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2.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(2): 186-196, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432196

RESUMO

Retrotransposons can cause somatic genome variation in the human nervous system, which is hypothesized to have relevance to brain development and neuropsychiatric disease. However, the detection of individual somatic mobile element insertions presents a difficult signal-to-noise problem. Using a machine-learning method (RetroSom) and deep whole-genome sequencing, we analyzed L1 and Alu retrotransposition in sorted neurons and glia from human brains. We characterized two brain-specific L1 insertions in neurons and glia from a donor with schizophrenia. There was anatomical distribution of the L1 insertions in neurons and glia across both hemispheres, indicating retrotransposition occurred during early embryogenesis. Both insertions were within the introns of genes (CNNM2 and FRMD4A) inside genomic loci associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Proof-of-principle experiments revealed these L1 insertions significantly reduced gene expression. These results demonstrate that RetroSom has broad applications for studies of brain development and may provide insight into the possible pathological effects of somatic retrotransposition.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Neuroglia , Neurônios , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Células HeLa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Gravidez , Retroelementos , Esquizofrenia/genética
3.
Nurs Outlook ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455815

RESUMO

Diagnostic errors are among the most common medical errors and the deadliest. The National Academy of Medicine recently concluded that diagnostic errors represent an urgent national concern. Their first recommendation to address this issue called for promoting the key role of the nurse in the diagnostic process. Registered nurses across clinical settings significantly contribute to the medical diagnostic process, though their role in diagnosis has historically gone unacknowledged. In this paper, we review the history and current state of diagnostic education in pre-licensure registered nurse preparation, introduce interprofessional individual- and team-based competencies to improve diagnostic safety, and discuss the next steps for nursing education. Nurses educated and empowered to fully participate in the diagnostic process are essential for achieving better, safer patient outcomes.

4.
Diagnosis (Berl) ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006949

RESUMO

Objectives The National Academy of Medicine identified diagnostic error as a pressing public health concern and defined failure to effectively communicate the diagnosis to patients as a diagnostic error. Leveraging Patient's Experience to improve Diagnosis (LEAPED) is a new program for measuring patient-reported diagnostic error. As a first step, we sought to assess the feasibility of using LEAPED after emergency department (ED) discharge. Methods We deployed LEAPED using a cohort design at three EDs within one academic health system. We enrolled 59 patients after ED discharge and queried them about their health status and understanding of the explanation for their health problems at 2-weeks, 1-month, and 3-months. We measured response rates and demographic/clinical predictors of patient uptake of LEAPED. Results Of those enrolled (n=59), 90% (n=53) responded to the 2-week post-ED discharge questionnaire (1 and 3-month ongoing). Of the six non-responders, one died and three were hospitalized at two weeks. The average age was 50 years (SD 16) and 64% were female; 53% were white and 41% were black. Over a fifth (23%) reported they were not given an explanation of their health problem on leaving the ED, and of those, a fourth (25%) did not have an understanding of what next steps to take after leaving the ED. Conclusions Patient uptake of LEAPED was high, suggesting that patient-report may be a feasible method of evaluating the effectiveness of diagnostic communication to patients though further testing in a broader patient population is essential. Future research should determine if LEAPED yields important insights into the quality and safety of diagnostic care.

6.
Clin Trials ; : 1740774520956969, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Electronic-based recruitment methods are increasingly utilized in clinical trials to recruit and enroll research participants. The cost-effectiveness of electronic-based methods and impact on sample generalizability is unknown. We compared recruitment yields, cost-effectiveness, and demographic characteristics across several electronic and traditional recruitment methods. METHODS: We analyzed data from the diet gout trial recruitment campaign. The diet gout trial was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial that examined the effects of a dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH)-like diet on uric acid levels in adults with gout. We used four electronic medical record and four non-electronic medical record-based recruitment methods to identify and recruit potentially eligible participants. We calculated the response rate, screening visit completion rate, and randomization rate for each method. We also determined cost per response, the screening, and randomization for each method. Finally, we compared the demographic characteristics among individuals who completed the screening visit by recruitment method. RESULTS: Of the 294 adults who responded to the recruitment campaign, 51% were identified from electronic medical record-based methods. Patient portal messaging, an electronic medical record-based method, resulted in the highest response rate (4%), screening visit completion rate (37%), and randomization rate (21%) among these eight methods. Electronic medical record-based methods ($60) were more cost-effective per response than non-electronic medical record-based methods ($107). Electronic-based methods, including patient portal messaging and Facebook, had the highest proportion of White individuals screened (52% and 60%). Direct mail to non-active patient portal increased enrollment of traditionally under-represented groups, including both women and African Americans. CONCLUSION: An electronic medical record-based recruitment strategy that utilized the electronic medical record for participant identification and postal mailing for participant outreach was cost-effective and increased participation of under-represented groups. This hybrid strategy represents a promising approach to improve the timely execution and broad generalizability of future clinical trials.

