 copy number variations (CNVs) with varying neurodevelopmental or psychiatric phenotypes. These findings suggest that dosage variation of RCL1 contributes to a range of neurological and clinical phenotypes.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Adolescente , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(8): 4529-4543, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414498

RESUMO

Important questions remain about the profile of cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders across adulthood and illness stages. The age-associated profile of familial impairments also remains unclear, as well as the effect of factors, such as symptoms, functioning, and medication. Using cross-sectional data from the EU-GEI and GROUP studies, comprising 8455 participants aged 18 to 65, we examined cognitive functioning across adulthood in patients with psychotic disorders (n = 2883), and their unaffected siblings (n = 2271), compared to controls (n = 3301). An abbreviated WAIS-III measured verbal knowledge, working memory, visuospatial processing, processing speed, and IQ. Patients showed medium to large deficits across all functions (ES range = -0.45 to -0.73, p < 0.001), while siblings showed small deficits on IQ, verbal knowledge, and working memory (ES = -0.14 to -0.33, p < 0.001). Magnitude of impairment was not associated with participant age, such that the size of impairment in older and younger patients did not significantly differ. However, first-episode patients performed worse than prodromal patients (ES range = -0.88 to -0.60, p < 0.001). Adjusting for cannabis use, symptom severity, and global functioning attenuated impairments in siblings, while deficits in patients remained statistically significant, albeit reduced by half (ES range = -0.13 to -0.38, p < 0.01). Antipsychotic medication also accounted for around half of the impairment in patients (ES range = -0.21 to -0.43, p < 0.01). Deficits in verbal knowledge, and working memory may specifically index familial, i.e., shared genetic and/or shared environmental, liability for psychotic disorders. Nevertheless, potentially modifiable illness-related factors account for a significant portion of the cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders.

15.
Cerebellum ; 20(2): 295-299, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159660

RESUMO

The posterior cerebellum is the most significantly compromised brain structure in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (Hum Brain Mapp 40(12):3575-3588, 2019). In light of this, we hypothesized that cognitive decline reported in patients with MetS is likely related to posterior cerebellar atrophy. In this study, we performed a post hoc analyses using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the form of voxel-wise tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), biometric, and psychometric data from young participants with (n = 52, aged 18-35 years) and without MetS (n = 52, aged 18-35 years). To test the predictive value of components of the Schmahmann syndrome scale (SSS), also known as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome scale, we used structural equation modeling to adapt available psychometric scores in our participant sample to the SSS and compare them to the composite score of all psychometric data available. Our key findings point to a statistically significant correlation between TBSS fractional anisotropy (FA) values from DTI and adapted SSS psychometric scores in individuals with MetS (r2 = .139, 95% CI = 0.009, .345). This suggests that the SSS could be applied to assess cognitive and likely neuroanatomical effects associated with MetS. We strongly suggest that future work aimed at investigating the neurocognitive effects of MetS and related comorbidities (i.e., dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity) would benefit from implementing and further exploring the validity of the SSS in this patient population.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/patologia , Neuroimagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(6): 1727-1741, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340172

RESUMO

Although previous studies have highlighted associations of cannabis use with cognition and brain morphometry, critical questions remain with regard to the association between cannabis use and brain structural and functional connectivity. In a cross-sectional community sample of 205 African Americans (age 18-70) we tested for associations of cannabis use disorder (CUD, n = 57) with multi-domain cognitive measures and structural, diffusion, and resting state brain-imaging phenotypes. Post hoc model evidence was computed with Bayes factors (BF) and posterior probabilities of association (PPA) to account for multiple testing. General cognitive functioning, verbal intelligence, verbal memory, working memory, and motor speed were lower in the CUD group compared with non-users (p < .011; 1.9 < BF < 3,217). CUD was associated with altered functional connectivity in a network comprising the motor-hand region in the superior parietal gyri and the anterior insula (p < .04). These differences were not explained by alcohol, other drug use, or education. No associations with CUD were observed in cortical thickness, cortical surface area, subcortical or cerebellar volumes (0.12 < BF < 1.5), or graph-theoretical metrics of resting state connectivity (PPA < 0.01). In a large sample collected irrespective of cannabis used to minimize recruitment bias, we confirm the literature on poorer cognitive functioning in CUD, and an absence of volumetric brain differences between CUD and non-CUD. We did not find evidence for or against a disruption of structural connectivity, whereas we did find localized resting state functional dysconnectivity in CUD. There was sufficient proof, however, that organization of functional connectivity as determined via graph metrics does not differ between CUD and non-user group.

