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1.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(10): 5582-5591, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795909

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluated operative mortalities following adult cardiac surgical operations to determine if this metric remains appropriate for the modern era. Methods: This was a retrospective review of Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) indexed adult cardiac operations that included coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), aortic valve replacement (AVR), CABG + AVR, mitral valve repair (MVr), CABG + MVr, mitral valve replacement (MVR) and CABG + MVR, performed at a single institution between 2011 and 2017. The primary outcome was the timing and relatedness of operation mortality, as defined by the STS as mortality within 30-day or during the index hospitalization, compared to the index operation. The secondary outcomes evaluated cause of death and the rates of postoperative complications. Results: A total of 11,190 index cardiac operations were performed during the study period and operative mortality occurred in 246 (2.2%) of patients. The distribution of operative mortalities included 83.7% (n=206) who expired within 30-day while an inpatient, 6.9% (n=17) died within 30-day as an outpatient, 11.2% (n=23) expired after 30-day. The most common causes of operative mortality were cardiac (38.7%, n=92), renal failure (15.6%, n=37), and strokes (13.9%, n=33). Furthermore, 98.4% (n=242) of deaths were attributable to the index operation. Postoperative complications occurred frequently in those with operative mortality, with blood transfusions (80.1%), reoperations (65.0%) and prolonged ventilation (62.2%) being most common. Conclusions: Most of the operative mortalities seemed to be attributable to the index cardiac operation. We believe that the current definition of mortality remains appropriate in the modern era.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678289
3.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 11(4): 1002-1012, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527523

RESUMO

Background: Readmissions following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are common but detailed analysis of cardiac and non-cardiac inpatient readmissions beyond thirty days to different levels of care are limited. Methods: Our study population was 1,037 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR between 2011-2017 within a multi-hospital quaternary health system. A retrospective chart review was performed and readmissions were adjudicated and classified based on primary readmission diagnosis (cardiac versus noncardiac) and level of care [intensive care unit (ICU) admission vs. non-ICU admission]. Incidence, causes, and outcomes of readmissions to up to three years post procedure were evaluated. Results: Of the 1,017 patients who survived their index hospitalization, there were readmissions due to noncardiac causes in 350 (34.4%) and cardiac causes in 208 (20.5%) during a mean 1.96 years of follow-up. The most common non-cardiac causes of readmission were sepsis/infection (14.3%), gastrointestinal (8.3%), and respiratory (4.8%), whereas heart failure (14.0%) and arrhythmias (4.6%) were the most common cardiac causes of readmission. A total of 191 (18.8%) patients were readmitted to the ICU and 372 patients (36.6%) were non-ICU readmissions. The risk of a noncardiac readmission was highest in the period immediately following TAVR (~4.5% per month) with an early high hazard phase that gradually declined over months. However, the risk of cardiac readmission remained stable at ~1% per month throughout. TAVR patients that were readmitted for any cause had markedly increased mortality; this was especially true for patients readmitted to an ICU. Conclusions: In TAVR patients who survived their index hospitalization, non-cardiac readmissions were more prevalent than cardiac. The risk of readmission and subsequent mortality was highest immediately post-procedure and declined thereafter. Readmission to ICU portends the highest risk of subsequent death in this cohort. Patient baseline co-morbidities are an important consideration for TAVR patients and play a significant role in readmissions and outcomes.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e020368, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581194