8.
Ecol Appl ; : e02211, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750183

RESUMO

Warming climate and resulting declines in seasonal snowpack have been associated with drought stress and tree mortality in seasonally snow-covered watersheds worldwide. Meanwhile, increasing forest density has further exacerbated drought stress due to intensified tree-tree competition. Using a uniquely detailed data set of population-level forest growth (n = 2,495 sampled trees), we examined how inter-annual variability in growth relates to snow volume across a range of forest densities (e.g., competitive environments) in sites spanning a broad aridity gradient across the United States. Forest growth was positively related to snowpack in water-limited forests located at low latitude, and this relationship was intensified by forest density. However, forest growth was negatively related to snowpack in a higher latitude more energy-limited forest, and this relationship did not interact with forest density. Future reductions in snowpack may have contrasting consequences, as growth may respond positively in energy-limited forests and negatively in water-limited forests; however, these declines may be mitigated by reducing stand density through forest thinning.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152472

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated functional and molecular changes in hippocampal subfields in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) psychosis associated with hippocampal excitability. In this study, we use RNA-seq and assess global transcriptome changes in the hippocampal subfields, DG, CA3, and CA1 from individuals with SZ psychosis and controls to elucidate subfield-relevant molecular changes. We also examine changes in gene expression due to antipsychotic medication in the hippocampal subfields from our SZ ON- and OFF-antipsychotic medication cohort. We identify unique subfield-specific molecular profiles in schizophrenia postmortem samples compared with controls, implicating astrocytes in DG, immune mechanisms in CA3, and synaptic scaling in CA1. We show a unique pattern of subfield-specific effects by antipsychotic medication on gene expression levels with scant overlap of genes differentially expressed by SZ disease effect versus medication effect. These hippocampal subfield changes serve to confirm and extend our previous model of SZ and can explain the lack of full efficacy of conventional antipsychotic medication on SZ symptomatology. With future characterization using single-cell studies, the identified distinct molecular profiles of the DG, CA3, and CA1 in SZ psychosis may serve to identify further potential hippocampal-based therapeutic targets.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4553, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165708

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is a common cancer in women worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, up to 30% of women eventually relapse and die of metastatic breast cancer. Liquid biopsy analysis of circulating cell-free DNA fragments in the patients' blood can monitor clonality and evolving mutations as a surrogate for tumour biopsy. Next generation sequencing platforms and digital droplet PCR can be used to profile circulating tumour DNA from liquid biopsies; however, they are expensive and time consuming for clinical use. Here, we report a novel strategy with proof-of-concept data that supports the usage of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect PIK3CA c.3140 A > G (H1047R), a prevalent BC missense mutation that is attributed to BC tumour growth. Allele-specific primers were designed and optimized to detect the p.H1047R variant following the USS-sbLAMP method. The assay was developed with synthetic DNA templates and validated with DNA from two breast cancer cell-lines and two patient tumour tissue samples through a qPCR instrument and finally piloted on an ISFET enabled microchip. This work sets a foundation for BC mutational profiling on a Lab-on-Chip device, to help the early detection of patient relapse and to monitor efficacy of systemic therapies for personalised cancer patient management.

11.
J Patient Saf ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a pressing need for nurses to contribute as equals to the diagnostic process. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe the contributing factors in diagnosis-related and failure-to-monitor malpractice claims in which nurses are named the primary responsible party and (b) to describe actions healthcare leaders can take to enhance the role of nurses in diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a review of the Controlled Risk Insurance Company Strategies' repository of malpractice claims, which contain approximately 30% of United States claims. We analyzed the malpractice claims related to diagnosis (n = 139) and physiologic monitoring (n = 647) naming nurses as the primary responsible party from 2007 to 2016. We used logistic regression to determine the association of contributing factors to likelihood of death, indemnity, and expenses incurred. RESULTS: Diagnosis-related cases listing communication among providers as a contributing factor were associated with a significantly higher likelihood of death (odds ratio [OR] = 3.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.50-6.03). Physiologic monitoring cases listing communication among providers as a contributing factor were associated with significantly higher likelihood of death (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.49-3.27), higher indemnity incurred (U.S. $86,781, 95% CI = $18,058-$175,505), and higher expenses incurred (U.S. $20,575, 95% CI = $3685-$37,465). CONCLUSIONS: Nurses are held legally accountable for their role in diagnosis. Raising system-wide awareness of the critical role and responsibility of nurses in the diagnostic process and enhancing nurses' knowledge and skill to fulfill those responsibilities are essential to improving diagnosis.

