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1.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(9): 130, 2021 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363148

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Additional imaging modalities, such as FDG-PET/CT, have been included into the workup for patients with suspected infective endocarditis, according to major international guidelines published in 2015. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of FDG-PET/CT indications and standardized approaches in the setting of suspected infective endocarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: There are two main indications for performing FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected infective endocarditis: (i) detecting intracardiac infections and (ii) detection of (clinically silent) disseminated infectious disease. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT for intracardiac lesions depends on the presence of native valves, prosthetic valves, or implanted cardiac devices, with a sensitivity that is poor for native valve endocarditis and cardiac device-related lead infections, but much better for prosthetic valve endocarditis and cardiac device-related pocket infections. Specificity is high for all these indications. The detection of disseminated disease may also help establish the diagnosis and/or impact patient management. Based on current evidence, FDG-PET/CT should be considered for detection of disseminated disease in suspected endocarditis. Absence of intracardiac lesions on FDG-PET/CT cannot rule out native valve endocarditis, but positive findings strongly support the diagnosis. For prosthetic valve endocarditis, standard use of FDG-PET/CT is recommended because of its high sensitivity and specificity. For implanted cardiac devices, FDG-PET/CT is also recommended, but should be evaluated with careful attention to clinical context, because its sensitivity is high for pocket infections, but low for lead infections. In patients with prosthetic valves with or without additional aortic prosthesis, combination with CTA should be considered. Optimal timing of FDG-PET/CT is important, both during clinical workup and technically (i.e., post tracer injection). In addition, procedural standardization is key and encompasses patient preparation, scan acquisition, reconstruction, subsequent analysis, and clinical interpretation. The recommendations discussed here will hopefully contribute to improved standardization and enhanced performance of FDG-PET/CT in the clinical management of patients with suspected infective endocarditis.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Padrões de Referência
2.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(12): 3886-3902, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Monitoring disease activity in patients with large vessel vasculitis (LVV) can be challenging. [18F]FDG-PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate treatment response in LVV. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize the current evidence on the value of [18F]FDG-PET/CT for treatment monitoring in LVV. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane library database were searched from inception through October 21, 2020. Studies containing patients with LVV (i.e. giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis and isolated aortitis) that received treatment and underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT were included. Screening, full-text review and data extraction were performed by 2 investigators. The risk of bias was examined with the QUADAS-2 tool. Meta-analysis of proportions and diagnostic test accuracy was performed by a random-effects model and bivariate model, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included in the systematic review, of which 8 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Arterial [18F]FDG uptake decreased upon clinical remission in longitudinal studies. High heterogeneity (I2 statistic 94%) precluded meta-analysis of the proportion of patients in which the scan normalized during clinical remission. Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies indicated that [18F]FDG-PET/CT may detect relapsing/refractory disease with a sensitivity of 77% (95%CI 57-90%) and specificity of 71% (95%CI 47-87%). Substantial heterogeneity was observed among the cross-sectional studies. Both variation in clinical aspects and imaging procedures contributed to the heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Treatment of LVV leads to reduction of arterial [18F]FDG uptake during clinical remission. [18F]FDG-PET/CT has moderate diagnostic accuracy for detecting active LVV. [18F]FDG-PET/CT may aid treatment monitoring in LVV, but its findings should be interpreted in the context of the clinical suspicion of disease activity. This study underlines the relevance of published procedural recommendations for the use of [18F]FDG-PET/CT in LVV.