RESUMO

Background Data comparing the frequency and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) after transcatheter (TAVR) to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) are scarce. The objective of this study is to compare the incidence and outcomes of IE after TAVR using a supra-annular, self-expanding platform (CoreValve and Evolut) to SAVR. Methods and Results Data of 3 randomized clinical trials comparing TAVR to SAVR and a prospective continued TAVR access study were pooled. IE was defined on the basis of the modified Duke criteria. The cumulative incidence of IE was determined by modeling the cause-specific hazard. Estimates of all-cause mortality were calculated by means of the Kaplan-Meier method. Outcomes are reported for the valve-implant cohort. During a mean follow-up time of 2.17±1.51 years, 12 (0.5%) of 2249 patients undergoing TAVR and 21 (1.1%) of 1828 patients undergoing SAVR developed IE. Patients with IE more frequently had diabetes mellitus than those without (57.6% versus 34.2%; P=0.005). The cumulative incidence of IE was 1.01% (95% CI, 0.47%-1.96%) after TAVR and 1.58% (95% CI, 0.97%-2.46%) after SAVR (P=0.047) at 5 years. Among patients with IE, the rate of all-cause mortality was 27.3% (95% CI, 1.0%-53.6%) in the TAVR and 51.8% (95% CI, 28.2%-75.3%) in the SAVR group at 1 year (log-rank P=0.15). Conclusions Pooled prospectively collected data comparing TAVR with a supra-annular, self-expanding device to SAVR showed a low cumulative risk of IE irrespective of treatment modality, although the risk was lower in the TAVR implant group. Once IE occurred, mortality was high. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01240902, NCT01586910, NCT02701283.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) during aortic arch reconstruction with hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) to predict early (<48 hours) adverse neurologic events (ANE; stroke or transient ischemic attack) and operative mortality. METHODS: This was an observational study of aortic arch surgeries requiring HCA from 2010 to 2018. Patients were monitored with electroencephalogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). Baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared according to presence or absence of IONM changes, which were defined as any acute variation in SSEP or EEG, compared with baseline. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of IONM changes with operative mortality and early ANE. RESULTS: A total of 563 patients underwent aortic arch reconstruction with HCA and IONM. Of these, 119 (21.1%) patients had an IONM change, whereas 444 (78.9%) did not. Patients with IONM changes had increased operative mortality (22.7% vs 4.3%) and increased early ANE (10.9% vs 2.9%). In multivariable analysis, SSEP changes were correlated with early ANE (odds ratio [OR], 4.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-14.56; P = .008), whereas EEG changes were not (P = .532). Permanent SSEP changes were correlated with early ANE (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.51-13.77; P = .007), whereas temperature-related SSEP changes were not (P = .997). Finally, any IONM change (either SSEP or EEG) was correlated with operative mortality (OR, 5.82; 95% CI, 2.72-12.49; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal IONM events during aortic arch reconstruction with HCA portend worse neurologic outcomes and operative mortality and have a negative predictive value of 97.1%. SSEP might be more sensitive than EEG for predicting early ANE, especially when SSEP changes are permanent.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146671

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze outcomes of patients aged 70 years or above presenting with type A acute aortic dissection (TAAAD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A retrospective analysis of the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) was conducted. Patients aged 70 years or above (n = 1449) were stratified according to presence or absence of CVA before surgery (CVA: n = 110, 7.6%). In-hospital outcomes and mortality up to 5 years were analyzed. Additionally, in-hospital outcomes of patients who received medical management were described. No patient presenting with CVA over the age of 87 years underwent surgery. The rates of in-hospital mortality and post-operative CVA were significantly higher in patients presenting with CVA (in-hospital mortality: 32.7% vs 21.7%, P = 0.008; post-operative CVA: 23.4% vs 8.3%, P < 0.001). Presence of CVA was independently associated with significantly increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval 1.35 - 6.60, P = 0.007). In survivors of the hospital stay, presenting CVA had no independent influence on mortality up to 5 years (hazard ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 0.99 - 2.31, P = 0.54). In medically managed patients, exceedingly high rates of in-hospital mortality (71.4%) and CVA (90.9%) were noted. Patients presenting with TAAAD and CVA at ≥ 70 years of age are at significantly increased risk of in-hospital mortality, although long-term mortality is not affected in hospital survivors. Medical management is associated with poor outcomes. We believe that surgical management should be offered after critical assessment of comorbidities.