12.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 31(1): 153-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037324

RESUMO

In the U.S., 54.8% of non-Hispanic Black women are obese, a rate that is 1.4 times greater than in White women. The drivers of this racial disparity are not yet clearly understood. We sought to disentangle race, household poverty, neighborhood racial composition, and neighborhood poverty to better understand the racial disparity in obesity among women. We used data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the 2000 U.S. Census to examine the role of individual race, individual poverty, neighborhood racial composition, and neighborhood poverty on women's risk of obesity. We found that individual race was the primary risk factor for obesity among women. Neighborhood effects did not account for the racial disparity. Understanding that race is a social, not a biologic construct, more work is needed to uncover what it is about race that produces racial disparities in obesity among women.

13.
Clin Trials ; 17(1): 30-38, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cost-efficient methods are essential for successful participant recruitment in clinical trials. Patient portal messages are an emerging means of recruiting potentially eligible patients into trials. We assessed the response rate and complaint rate from direct-to-patient, targeted recruitment through patient portals of an electronic medical record for a clinical trial, and compared response rates by differences in message content. METHODS: The Study to Understand Fall Reduction and Vitamin D in You (STURDY) trial is a National Institutes of Health-sponsored, community-based study of vitamin D supplementation for fall prevention in older adults conducted at Johns Hopkins. Potential participants were identified using the Epic electronic medical record at the Johns Hopkins Health System based on age (≥70 years), ZIP code (30-mile radius of study site), and prior activation of a patient portal account. We prepared a shorter message and a longer message. Both had basic information about study participation, but the longer message also contained information about the significance of the study and a personal invitation from the STURDY principal investigator. The Hopkins Institutional Review Board did not require prior consent from the patient or their providers. We calculated the response rate and tracked the number of complaints and requests for removal from future messages. We also determined response rate according to message content. RESULTS: Of the 5.5 million individuals receiving care at the Johns Hopkins Health System, a sample of 6896 met our inclusion criteria and were sent one patient portal recruitment message between 6 April 2017 and 3 August 2017. Assessment of enrollment by this method ended on 1 December 2017. There were 116 patients who expressed interest in the study (response rate: 1.7%). Twelve (0.2%) recipients were randomized. There were two complaints (0.03%) and one request to unsubscribe from future recruitment messages (0.01%). Response rate was higher with the longer message than the shorter message (2.1% vs 1.2%; p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Patient portal messages inviting seniors to participate in a randomized controlled trial resulted in a response rate similar to commercial email marketing and resulted in very few complaints or opt-out requests. Furthermore, a longer message with more content enhanced response rate. Recruitment through patient portals might be an effective strategy to enroll trial participants.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Portais do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Correio Eletrônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
14.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 6(4): e15038, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the advent of electronic health record (EHR) systems, there is increasing attention on the EHR system with regard to its use in facilitating patients to play active roles in their care via secure patient portals. However, there is no systematic review to comprehensively address patient portal interventions and patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to synthesize evidence with regard to the characteristics and psychobehavioral and clinical outcomes of patient portal interventions. METHODS: In November 2018, we conducted searches in 3 electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and a total of 24 articles met the eligibility criteria. RESULTS: All but 3 studies were conducted in the United States. The types of study designs varied, and samples predominantly involved non-Hispanic white and highly educated patients with sizes ranging from 50 to 22,703. Most of the portal interventions used tailored alerts or educational resources tailored to the patient's condition. Patient portal interventions lead to improvements in a wide range of psychobehavioral outcomes, such as health knowledge, self-efficacy, decision making, medication adherence, and preventive service use. Effects of patient portal interventions on clinical outcomes including blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and weight loss were mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Patient portal interventions were overall effective in improving a few psychological outcomes, medication adherence, and preventive service use. There was insufficient evidence to support the use of patient portals to improve clinical outcomes. Understanding the role of patient portals as an effective intervention strategy is an essential step to encourage patients to be actively engaged in their health care.