3.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(1): 241-253, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used for the treatment of advanced heart failure. LVADs improve quality of life and decrease mortality, but the driveline carries substantial risk for major infections. These device-related LVAD and driveline infections are difficult to diagnose with conventional imaging. We reviewed and analysed the current literature on the additive value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging for the diagnosis of LVAD-related infections." MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review using several databases from their inception until the 31st of December, 2019. Studies investigating the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected LVAD infection were retrieved. After a bias risk assessment using QUADAS-2, a study-aggregate meta-analysis was performed on a per examination-based analysis. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included in the systematic review, eight of which were also eligible for study-aggregate meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, a total of 256 FDG-PET/CT scans, examining pump/pocket and/or driveline infection, were acquired in 230 patients. Pooled sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.97) and pooled specificity was 0.91 (95% CI 0.54-0.99) for the diagnosis of device-related infection. For pump/pocket infection, sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT were 0.97 (95%CI 0.69-1.00) and 0.93 (95%CI 0.64-0.99), respectively. For driveline infection, sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 (95%CI 0.88-0.99) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.13-1.00) respectively. Significant heterogeneity existed across studies for specificity, mostly caused by differences in scan procedures. Predefined criteria for suspicion of LVAD and/or driveline infection were lacking in all included studies. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT is a valuable tool for assessment of device-related infection in LVAD patients, with high sensitivity and high, albeit variable, specificity. Standardization of FDG-PET/CT procedures and criteria for suspected device-related LVAD infections are needed for consistent reporting of FDG-PET/CT scans.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(6): 1876-1889, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) can be difficult to diagnose. Whole-body [18F]FDG-PET/CT allows for a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant articular and extra-articular structures affected by PMR. We aimed to summarize current evidence on the diagnostic value of [18F]FDG-PET/CT for a diagnosis of PMR. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library database were searched from inception through May 31, 2020. Studies containing patients with PMR who underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT were included. Screening and full-text review were performed by 3 investigators and data extraction by 2 investigators. Risk of bias was examined with the QUADAS-2 tool. Diagnostic test meta-analysis was performed with a bivariate model. RESULTS: Twenty studies were included in the systematic review, of which 9 studies (n = 636 patients) were eligible for meta-analysis. [18F]FDG positivity at the following sites was associated with a diagnosis of PMR: interspinous bursae (positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 4.00; 95% CI 1.84-8.71), hips (LR+ 2.91; 95% CI 2.09-4.05), ischial tuberosities (LR+ 2.86; 95% CI 1.91-4.28), shoulders (LR+ 2.57; 95% CI 1.24-5.32) and sternoclavicular joints (LR+ 2.31; 95% CI 1.33-4.02). Negative likelihood ratios (LR-) for these sites, as well as the greater trochanters, were all less than 0.50. Composite [18F]FDG-PET/CT scores, as reported in 3 studies, provided a pooled LR+ of 3.91 (95% CI 2.42-6.32) and LR- of 0.19 (95% CI 0.10-0.36). Moderate to high heterogeneity was observed across the studies, mainly due to differences in patient selection, scanning procedures and/or interpretation criteria. CONCLUSION: Significant [18F]FDG uptake at a combination of anatomic sites is informative for a diagnosis of PMR. [18F]FDG-PET/CT might be an important diagnostic tool in patients with suspected PMR. This study also highlights the need for adherence to published procedural recommendations and standardized interpretation criteria for the use of [18F]FDG-PET/CT in PMR.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes , Polimialgia Reumática , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Polimialgia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
5.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 22(5): 1218-1225, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285356

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer (OC) leads to poor survival rates mainly due to late stage detection and innate or acquired resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, efforts have been made to exploit the estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) to treat OC. However, patients eventually become resistant to these treatments as well. HER2 overexpression contributes to the acquired resistance to ER-targeted treatment. Trastuzumab treatment, on the other hand, can result in increased expression of ER, which, in turn, increases the sensitivity of the tumors towards anti-estrogen therapy. More insight into the crosstalk between ER and HER2 signaling could improve our knowledge about acquired resistance in ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether PET could be used to detect changes in ER expression induced by HER2-targeted treatment in vivo. PROCEDURES: Male athymic nude mice were subcutaneously (sc) inoculated with 106 SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells (HER2+/ER+). Two weeks after inoculation, tumor-bearing mice were treated intraperitoneally with either vehicle, the HER2 antibody trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, 2×/week), or the HER2-tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib (40 mg/kg, 5 days/week) for 2 weeks. Thereafter, ER expression in the tumor was assessed by PET imaging with 16α-[18F]-fluoro-17ß-estradiol ([18F]FES). Tumors were excised for ex vivo ER and HER2 measurement with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: All treatments led to smaller tumors than vehicle-treated tumors. Higher [18F]FES maximum standardize tumor uptake (SUVmax) was observed in animals treated with trastuzumab (+ 29 %, P = 0.002) or lapatinib (+ 20 %, P = 0.096) than in vehicle-treated controls. PET results were in agreement with ex vivo analyses. CONCLUSION: FES-PET imaging can detect changes in ER expression induced by HER2-targeted treatment and therefore can be used to investigate the crosstalk between ER and HER2 in a noninvasive manner.