8.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(5): 2874-2884, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164179

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluates anticoagulation management and its impact on longitudinal clinical outcomes in patients undergoing mechanical valve replacement. Methods: Patients undergoing mechanical mitral valve replacement (MVR) or aortic valve replacement (AVR) from 2010-2018 at a single center were included. Patients were stratified into therapeutic and non-therapeutic anticoagulation groups based on the median percentage of international normalized ratio (INR) values within the reference range (2.0-3.0 for AVR, 2.5-3.5 for MVR) during the first post-operative year. Using Cox regression analysis, comorbidity-adjusted survival and freedom from adverse events were compared. Results: Six hundred and fifty-one patients underwent mechanical valve replacement (166 MVR, 485 AVR). Comorbidity-adjusted survival was similar in the MVR and AVR cohorts (P=0.23). There was a median of 27 [interquartile range (IQR): 14-42] INRs drawn per patient in the first post-operative year. The median percentage of INRs within the reference values during the first post-operative year was 42.85% (IQR: 30.77-53.95%), with the majority of non-therapeutic INRs being subtherapeutic (34.51%; n=6,864). There were no significant differences in adjusted survival between the therapeutic and non-therapeutic groups [hazard ratio (HR): 1.12, P=0.73]. Within the first post-operative year, there were no significant differences in stroke, major bleeding, peripheral non-stroke arterial thromboembolism, and readmission for intravenous heparin in the therapeutic and non-therapeutic groups. Conclusions: Taking into account relevant comorbidities and valve type, patients with a larger proportion of non-therapeutic INRs during the first post-operative year demonstrated no difference in longitudinal clinical outcomes. Further research into more standardized INR monitoring and potentially expanded INR target ranges for patients undergoing mechanical valve replacement is warranted.

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worse outcomes have been reported for women with type A acute aortic dissection (TAAD). We sought to determine sex-specific operative approaches and outcomes for TAAD in the current era. METHODS: The Interventional Cohort (IVC) of the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) database was queried to explore sex differences in presentation, operative approach, and outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify adjusted outcomes in relation to sex. RESULTS: Women constituted approximately one-third (34.3%) of the 2823 patients and were significantly older than men (65.4 vs 58.6 years, P < .001). Women were more likely to present with intramural hematoma, periaortic hematoma, or complete or partial false lumen thrombosis (all P < .05) and more commonly had hypotension or coma (P = .001). Men underwent a greater proportion of Bentall, complete arch, and elephant trunk procedures (all P < .01). In-hospital mortality during the study period was higher in women (16.7% vs 13.8%, P = .039). After adjustment, female sex trended towards higher in-hospital mortality overall (odds ratio, 1.40; P = .053) but not in the last decade of enrollment (odds ratio, 0.93; P = .807). Five-year mortality and reintervention rates were not significantly different between the sexes. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality remains higher among women with TAAD but demonstrates improvement in the last decade. Significant differences in presentation were noted in women, including older age, distinct imaging findings, and greater evidence of malperfusion. Although no distinctions in 5-year mortality or reintervention were observed, a tailored surgical approach should be considered to reduce sex disparities in early mortality rates for TAAD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984483

RESUMO

Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is common in the setting of type A aortic dissection (TAAD) repair. Here, we evaluated the association between prosthesis choice and patient outcomes in an international patient cohort. We reviewed data from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) interventional cohort to examine the relationship between valve choice and short- and mid-term patient outcomes. Between January 1996 and March 2016, 1290 surgically treated patients with TAAD were entered into the IRAD interventional cohort. Of those, 364 patients undergoing TAAD repair underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR; mean age, 57 years). The mechanical valve cohort consisted of 189 patients, of which 151 (79.9%) had a root replacement. The nonmechanical valve cohort consisted of 5 patients who received homografts and 160 patients who received a biologic AVR, with a total of 118 (71.5%) patients who underwent root replacements. The mean follow-up time was 2.92 ± 1.75 years overall (2.46 ± 1.69 years for the mechanical valve cohort and 3.48 ± 1.8 years for the nonmechanical valve cohort). After propensity matching, Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4-year survival rates after surgery were 64.8% in the mechanical valve group compared with 74.7% in the nonmechanical valve group (p = 0.921). A stratified Cox model for 4-year mortality showed no difference in hazard between valve types after adjusting for the propensity score (p = 0.854). A biologic valve is a reasonable option in patients with TAAD who require AVR. Although this option avoids the potential risks of anticoagulation, long-term follow up is necessary to assess the effect of reoperations or transcatheter interventions for structural valve degeneration.