15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 149, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, and despite the introduction of new screening programmes, therapies and monitoring technologies, there is still a need to develop more useful tests for monitoring treatment response and to inform clinical decision making. The purpose of this study was to compare circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumour cells (CTCs) with conventional breast cancer blood biomarkers (CA15-3 and alkaline phosphatase (AP)) as predictors of response to treatment and prognosis in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS: One hundred ninety-four female patients with radiologically confirmed MBC were recruited to the study. Total cfDNA levels were determined by qPCR and compared with CELLSEARCH® CTC counts and CA15-3 and alkaline phosphatase (AP) values. Blood biomarker data were compared with conventional tumour markers, treatment(s) and response as assessed by RECIST and survival. Non-parametric statistical hypothesis tests were used to examine differences, correlation analysis and linear regression to determine correlation and to describe its effects, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) to estimate the strength of the relationship between biomarkers and clinical outcomes and value normalization against standard deviation to make biomarker values comparable. Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression models were used to assess survival. Univariate and multivariate models were performed where appropriate. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that both the amount of total cfDNA (p value = 0.024, HR = 1.199, CI = 1.024-1.405) and the number of CTCs (p value = 0.001, HR = 1.243, CI = 1.088-1.421) are predictors of overall survival (OS), whereas total cfDNA levels is the sole predictor for progression-free survival (PFS) (p value = 0.042, HR = 1.193, CI = 1.007-1.415) and disease response when comparing response to non-response to treatment (HR = 15.917, HR = 12.481 for univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively). Lastly, combined analysis of CTCs and cfDNA is more informative than the combination of two conventional biomarkers (CA15-3 and AP) for prediction of OS. CONCLUSION: Measurement of total cfDNA levels, which is a simpler and less expensive biomarker than CTC counts, is associated with PFS, OS and response in MBC, suggesting potential clinical application of a cheap and simple blood-based test.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Biópsia Líquida , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 26(11): 1209-1217, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study sought to characterize institution-wide participation in secure messaging (SM) at a large academic health network, describe our experience with electronic medical record (EMR)-based cohort selection, and discuss the potential roles of SM for research recruitment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study teams defined eligibility criteria to create a computable phenotype, structured EMR data, to identify and recruit participants. Patients with SM accounts matching this phenotype received recruitment messages. We compared demographic characteristics across SM users and the overall health system. We also tabulated SM activation and use, characteristics of individual studies, and efficacy of the recruitment methods. RESULTS: Of the 1 308 820 patients in the health network, 40% had active SM accounts. SM users had a greater proportion of white and non-Hispanic patients than nonactive SM users id. Among the studies included (n = 13), 77% recruited participants with a specific disease or condition. All studies used demographic criteria for their phenotype, while 46% (n = 6) used demographic, disease, and healthcare utilization criteria. The average SM response rate was 2.9%, with higher rates among condition-specific (3.4%) vs general health (1.4%) studies. Those studies with a more inclusive comprehensive phenotype had a higher response rate. DISCUSSION: Target population and EMR queries (computable phenotypes) affect recruitment efficacy and should be considered when designing an EMR-based recruitment strategy. CONCLUSIONS: SM guided by EMR-based cohort selection is a promising approach to identify and enroll research participants. Efforts to increase the number of active SM users and response rate should be implemented to enhance the effectiveness of this recruitment strategy.

17.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(9): 730-743, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms leading to schizophrenia are likely to be diverse. However, there may be common pathophysiological pathways for subtypes of the disease. The authors tested the hypothesis that increased protein insolubility and ubiquitination underlie the pathophysiology for a subtype of schizophrenia. METHODS: Prefrontal cortex and superior temporal gyrus from postmortem brains of individuals with and without schizophrenia were subjected to cold sarkosyl fractionation, separating proteins into soluble and insoluble fractions. Protein insolubility and ubiquitin levels were quantified for each insoluble fraction, with normalization to total homogenate protein. Mass spectrometry analysis was then performed to identify the protein contents of the insoluble fractions. The potential biological relevance of the detected proteins was assessed using Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS: A subset of the schizophrenia brains showed an increase in protein insolubility and ubiquitination in the insoluble fraction. Mass spectrometry of the insoluble fraction revealed that brains with increased insolubility and ubiquitination exhibited a similar peptide expression by principal component analysis. The proteins that were significantly altered in the insoluble fraction were enriched for pathways relating to axon target recognition as well as nervous system development and function. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a pathological process related to protein insolubility for a subset of patients with schizophrenia. Determining the molecular mechanism of this subtype of schizophrenia could lead to a better understanding of the pathways underlying the clinical phenotype in some patients with major mental illness as well as to improved nosology and identification of novel therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Western Blotting , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Risperidona/farmacologia , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Solubilidade , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Ubiquitinação
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2026, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048696