6.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(3): 529-536, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, requiring a timely and accurate diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected PTLD and examined if lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load, or timing of FDG-PET/CT relate to detection performance of FDG-PET/CT. METHODS: This retrospective study included 91 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of PTLD and a total of 97 FDG-PET/CT scans within an 8-year period. Pathology reports and a 2-year follow-up were used as the reference standard. Diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT for detection of PTLD as well as logistic regression analysis for factors expected to affect diagnostic yield were assessed. RESULTS: The diagnosis of PTLD was established in 34 patients (35%). Fifty-seven FDG-PET/CT scans (59%) were true negative, 29 (30%) were true positive, 6 (6%) false positive, and 5 (5%) false negative. Sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of PTLD was 85%, specificity 90%, positive predictive value 83%, and negative predictive value 92%, with good inter-observer variability (k = 0.78). Of the parameters hypothesized to be associated with a true positive FDG-PET/CT result for the diagnosis of PTLD, only LDH was statistically significant (OR 1.03, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: FDG-PET/CT has a good diagnostic performance in patients suspected of PTLD, with a good inter-observer agreement. Only LDH levels seemed to influence the detection performance of FDG-PET/CT. EBV-DNA load and timing of FDG-PET/CT after transplantation did not affect FDG-PET/CT diagnostic yield.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etiologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11073, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363153

RESUMO

Semiquantitative 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) parameters have been proposed as prognostic markers in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). In non-Hodgkin lymphoma necrosis as assessed by 18F-FDG PET or computed tomography (CT) (necrosisvisual) correlates with an adverse prognosis. We investigated whether semiquantitative 18F-FDG PET metrics correlate with necrosisvisual, determined the incidence of necrosisvisual and explored the prognostic impact of these factors in cHL. From 87 cHL cases treated with ABVD, (escalated) BEACOPP or CHOP chemotherapy between 2010 and 2017, 71 had both a NEDPAS/EARL accredited 18F-FDG PET and a contrast enhanced CT scan. Semiquantitative 18F-FDG PET parameters were determined using Hermes Hybrid 3D software. Necrosisvisual, defined by photopenic tumor areas on 18F-FDG PET and attenuation values between 10 and 30 Hounsfield units (HUs) on CT, was assessed blinded to outcome. Univariate Cox regression survival analyses of progression free survival (PFS) were performed. Necrosisvisual was observed in 18.3% of cHL patients. Bulky disease (tumor mass >10 cm in any direction) (P = 0.002) and TLG (P = 0.041) but no other semiquantitative parameters were significantly associated with necrosisvisual. In exploratory univariate survival analysis for PFS the covariates IPS, bulky disease, MTV and TLG were prognostic, while necrosisvisual was not.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Necrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Sobrevida , Vincristina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
8.
EJNMMI Res ; 9(1): 82, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444658

