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2.
Br J Cancer ; 121(6): 474-482, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intratumoural T-cell infiltrate intensity cortes wrelaith clinical outcome in stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to determine whether this association varies across this heterogeneous group. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 1804 CRCs from the QUASAR2 and VICTOR trials. Intratumoural CD8+ and CD3+ densities were quantified by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray (TMA) cores, and their association with clinical outcome analysed by Cox regression. We validated our results using publicly available gene expression data in a pooled analysis of 1375 CRCs from seven independent series. RESULTS: In QUASAR2, intratumoural CD8+ was a stronger predictor of CRC recurrence than CD3+ and showed similar discriminative ability to both markers in combination. Pooled multivariable analysis of both trials showed increasing CD8+ density was associated with reduced recurrence risk independent of confounders including DNA mismatch repair deficiency, POLE mutation and chromosomal instability (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] for each two-fold increase = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.87-0.97, P = 3.6 × 10-3). This association was not uniform across risk strata defined by tumour and nodal stage: absent in low-risk (pT3,N0) cases (HR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.87-1.21, P = 0.75), modest in intermediate-risk (pT4,N0 or pT1-3,N1-2) cases (HR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.86-1.0, P = 0.046) and strong in high-risk (pT4,N1-2) cases (HR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.79-0.97, P = 9.4 × 10-3); PINTERACTION = 0.090. Analysis of tumour CD8A expression in the independent validation cohort revealed similar variation in prognostic value across risk strata (PINTERACTION = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic value of intratumoural CD8+ cell infiltration in stage II/III CRC varies across tumour and nodal risk strata.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Idoso , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactonas/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(3): 1087-1097, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The elevated levels of somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) in a subset of high-risk endometrial cancers are suggestive of defects in pathways governing genome integrity. We sought to assess the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in endometrial cancers and its association with histopathologic and molecular characteristics. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fresh tumor tissue was prospectively collected from 36 endometrial cancers, and functional HRD was examined by the ability of replicating tumor cells to accumulate RAD51 protein at DNA double-strand breaks (RAD51 foci) induced by ionizing radiation. Genomic alterations were determined by next-generation sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization/SNP array. The prevalence of BRCA-associated genomic scars, a surrogate marker for HRD, was determined in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) endometrial cancer cohort. RESULTS: Most endometrial cancers included in the final analysis (n = 25) were of non-endometrioid (52%), grade 3 (60%) histology, and FIGO stage I (72%). HRD was observed in 24% (n = 6) of cases and was restricted to non-endometrioid endometrial cancers (NEEC), with 46% of NEECs being HRD compared with none of the endometrioid endometrial cancers (EEC, P = 0.014). All but 1 of the HRD cases harbored either a pathogenic BRCA1 variant or high somatic copy-number (SCN) losses of HR genes. Analysis of TCGA cases supported these results, with BRCA-associated genomic scars present in up to 48% (63/132) of NEEC versus 12% (37/312) of EEC (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HRD occurs in endometrial cancers and is largely restricted to non-endometrioid, TP53-mutant endometrial cancers. Evaluation of HRD may help select patients that could benefit from treatments targeting this defect, including platinum compounds and PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Endométrio/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo
4.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 121, 2018 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited cancer syndrome, which predisposes individuals to a number of different cancers, principally colorectal and endometrial cancer. The early diagnosis of Lynch syndrome enables colorectal surveillance, which has been shown to save lives through the detection and removal of premalignant polyps and earlier detection of invasive disease. Endometrial cancer, which is often the sentinel cancer in women, provides an opportunity to diagnose Lynch syndrome and thus enable colorectal surveillance as well as the cascade testing for Lynch syndrome in other family members. These potential benefits have led to a call for the universal screening of women with endometrial cancer for Lynch syndrome, a practice that is now commonplace in colorectal cancer. Healthcare providers and clinicians are however restricted by insufficient knowledge about the prevalence of Lynch syndrome in women with endometrial cancer, with estimates varying as widely as 1-10%. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review with a meta-analysis of the current literature base in order to estimate the prevalence of Lynch syndrome among women with endometrial cancer to inform this discussion. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Methodology Register, NHS Health and Technology Assessment Database and the Web of Science will be systematically searched for relevant studies via the Ovid platform. Two authors will review the titles and abstracts independently, with discrepancy settled by a third author. Data extraction will be completed to record demographic, pathological and clinical data, as well as the diagnostic methods used for estimating the prevalence of Lynch syndrome in women with endometrial cancer. Bias will be assessed and recorded using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and that of the International Cochrane Collaboration. Dependent on the heterogeneity of the data, we aim to produce a cumulative incidence in addition to subgroup analyses as to investigate secondary outcomes. DISCUSSION: The aim of this systematic review is to provide a robust estimate of the prevalence of Lynch syndrome in women with endometrial cancer. This will enable resource allocation and decision-making regarding the appropriateness of screening all women, or certain women, with endometrial cancer for Lynch syndrome. Such a policy could enable the earlier diagnosis of Lynch syndrome in women and, through the application of colorectal cancer surveillance, improve their survival outcomes. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review has been registered on PROSPERO (ref CRD42017081707 ).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Prevalência