17.
Schizophr Bull ; 47(1): 197-206, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681179

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric illness associated with an elevated risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both SZ and AD have white matter abnormalities and cognitive deficits as core disease features. We hypothesized that aging in SZ patients may be associated with the development of cerebral white matter deficit patterns similar to those observed in AD. We identified and replicated aging-related increases in the similarity between white matter deficit patterns in patients with SZ and AD. The white matter "regional vulnerability index" (RVI) for AD was significantly higher in SZ patients compared with healthy controls in both the independent discovery (Cohen's d = 0.44, P = 1·10-5, N = 173 patients/230 control) and replication (Cohen's d = 0.78, P = 9·10-7, N = 122 patients/64 controls) samples. The degree of overlap with the AD deficit pattern was significantly correlated with age in patients (r = .21 and .29, P < .01 in discovery and replication cohorts, respectively) but not in controls. Elevated RVI-AD was significantly associated with cognitive measures in both SZ and AD. Disease and cognitive specificities were also tested in patients with mild cognitive impairment and showed intermediate overlap. SZ and AD have diverse etiologies and clinical courses; our findings suggest that white matter deficits may represent a key intersecting point for these 2 otherwise distinct diseases. Identifying mechanisms underlying this white matter deficit pattern may yield preventative and treatment targets for cognitive deficits in both SZ and AD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(2): 656-665, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644433

RESUMO

Successful cognitive development between childhood and adulthood has important consequences for future mental and physical wellbeing, as well as occupational and financial success. Therefore, delineating the genetic influences underlying changes in cognitive abilities during this developmental period will provide important insights into the biological mechanisms that govern both typical and atypical maturation. Using data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), a large population-based sample of individuals aged 8 to 21 years old (n = 6634), we used an empirical relatedness matrix to establish the heritability of general and specific cognitive functions and determine if genetic factors influence cognitive maturation (i.e., Gene × Age interactions) between childhood and early adulthood. We found that neurocognitive measures across childhood and early adulthood were significantly heritable. Moreover, genetic variance on general cognitive ability, or g, increased significantly between childhood and early adulthood. Finally, we did not find evidence for decay in genetic correlation on neurocognition throughout childhood and adulthood, suggesting that the same genetic factors underlie cognition at different ages throughout this developmental period. Establishing significant Gene × Age interactions in neurocognitive functions across childhood and early adulthood is a necessary first step in identifying genes that influence cognitive development, rather than genes that influence cognition per se. Moreover, since aberrant cognitive development confers risk for several psychiatric disorders, further examination of these Gene × Age interactions may provide important insights into their etiology.


Assuntos
Cognição , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(1): 87-98, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Deleterious copy number variants (CNVs) are identified in up to 20% of individuals with autism. However, levels of autism risk conferred by most rare CNVs remain unknown. The authors recently developed statistical models to estimate the effect size on IQ of all CNVs, including undocumented ones. In this study, the authors extended this model to autism susceptibility. METHODS: The authors identified CNVs in two autism populations (Simons Simplex Collection and MSSNG) and two unselected populations (IMAGEN and Saguenay Youth Study). Statistical models were used to test nine quantitative variables associated with genes encompassed in CNVs to explain their effects on IQ, autism susceptibility, and behavioral domains. RESULTS: The "probability of being loss-of-function intolerant" (pLI) best explains the effect of CNVs on IQ and autism risk. Deleting 1 point of pLI decreases IQ by 2.6 points in autism and unselected populations. The effect of duplications on IQ is threefold smaller. Autism susceptibility increases when deleting or duplicating any point of pLI. This is true for individuals with high or low IQ and after removing de novo and known recurrent neuropsychiatric CNVs. When CNV effects on IQ are accounted for, autism susceptibility remains mostly unchanged for duplications but decreases for deletions. Model estimates for autism risk overlap with previously published observations. Deletions and duplications differentially affect social communication, behavior, and phonological memory, whereas both equally affect motor skills. CONCLUSIONS: Autism risk conferred by duplications is less influenced by IQ compared with deletions. The model applied in this study, trained on CNVs encompassing >4,500 genes, suggests highly polygenic properties of gene dosage with respect to autism risk and IQ loss. These models will help to interpret CNVs identified in the clinic.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Humanos , Inteligência/genética , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
20.
Schizophr Bull Open ; 1(1): sgaa056, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313506

RESUMO

Visual processing abnormalities in schizophrenia (SZ) are poorly understood, yet predict functional outcomes in the disorder. Bipolar disorder (BD) may involve similar visual processing deficits. Converging evidence suggests that visual processing may be relatively normal at early stages of visual processing such as early visual cortex (EVC), but that processing abnormalities may become more pronounced by mid-level visual areas such as lateral occipital cortex (LO). However, little is known about the connectivity of the visual system in SZ and BD. If the flow of information to, from, or within the visual system is disrupted by reduced connectivity, this could help to explain perceptual deficits. In the present study, we performed a targeted analysis of the structural and functional connectivity of the visual system using graph-theoretic metrics in a sample of 48 SZ, 46 BD, and 47 control participants. Specifically, we calculated parallel measures of local efficiency for EVC and LO from both diffusion weighted imaging data (structural) and resting-state (functional) imaging data. We found no structural connectivity differences between the groups. However, there was a significant group difference in functional connectivity and a significant group-by-region interaction driven by reduced LO connectivity in SZ relative to HC, whereas BD was approximately intermediate to the other 2 groups. We replicated this pattern of results using a different brain atlas. These findings support and extend theoretical models of perceptual dysfunction in SZ, providing a framework for further investigation of visual deficits linked to functional outcomes in SZ and related disorders.

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