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The use of 16α-[18F]fluoro-17ß-estradiol (FES) positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical dilemmas and for therapy decision-making in lesions expressing estrogen receptors is growing. However, on a considerable number of FES PET scans, previously performed in a research and clinical setting in our institution, FES uptake was noticed in the lungs without an oncologic substrate. We hypothesized that this uptake was related to pulmonary fibrosis as a result of radiation therapy. This descriptive study therefore aimed to investigate whether radiation therapy in the thoracic area is possibly related to enhanced pulmonary, non-tumor FES uptake. METHODS: All FES-PET/CT scans performed in our institution from 2008 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Scans from patients who had received irradiation in the thoracic area prior to the scan were compared to scans of patients who had never received irradiation in the thoracic area. The primary outcome was the presence of enhanced non-tumor FES uptake in the lungs, defined as visually increased FES uptake in the absence of an oncologic substrate on the concordant (contrast-enhanced) CT scan. All CT scans were evaluated for the presence of fibrosis or oncologic substrates. RESULTS: A total of 108 scans were analyzed: 70 scans of patients with previous irradiation in the thoracic area and 38 of patients without. Enhanced non-tumor FES uptake in the lungs was observed in 39/70 irradiated patients (56%), versus in 9/38 (24%) of non-irradiated patients. Fibrosis was present in 37 of the 48 patients with enhanced non-tumor FES uptake (77%), versus in 15 out of 60 (25%) patients without enhanced non-tumor uptake, irrespective of radiotherapy (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: After irradiation of the thorax, enhanced non-tumor uptake on FES-PET can be observed in the radiation field in a significant proportion of patients. This seems to be related to fibrosis. When observing enhanced FES uptake in the lungs, this should not be interpreted as metastases. Information on recent radiation therapy or history of pulmonary fibrosis should therefore be taken into consideration.

9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 04 11.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050271

RESUMO

Fracture-related infection (FRI) is a serious complication after fracture care and can lead to severe morbidity with loss of quality of life, a significant increase in medical expenses and loss of participation in work and social life. Early recognition, adequate surgical debridement, deep uncontaminated tissue cultures with (if indicated) soft tissue reconstruction and fracture stabilization followed by antibiotic therapy are the cornerstones of the successful management of FRI. Recently, in 2018, the AO/EBJIS consensus definition for FRI was published and both national and international working groups are being assembled and provide guidelines and tools for the care of patients with FRI. This paper is a synopsis of the Dutch guideline on FRI (2018), illustrated by a clinical case, and is aiming to provide an overview of the current knowledge on diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Desbridamento/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Infecções/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/terapia
10.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 132: 27-38, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447925

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this systematic review we evaluated the clinical performance of advanced imaging modalities at diagnosis and treatment response evaluation of PTLD patients after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: We have carried out a literature search until December 15, 2017 using PubMed/Medline, Embase, "Web of Science" and Cochrane Library databases concerning the performance of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) at diagnosis or treatment response evaluation of PTLD patients. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies were included comprising 368 patients, from which FDG-PET(/CT) was the primary imaging modality investigated. The methodological quality according to QUADAS-2 of the reviewed studies was moderate-poor. Subgroup analysis of imaging results for detection and staging in patients with PTLD indicated that FDG-PET/(CT) identified additional lesions not detected by CT and/or MRI in 27.8%, (95% confidence interval [95%CI]) 17.0%-42.0% (I2 = 51.1%), from which extra-nodal sites in 23.6% (95%CI: 7.9%-52.4%) (I2 = 76.6%). False negative results occurred in 11.5% (95%CI: 4.9%-24.5%) (I2 = 73.4%), predominantly in physiological high background activity regions and in early PTLD lesions. False positive results occurred in 4.8% (95%CI: 2.6%-8.6%) (I2 = 0%) predominantly due to inflammatory conditions. Subgroup analysis of imaging results at treatment response evaluation indicated that FDG-PET(/CT) findings altered or guided treatment in 29.0% (95%CI: 14.0%-50.5%) (I2 = 40.1%). False positive results during treatment response evaluation were reported in 20.0% (95%CI: 10.7%-34.2%) (I2 = 0%), predominantly due to inflammatory conditions. CONCLUSION: FDG-PET(/CT) is currently the most frequently investigated imaging modality in PTLD patients. Available studies report promising results in detection, staging and therapy evaluation but suffer from methodological shortcomings. Concerns remain with regard to occurrence of false negatives due to physiological high background activity and early PTLD lesions as well as false positives due to inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Transplante/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etiologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/terapia
11.
Injury ; 49(6): 1085-1090, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: White blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy for diagnosing fracture-related infections (FRIs) has only been investigated in small patient series. Aims of this study were (1) to establish the accuracy of WBC scintigraphy for diagnosing FRIs, and (2) to investigate whether the duration of the time interval between surgery and WBC scintigraphy influences its accuracy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 192 consecutive WBC scintigraphies with 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled autologous leucocytes performed for suspected peripheral FRI were included. The golden standard was based on the outcome of microbiological investigation in case of surgery, or - when these were not available - on clinical follow-up of at least six months. The discriminative ability of the imaging modalities was quantified by several measures of diagnostic accuracy. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive variables of a false-positive or false-negative WBC scintigraphy test result. RESULTS: WBC scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 0.79, a specificity of 0.97, a positive predicting value of 0.91, a negative predicting value of 0.93 and a diagnostic accuracy of 0.92 for detecting an FRI in the peripheral skeleton. The duration of the interval between surgery and the WBC scintigraphy did not influence its diagnostic accuracy; neither did concomitant use of antibiotics or NSAIDs. There were 11 patients with a false-negative (FN) WBC scintigraphy, the majority of these patients (n = 9, 82%) suffered from an infected nonunion. Four patients had a false-positive (FP) WBC scintigraphy. CONCLUSIONS: WBC scintigraphy showed a high diagnostic accuracy (0.92) for detecting FRIs in the peripheral skeleton. Duration of the time interval between surgery for the initial injury and the WBC did not influence the results which indicate that WBC scintigraphy is accurate shortly after surgery.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Infecciosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fixação de Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cintilografia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Ósseas Infecciosas/microbiologia , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Tecnécio Tc 99m Exametazima/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Semin Nucl Med ; 48(3): 225-241, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626940