11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials have shown that transcatheter aortic valve replacement is noninferior to surgery in low surgical risk patients. We compared outcomes in patients treated with a sutured (stented or stentless) or sutureless surgical valve from the Evolut Low Risk Trial. METHODS: The Evolut Low Risk Trial enrolled patients with severe aortic stenosis and low surgical risk. Patients were randomized to self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement or surgery. Use of sutureless or sutured valves was at the surgeons' discretion. RESULTS: Six hundred eighty patients underwent surgical aortic valve implantation (205 sutureless, 475 sutured). The Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 30-day safety composite endpoint was similar in the sutureless and sutured group (10.8% vs 11.0%, P = .93). All-cause mortality between groups was similar at 30 days (0.5% vs 1.5%, P = .28) and 1 year (3.3% vs 2.6%, P = .74). Disabling stroke was also similar at 30 days (2.0% vs 1.5%, P = .65) and 1 year (2.6% vs 2.2%, P = .76). Permanent pacemaker implantation at 30 days was significantly higher in the sutureless compared with the sutured group (14.4% vs 2.9%, P < .001). Aortic valve-related hospitalizations occurred more often at 1 year with sutureless valves (9.1% vs 5.1%, P = .04). Mean gradients 1 year after sutureless and sutured aortic valve replacement were 9.9 ± 4.2 versus 11.7 ± 4.7 mm Hg (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among low-risk patients, sutureless versus sutured valve use did not demonstrate a benefit in terms of 30-day complications and produced marginally better hemodynamics but with an increased rate of pacemaker implantation and valve-related hospitalizations.

12.
Circ Res ; 128(9): 1398-1417, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914604

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular disease requiring valve replacement. Valve replacement therapies have undergone progressive evolution since the 1960s. Over the last 20 years, transcatheter aortic valve replacement has radically transformed the care of aortic stenosis, such that it is now the treatment of choice for many, particularly elderly, patients. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, indications for intervention, and current therapeutic options for aortic stenosis.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report long-term outcomes after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with or without perioperative blood or blood products. METHODS: All patients who underwent proximal aortic surgery with DHCA from 2011 to 2018 were propensity matched according to baseline characteristics. Primary outcomes included short- and long-term mortality. Stratified Cox regression analysis was performed for significant associations with survival. RESULTS: A total of 824 patients underwent aortic replacement requiring circulatory arrest. After matching, there were 224 patients in each arm (transfusion and no transfusion). All baseline characteristics were well matched, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) <0.1. Preoperative hematocrit (41.0 vs 40.6; SMD = 0.05) and ejection fraction (57.5% vs 57.0%; SMD = 0.08) were similar between the no transfusion and blood product transfusion cohorts. Rate of aortic dissection (42.9% vs 45.1%; SMD = 0.05), hemiarch replacement (70.1% vs 70.1%; SMD = 0.00), and total arch replacement (21.9% vs 23.2%; SMD = 0.03) were not statistically different. Cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp time were higher in the blood product transfusion cohort (P < .001). Operative mortality (9.4% vs 2.7%; P = .003), stroke (7.6% vs 1.3%; P = .001), reoperation rate, pneumonia, prolonged ventilation, and dialysis requirements were significantly higher in the transfusion cohort (P < .001). In stratified Cox regression, transfusion was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio, 2.62 [confidence interval, 1.47-4.67]; P = .001). One- and 5-year survival were significantly reduced for the transfusion cohort (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent aortic surgery with DHCA, perioperative transfusions were associated with poor outcomes despite matching for preoperative baseline characteristics.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814174
15.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 33(4): 1027-1034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600994