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD011572, 2017 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to minimize placebo rates in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to efficiently detect treatment differences between interventions. Historically, high placebo rates have been observed in clinical trials of ulcerative colitis (UC). A better understanding of factors influencing placebo rates may lead to more informed clinical trial design. OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate placebo response and remission rates in RCTs evaluating UC treatments in adult patients. SEARCH METHODS: Electronic databases (i.e. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL) were searched from inception to 1 March 2017 with no language restrictions applied. Reference lists and conference proceedings of major gastroenterology meetings were also handsearched to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Placebo-controlled RCTs of adult patients with UC treated with corticosteroids, aminosalicylates, immunosuppressives or biologics were eligible, provided enrolment and outcome assessment was conducted using the Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index (UCDAI) or the Mayo Clinic Score. The minimum trial duration was two weeks for induction trials and four months maintenance trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of authors independently determined study eligibility and extracted data with any disagreements resolved through consensus. Outcomes of interest included the proportion of patients with clinical response and remission. Trial characteristics such as the design, participant demographics and disease history, interventions, and enrolment and assessment criteria were also recorded. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Pooled placebo response and remission rates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using a binomial normal model for proportions. Induction of remission and maintenance studies were pooled separately. The impact of study-level characteristics on placebo response and remission rates was investigated using mixed-effects meta-regression analyses with logits of event rates as the outcome variables. An assessment of pooled placebo rates over time was conducted using a cumulative meta-analysis based on date of publication. Publication bias was examined using funnel plots. MAIN RESULTS: The screening process identified 61 included studies which encompass 58 induction phases (5111 patients randomised to placebo) and 12 maintenance phases (1579 patients randomised to placebo). For induction trials, the pooled estimate of placebo response was 33% (95% CI 30% to 36%) while the pooled estimate of placebo remission was 12% (95% CI 9% to 15%). For maintenance trials, the pooled estimate of placebo response was 23% (95% CI 19% to 28%) while the pooled estimate of placebo remission was 17% (95% CI 10% to 27%).Studies enrolling patients with more active disease confirmed objectively by endoscopy were associated with significantly lower placebo remission and response rates than trials enrolling patients with less active disease (27% versus 4%, OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.42, P = 0.01 for UCDAI endoscopy sub score ≥1 versus ≥ 2 for remission; and 27% versus 4%, OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.82, P = 0.02 for UCDAI endoscopy sub score greater than or equal to one versus greater than or equal to two for response). With respect to drug class, the lowest placebo response and remission rates were observed in trials evaluating corticosteroids (23%; 95% CI 19 to 29%, and 5%; 95% CI 2 to 11%, respectively). Trials of biologics had the highest placebo response rate (35%; 95% CI 30 to 41%), while trials evaluating aminosalicylates had the highest placebo remission rate (18%; 95% CI 12 to 24%). Disease duration of greater than five years prior to enrolment was associated with a significantly lower placebo response rate compared to disease duration of less than or equal to five years (29% versus 47%, respectively; OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.92, P = 0.02). The requirement of a minimum rectal bleeding score for study eligibility was associated with an increased placebo response rate compared to studies that did not use rectal bleeding for trial eligibility (37% versus 32%, respectively; OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.82, P = 0.02). Finally, the time point of primary outcome assessment was found to be significantly associated with placebo remission rates such that every one week increment in endpoint assessment was associated with a 6% increase in the placebo remission rate (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10, P = 0.01).Cumulative meta-analysis indicated a consistent increase in the placebo response rate from 1987 to 2007 (from 13% to 33%), although rates have remained constant from 2008 to 2015 (32% to 34%). Similarly, placebo remission rates increased from 1987 to 2007 (5% to 14%) but have remained constant from 2008 to 2015 (12 to 14%). On meta-regression, there were no statistically significant differences between the 1987-2007 and 2008-2015 point estimates for both response (P = 0.81) and remission (P = 0.32). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Placebo response and remission rates vary according to endoscopic disease severity and rectal bleeding score at trial entry, class of agent, disease duration, and the time point at which the primary outcome was measured. These observations have important implications for the design and conduct of future clinical trials in UC and will help researchers design trials, determine required sample sizes and also provide useful information about trial design features which should be considered when planning new trials.