RESUMO

Hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR) systems are now more and more available for clinical use. PET/MR combines the unique features of MR including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most of the evidence of the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is available for neuroimaging. Other areas, where PET/MR can play a larger role include head and neck, upper abdominal, and pelvic tumours. Although the role of PET/MR in infection and inflammation of the cardiovascular system and in musculoskeletal applications are promising, these areas of clinical investigation are still in the early phase and it may be a little longer before these areas reach their full potential in clinical practice. In this review, we outline the potential of hybrid PET/MR for imaging infection and inflammation. A background to the main radiopharmaceuticals and some technical considerations are also included.


Assuntos
Infecções/diagnóstico por imagem , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Humanos , Imagem Multimodal , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
13.
Clin Transl Imaging ; 6(1): 61-67, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568734

RESUMO

Purpose: Cyst infections are a common complication in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Diagnosing these infections often remains challenging. Conventional imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and standard magnetic resonance imaging have several drawbacks and disadvantages. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to illustrate and discuss the potential value of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT in diagnosing cyst infection in ADPKD. Methods: Exemplary (ADPKD) patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT as part of their routine clinical work-up in our institution are presented to show the potential value and drawbacks of this imaging technique in diagnosing cyst infection. In addition, the current literature and guidelines on this topic were reviewed. Results: FDG-PET/CT appears to be a sensitive method for the detection of cyst infection, but it is not infallible. Furthermore, FDG uptake in cysts and cyst-like lesions is not specific and clinical and radiological correlations are essential to improve specificity and minimize the risk of falsely discarding other diseases, in particular malignancy. Conclusion: FDG-PET/CT seems to be a useful imaging modality to diagnose cyst infections in ADPKD. However, its exact diagnostic value has not been established yet due to the lack of a reliable reference standard in previous studies on this topic.

14.
Transplant Rev (Orlando) ; 32(2): 102-109, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians use several diagnostic modalities to recognize post-transplant complications, such as acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, urologic and vascular complications. Currently, there is no consensus about the best procedural approach to evaluate post-transplant renal dysfunction. Renal needle-biopsy is often required, however, this is invasive and may lead to sample errors and complications, and most clinicians prefer using one of the noninvasive diagnostic modalities. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), Web of Science, and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles. This review provides a literature overview of the technical aspects, new developments and clinical value of renal scintigraphy (RS), after kidney transplantation. Additionally, the advantages and limitations of RS in comparison to other diagnostic modalities are addressed. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, protocol number CRD42017078391. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies were included. Studies were categorized in the following groups: tracer pharmacokinetics; acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis; vascular complications; urological complications; postoperative fluid collections; early transplant outcomes; one-year transplant outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Several studies have described the use of RS for the diagnosis of acute rejection, however, differentiating between rejection and acute tubular necrosis remains difficult. For the diagnosis of vascular complications, RS has been described as an alternative for invasive procedures. For urologic complications, studies support the use of RS in combination with routine ultrasonography (US) surveillance. For the diagnosis of postoperative fluid collections, RS provides information to differentiate lymphoceles and urinomas. Altogether, RS should be considered in case of non-acute complications, and if US provides insufficient results.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cintilografia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
15.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 44(3): 417-426, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331952