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of hospital readmissions within 30-days of discharge, on long-term postoperative outcomes. All patients who underwent cardiac surgery from 2011 - 2018 were included. Patients who had transcatheter procedures, VAD, and transplant were excluded. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) propensity scoring was used for population risk adjustment. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify association with long-term mortality and readmission. The total risk adjusted (propensity scoring with IPTW) patient population consisted of 14,538 patients divided into those who were not readmitted in 30-days (nonreadmitted) (n = 12,627) and patients who were readmitted within 30-days (30-day readmitted) (n = 1911). Following IPTW, all baseline characteristics and postoperative complications were equivalent between cohorts (SMD <0.10). Patients who required intraoperative [OR 1.178 (1.05, 1.32); P = 0.006] and postoperative [1.32 (1.18, 1.48); P < 0.001] blood transfusions were at greater risk for 30-day readmission. Median follow-up period was 4.19 years (2.45 - 6.10). The 30-day readmission cohort had a significantly higher mortality risk during early (6 months) follow-up [HR 2.49 (2.01-3.10); P < 0.001] and late (60 months) follow-up [HR 1.30 (1.16-1.47); P < 0.001]. After risk adjustment, the 30-day readmission cohort was significantly associated with increased mortality over the study follow-up period [HR 1.62 (1.48, 1.78); P < 0.001]. 30-day readmissions were an independent predictor of subsequent long-term hospital readmission [HR 1.61 (1.50, 1.73); P < 0.001]. Patients who require 30-day readmissions following cardiac surgery are at increased risk of long-term mortality and repeat readmissions. Early postoperative hospital readmission may be a marker for worse long-term outcomes in cardiac surgery.