Assuntos
Ácidos Aminossalicílicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Indução , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Adulto , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/estatística & dados numéricos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito Placebo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reto
6.
J Pathol ; 241(2): 226-235, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859368

RESUMO

Cancer predisposition syndromes are typically uncommon, monogenic, high-penetrance disorders. Despite their rarity, they have proven to be highly clinically relevant in directing cancer prevention strategies. As such, they share notable similarities with an expanding class of low-frequency somatic mutations that are associated with a striking prognostic or predictive effect in the tumours in which they occur. In this review, we highlight these commonalities, with particular reference to mutations in the proofreading domain of replicative DNA polymerases. These molecular phenotypes may occur as either germline or somatic events, and in the latter case, have been shown to confer a favourable prognosis and potential increased benefit from immune checkpoint inhibition. We note that incorporation of these variants into clinical management algorithms will help refine patient management, and that this will be further improved by the inclusion of other germline variants, such as those that determine the likelihood of benefit or toxicity from anti-neoplastic therapy. Finally, we propose that such integrated patient and tumour profiling will be essential if we are to deliver truly precision medicine for cancer patients, but in a similar way to rare germline mutations, we must ensure that we identify and utilize rare somatic mutations with strong predictive and prognostic effects. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Prognóstico
7.
J Crohns Colitis ; 10(5): 607-18, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26746169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Minimisation of the placebo responses in randomised controlled trials [RCTs] is essential for efficient evaluation of new interventions. Placebo rates have been high in ulcerative colitis [UC] clinical trials, and factors influencing this are poorly understood. We quantify placebo response and remission rates in UC RCTs and identify trial design factors influencing them. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through April 2014 for placebo-controlled trials in adult patients with UC of a biological agent, corticosteroid, immunosuppressant, or aminosalicylate. Data were independently doubly extracted. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: In all, 51 trials [48 induction and 10 maintenance phases] were identified. Placebo response and remission rates were pooled according to random-effects models, and mixed-effects meta-regression models were used to evaluate effects of study-level characteristics on these rates. Pooled estimates of placebo remission and response rates for induction trials were 10% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7-13%) and 33% [95% CI 29-37%], respectively. Corresponding values for maintenance trials were 19% [95% CI 11-30%] and 22% [95% CI 17-28%]. Trials enrolling patients with more active disease confirmed by endoscopy [endoscopy subscore ≥ 2] were associated with lower placebo rates. Conversely, placebo rates increased with increasing trial duration and number of study visits. CONCLUSIONS: Objective assessment of greater disease activity at trial entry by endoscopy lowered placebo rates, whereas increasing trial duration and more interactions with healthcare providers increased placebo rates. These findings have important implications for design and conduct of clinical trials.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Indução , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Efeito Placebo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 23(6): 540-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24608603

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal malignancies are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage and, as such, 5-year survival rates are poor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. It is now evident that miRNAs are essential for normal physiological functioning, and aberrant miRNA expression is a hallmark of human cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers. Initially seen as a very promising source of breakthroughs in cancer management, there has been little translation of miRNA science from the bench to the bedside. This review will summarize the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal malignancies. Further, it will serve to highlight the potential role of miRNAs in cancer prevention: namely their use as biomarkers and as targets for chemoprevention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/terapia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Prognóstico
9.
Pharmacol Ther ; 136(2): 131-41, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22921882

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment presents an exciting opportunity for innovative prognostic and therapeutic approaches to human cancer. The diverse cellular and extracellular contribution to tumor growth argues that prevention and cure of human cancers will result only from a multifaceted approach to cancer therapy. In this review we provide a foundation for considering the mesenchymal contribution to the tumor microenvironment. We address normal mesenchymal development, physiological interactions between the epithelium and stroma and the cellular hierarchy within these compartments. We focus on cancer-associated fibroblasts in gastrointestinal malignancy but our models have also been informed by other tumor systems. The review provides a framework for characterizing the overall biological contribution of the mesenchyme to human disease. Understanding the biological heterogeneity of specific mesenchymal cells in cancer will provide new opportunities for targeted cancer prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Actinas/análise , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
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