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic osteomyelitis (PTO) is a feared complication after surgical fracture care. Late diagnosis can result in interrupted and prolonged rehabilitation programmes, inability to work, medical dependency, unnecessary hospital admissions, and high medical and non-medical costs. Primary aim of this study was to assess preferred diagnostic imaging strategies for diagnosing PTO amongst orthopaedic and trauma surgeons, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians. Secondary aims were to determine the preferred serum inflammatory marker for diagnosing PTO and the existence of a local hospital protocol to diagnose and manage PTO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study utilised an online survey based on four clinical scenarios, varying from early to late onset of PTO. It was designed to assess individual practitioners' current preferred diagnostic strategy for diagnosing PTO. Eligible study participants were medical specialists and registrars in orthopaedic and trauma surgery, musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology, and nuclear medicine. RESULTS: There were 346 responders: 155 trauma surgeons, 102 orthopaedic surgeons, 57 nuclear medicine physicians, and 33 MSK radiologists. Trauma surgeons favour FDG-PET to image PTO, while orthopaedic surgeons prefer WBC scintigraphy. A similar difference was seen between radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians (MRI versus nuclear medicine imaging). CRP was regarded as the most useful serum inflammatory marker. Only one-third of all responders was aware of a local hospital protocol for the treatment of osteomyelitis. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of and awareness towards local protocols to diagnose and treat PTO is poor. The results of this study support the need for future randomised controlled trials on optimal diagnostic strategies for PTO.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Consenso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Osteomielite/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Especialização , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Neth J Med ; 75(5): 204-207, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653941

RESUMO

Two patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis within 2-4 weeks after starting treatment with nivolumab. This thyrotoxicosis turned into hypothyroidism within 6-8 weeks. Temporary treatment with a beta blocker may be sufficient.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Tireotoxicose/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe
17.
EJNMMI Res ; 6(1): 49, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27259576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human T lymphocytes infiltrating tissues in autoimmune diseases are known to express somatostatin receptors amongst other activation markers. In this study, we evaluated whether somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue ((99m)Tc-EDDA/tricine-HYNIC-tyr(3)-octreotide ((99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC)) is able to detect the presence of immune-mediated processes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome. We also aimed to evaluate whether positivity to SRS was predictive of therapeutic response and if SRS could be used for monitoring the efficacy of immunomodulatory treatment. METHODS: Eighteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome not responding to conventional treatment were recruited for treatment with infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-α. All patients had complete blood cell count, renal and liver function tests, measurements of ESR, CRP, ANA, ENA, and anti-dsDNA antibodies, functional salivary gland scintigraphy, labial biopsy, and ophthalmologic assessment with Schirmer's test and tear film break-up time (BUT). Diagnosis was made according to the revised criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. All patients underwent SRS at baseline and after 3-6 months of therapy with infliximab. Eleven out of 18 had repeat SRS images. Images of the salivary glands and major joints were acquired 3 h after injection of 370 MBq of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. Image analysis was performed semi-quantitatively. RESULTS: All patients showed uptake of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the joints. Salivary glands also showed variable radiopharmaceutical uptake in 12 out of 18 patients, but all patients showed presence of lymphocytic infiltration at labial salivary gland biopsy. All patients, who repeated the study after treatment, showed significant reduction of somatostatin uptake in the joints but not in the salivary glands. CONCLUSIONS: SRS using (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC may be a useful imaging tool to assess disease activity and extent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and may help to detect secondary Sjögren's syndrome. It may also aid therapy decision-making with anti-TNFα antibodies in the joints but not in salivary glands.