17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(6): 1968-1974, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) continues to gain momentum with current-generation balloon-expandable (BE) Edwards SAPIEN 3 (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) and self-expandable (SE) Medtronic Evolut valves (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN). Safety and efficacy of each device has been studied independently but head-to-head comparisons remain limited. METHODS: The institutional database was used to identify patients undergoing TAVR with BE and SE systems through transfemoral access between 2015 and 2018. Patients with an alternative access were excluded. Multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare baseline risk-adjusted 30-day Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 variables and midterm outcomes, including survival, stroke, and readmission rates. RESULTS: A total of 294 BE (52.2%) and 269 SE (47.8%) valves were implanted. BE cohort was predominantly male (59.9% vs 33.1%, P < .001), with a larger body surface area (1.9 m2 vs 1.8 m2, P < .001), fewer prior aortic valve replacements (3.7% vs 10.0%, P = .003), and a lower Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality score (4.9% vs 6.7%, P < .001). After risk adjustment, SE patients had a higher propensity of ischemic stroke at 30 days (6.0% vs 1.4%, P = .015) but were comparable in other Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 variables, including mortality (1.7% vs 3.4%, P = .474), pacemaker (12.7% vs 15.2%, P = .162), and moderate paravalvular leak (1.8% vs 3.2%, P = .165). Over the midterm, SE and BE were comparable in mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.24; P = .269), all-cause readmission (aHR, 0.92; P = .576), and stroke rate (aHR, 1.97; P = .061). CONCLUSIONS: Midterm outcomes of both valve types were comparable despite a higher risk of short-term stroke for the SE cohort. Select patients may benefit from one valve type over another based on clinical and anatomic risk factors.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(2): 546-554, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a known association between need for transfusion and short-term outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However long-term data are lacking in the contemporary literature. METHODS: All patients who underwent open cardiac surgery from 2010 to 2018 were included, except those undergoing transplant, with a ventricular-assist device, and requiring circulatory arrest. Primary outcome included short- and long-term mortality. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complications and hospital readmissions. RESULTS: The total patient population included 14,281 patients with a median follow-up of 4.03 years (range, 2.25-6.1). Outcomes were stratified into patients with (n = 6239) or without (n = 8042) packed red blood cell (PRBC) use. Patients with PRBC transfusions had significantly (P < .001) worse postoperative outcomes compared with those without PRBC use, including higher operative mortality (6.89% vs 0.98%), return to the operating room (17.8% vs 1.61%), pneumonia (7.84% vs 0.98%), stroke (3.22% vs 1.51%), sepsis (2.66% vs 0.20%), renal failure (8.42% vs 1.12%), and dialysis (5.74% vs 0.42%). On multivariate analysis PRBC transfusion was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [[HR], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-2.64; P < .001) and hospital readmission (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.21; P < .001). Total units of PRBCs were directly associated with mortality (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.08-1.09; P < .001) and hospital readmissions (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .005). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with perioperative PRBC transfusions have increased operative and long-term mortality and hospital readmissions. Total units of PRBCs transfused were directly associated with mortality and readmissions.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(2): 582-588, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated our institutional experience in forming a surgeon-based committee to discuss and provide consensus opinion on high-risk cardiac surgical cases. METHODS: The committee consisted of 4 surgeons with at least 1 senior surgeon at any given time with a rotating schedule. Patients with a Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality above specified thresholds were mandated for referral to the committee in addition to patients referred at the discretion of the surgeon. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to model survival. RESULTS: A total of 110 consecutive patients were reviewed by the committee. The most common procedure types for referral were isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (47.3%; n = 52) and coronary artery bypass grafting with concomitant aortic valve replacement (19.1%; n = 21). The overall median Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality for referred patients was 5.35% (interquartile range, 4.07%-7.89%). After group discussion, a total of 62 patients were recommended to proceed with surgery (56.4%). Reasons for declining surgery included consensus that an intervention was not indicated (39.6%; n = 19), that an alternative, nonsurgical procedure was recommended (29.2%; n = 14), that there was continued medical management and reevaluation (18.8%; n = 9), and that the patient was deemed at too high a risk for surgery (12.5%; n = 6). Operative mortality in patients proceeding with surgery was 4.6% (n = 2), with an observed-to-expected mortality of 0.86. The 6-month survival after surgery was 92.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a surgeon-based committee to discuss high-risk cases provided a unified voice to referring physicians and facilitated consensus decision-making with acceptable clinical outcomes in a challenging patient cohort.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Competência Clínica , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Cirurgiões/normas , Idoso , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(5): 1520-1528, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as the preferred alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in elderly patients. However, the long-term outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing TAVR are unknown. METHODS: Octogenarian and nonagenarian patients undergoing TAVR from 2011 to 2018 were identified from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for baseline-adjusted outcome comparison and risk prediction. Survival was compared with age and gender-matched population from the Social Security Actuarial Life Table. RESULTS: A total of 649 (54.4%) octogenarians and 157 (13.2%) nonagenarians underwent TAVR. Nonagenarians had a lower body mass index (P < .001), smaller BSA (P < .001), and a lower prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = .023) but a higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (P < .001). The majority of nonagenarians and octogenarians were treated using self-expandable valves (60.3% vs 60.9%; P = .888) via transfemoral access (86.0% vs 81.0%; P = .148). At 30 days, 1 year, and 4 years, there was no difference in survival (95.5%, 80.3%, and 51.2% vs 96.9%, 87.4, and 57.6%, respectively) (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.8; P = .205) and hospital readmissions for cardiac causes (7.9%, 25.7%, and 53.7% vs 10.3%, 27.9%, and 52.0%, respectively) (adjusted HR, 0.9; P = .488). Further, nonagenarians had a survival comparable to an age-matched and sex-matched U.S. population (P = .540). Post-TAVR paravalvular leak (HRs: 3.23 [P = .042] vs 2.66 [P = .032]) and anemia (HRs: 0.64 [P = .002] vs 0.80 [P = .004]) were associated with worse outcomes at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: TAVR can be performed safely in nonagenarians, with comparable outcomes to younger patients approximating natural life expectancy. This age paradox should strengthen the role of TAVR in well selected nonagenarians by the heart team.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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