RESUMO

Forest fires are increasing across the American West due to climate warming and fire suppression. Accelerated snow melt occurs in burned forests due to increased light transmission through the canopy and decreased snow albedo from deposition of light-absorbing impurities. Using satellite observations, we document up to an annual 9% growth in western forests burned since 1984, and 5 day earlier snow disappearance persisting for >10 years following fire. Here, we show that black carbon and burned woody debris darkens the snowpack and lowers snow albedo for 15 winters following fire, using measurements of snow collected from seven forested sites that burned between 2002 and 2016. We estimate a 372 to 443% increase in solar energy absorbed by snowpacks occurred beneath charred forests over the past two decades, with enhanced post-fire radiative forcing in 2018 causing earlier melt and snow disappearance in > 11% of forests in the western seasonal snow zone.

19.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 156, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Fuld Fellows Program provides selected pre-licensure nursing students with a foundation in the science of patient safety, quality improvement and leadership through coursework and a mentored experience working on a quality improvement project. We evaluated this program's impact on Fellows' patient safety competence and systems thinking. METHODS: Cohorts I-VI (n = 116) completed pre-post program evaluation that included measurement of patient safety competence through the Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey (H-PEPSS) and systems thinking using the Systems Thinking Scale. Pre- and post-program H-PEPSS and Systems Thinking Scale scores were compared using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. The Fellows were compared to non-Fellows on patient safety competence and systems thinking using t-tests. RESULTS: Patient safety competence on all H-PEPSS scales improved from baseline to end of program: teamwork (2.6 to 3.1), communication (2.1 to 3.2), managing risk (2.2 to 3.3), human environment (2.8 to 3.7), recognize and respond to risk (2.7 to 3.6), and culture (2.9 to 3.8) (p < 0.05). The Fellows, in comparison to the non-Fellows, reported a significantly higher (p < 0.05) mean change score in five of the six H-PEPSS subscales. Fellows' mean systems thinking score increased from 66 ± 7 at baseline to 70 ± 6 at program completion (p < 0.05), this mean post completion score was significantly higher than the non-Fellows reported mean STS score of 62 ± 7. CONCLUSION: The Fuld Fellows Program effectively facilitated patient safety and quality improvement and systems thinking learning among pre-licensure nursing students. This program can serve as a model for integrating quality and safety concepts into health professionals' curricula.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Currículo , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Liderança , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Inovação Organizacional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
20.
Heart ; 105(21): 1642-1648, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Women report higher atrial fibrillation (AF) symptom severity and receive less AF therapies than their male counterparts. It is understudied if differences in AF therapies received explains sex differences in AF symptom severity. We investigate the impact of sex and AF therapies on patient-reported outcomes. METHODS: Participants were recruited (n=953) across four academic medical centres with an AF diagnosis and age ≥18 years. Patient-reported outcomes (AF symptom severity, AF-related quality of life, functional status and emotional status) were determined by biannual surveys. We performed multiple linear regressions on propensity-matched cohorts to determine the association of AF therapies and sex on patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Our study population (n=953) was 65% male (n=616), 93% white (n=890) and 72 (±10) years old. Individuals receiving rate control therapy reported comparatively lower AF-related quality of life (-7.22, 95% CI -11.51 to -2.92) and poorer functional status (-3.69, 95% CI -5.27 to -2.12). Individuals receiving rhythm control strategies did not report significantly different patient-reported outcomes. Women were more likely to report poorer functional status (-2.63, 95% CI -3.86 to -1.40) and poorer AF-related quality of life, higher anxiety (2.33, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.59), higher symptoms of depression (1.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.65) and AF symptom severity (0.29, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Female sex was associated with comparatively poorer AF symptom severity and quality of life, and this association remained after accounting for AF therapies received. Receiving rate control medication alone was associated with comparatively poorer AF-related quality of life and functional status.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
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