18.
Ann Oncol ; 27 Suppl 1: i23-i29, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27141066

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and novel-targeted treatment strategies have not resulted in breakthroughs for this disease. Insight into the molecular characteristics of ovarian tumors may improve diagnosis and selection of patients for treatment with targeted therapies. A potential way to achieve this is by means of molecular imaging. Generic tumor processes, such as glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) and DNA synthesis ((18)F-fluorodeoxythymidine), can be visualized non-invasively. More specific targets, such as hormone receptors, growth factor receptors, growth factors and targets of immunotherapy, can also be visualized. Molecular imaging can capture data on intra-patient tumor heterogeneity and is of potential value for individualized, target-guided treatment selection. Early changes in molecular characteristics during therapy may serve as early predictors of response. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on molecular imaging in the diagnosis and as an upfront or early predictive biomarker in patients with ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 42(4): 397-410, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26886235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early recognition of a possible infection and therefore a prompt and accurate diagnostic strategy is essential for a successful treatment of posttraumatic osteomyelitis (PTO). However, at this moment there is no single routine test available that can detect osteomyelitis beyond doubt and the performed diagnostic tests mostly depend on personal experience, available techniques and financial aspects. Nuclear medicine techniques focus on imaging pathophysiological changes which usually precede anatomical changes. Together with recent development in hybrid camera systems, leading to better spatial resolution and quantification possibilities, this provides new opportunities and possibilities for nuclear medicine modalities to play an important role in diagnosing PTO. AIM: In this overview paper the techniques and available literature results for PTO are discussed for the three most commonly used nuclear medicine techniques: the three phase bone scan (with SPECT-CT), white blood cell scintigraphy (also called leukocyte scan) with SPECT-CT and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT. Emphasis is on how these techniques are able to answer the diagnostic questions from the clinicians (trauma and orthopaedic surgeons) and which technique should be used to answer a specific question. Furthermore, three illustrative cases from clinical practice are described.


Assuntos
Medicina Nuclear , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Cintilografia , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Medicina Nuclear/tendências , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Br J Cancer ; 112(10): 1617-25, 2015 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the number of performed biopsies and costs associated with implementing positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (PET/CT) with 16α-[(18)F]fluoro-17ß-oestradiol (FES) or 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) as an upfront imaging test for diagnosing metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in comparison with the standard work-up in oestrogen receptor-positive women with symptoms. METHODS: A published computer simulation model was adapted and validated. Three follow-up strategies were evaluated in a simulated cohort of women with primary breast cancer over a 5-year-time horizon: (1) the standard work-up, (2) upfront FES-PET/CT and (3) upfront FDG-PET/CT. The main outcome was the number of avoided biopsies to assess MBC. The costs for all three strategies were calculated based on the number of imaging tests and biopsies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to avoid a biopsy was calculated only based on the costs of initial imaging and staging tests. RESULTS: The FES-PET/CT strategy decreased the number of biopsies by 39 ± 9%, while upfront FDG-PET/CT increased the number of biopsies by 38 ± 15% when compared with the standard work-up. Both PET/CT strategies reduced the number of imaging tests and false positives when compared with the standard work-up. The number of false negatives decreased only in the FES-PET/CT strategy. The ICER in the FES-PET/CT strategy per avoided biopsy was 12.1 ± 3.4 thousand Euro. In the FDG-PET/CT strategy, the costs were higher and there were no avoided biopsies as compared with the standard work-up, hence this was an inferior strategy in terms of cost effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The number of performed biopsies was lower in the FES-PET/CT strategy at an ICER of 12.1 ± 3.4 thousand Euro per biopsy avoided, whereas the application of the FDG-PET/CT did not reduce the number of biopsies and was more expensive. Whether the FES-PET/CT strategy has additional benefits for patients in terms of therapy management has to be evaluated in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Receptores de Estrogênio/biossíntese , Biópsia/economia , Biópsia/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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