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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057572

RESUMO

Stressful environments have been associated with earlier menarche. We hypothesized that anxiety, and possibly other internalizing symptoms, are also associated with earlier puberty in girls. The LEGACY Girls Study (2011-2016) includes 1040 girls aged 6 to 13 years at recruitment with growth and development assessed every 6 months. Pre-pubertal maternal reports of daughter's internalizing symptoms were available for breast onset (N=447), pubic hair onset (N=456), and menarche (N=681). Using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression, we estimated prospective hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship between one standard deviation of the percentiles of pre-pubertal anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms and the timing of each pubertal outcome. Multivariable models included age, race/ethnicity, study center, maternal education, body mass index percentile, and breast cancer family history. Additional models included maternal self-reported anxiety. One standard deviation increase of maternally-reported anxiety in girls at baseline was associated with earlier subsequent onset of breast (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09-1.36) and pubic hair (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.30) development, but not menarche (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07). The association of anxiety with earlier breast development persisted after adjustment for maternal anxiety. Increased anxiety in young girls may indicate risk for earlier pubertal onset.

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(4): 418-422, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584660

RESUMO

The performance of breast cancer risk models for women with a family history but negative BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation test results is uncertain. We calculated the cumulative 10-year invasive breast cancer risk at cohort entry for 14 657 unaffected women (96.1% had an affected relative) not known to carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations at baseline using three pedigree-based models (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm, BRCAPRO, and International Breast Cancer Intervention Study). During follow-up, 482 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Mutation testing was conducted independent of incident cancers. All models underpredicted risk by 26.3%-56.7% for women who tested negative but whose relatives had not been tested (n = 1363; 63 breast cancers). Although replication studies with larger sample sizes are needed, until these models are recalibrated for women who test negative and have no relatives tested, caution should be used when considering changing the breast cancer risk management intensity of such women based on risk estimates from these models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cancer Res ; 80(1): 116-125, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578201

RESUMO

Although physical activity is associated with lower breast cancer risk for average-risk women, it is not known if this association applies to women at high familial/genetic risk. We examined the association of recreational physical activity (self-reported by questionnaire) with breast cancer risk using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, which is enriched with women who have a breast cancer family history (N = 15,550). We examined associations of adult and adolescent recreational physical activity (quintiles of age-adjusted total metabolic equivalents per week) with breast cancer risk using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. We tested for multiplicative interactions of physical activity with predicted absolute breast cancer familial risk based on pedigree data and with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status. Baseline recreational physical activity level in the highest four quintiles compared with the lowest quintile was associated with a 20% lower breast cancer risk (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.93). The association was not modified by familial risk or BRCA mutation status (P interactions >0.05). No overall association was found for adolescent recreational physical activity. Recreational physical activity in adulthood may lower breast cancer risk for women across the spectrum of familial risk. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that physical activity might reduce breast cancer risk by about 20% for women across the risk continuum, including women at higher-than-average risk due to their family history or genetic susceptibility.See related commentary by Niehoff et al., p. 23.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(4): pkz066, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853515

RESUMO

Background: iPrevent is an online breast cancer (BC) risk management decision support tool. It uses an internal switching algorithm, based on a woman's risk factor data, to estimate her absolute BC risk using either the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS) version 7.02, or Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm version 3 models, and then provides tailored risk management information. This study assessed the accuracy of the 10-year risk estimates using prospective data. Methods: iPrevent-assigned 10-year invasive BC risk was calculated for 15 732 women aged 20-70 years and without BC at recruitment to the Prospective Family Study Cohort. Calibration, the ratio of the expected (E) number of BCs to the observed (O) number and discriminatory accuracy were assessed. Results: During the 10 years of follow-up, 619 women (3.9%) developed BC compared with 702 expected (E/O = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.05 to 1.23). For women younger than 50 years, 50 years and older, and BRCA1/2-mutation carriers and noncarriers, E/O was 1.04 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.16), 1.24 (95% CI = 1.11 to 1.39), 1.13 (95% CI = 0.96 to 1.34), and 1.13 (95% CI = 1.04 to 1.24), respectively. The C-statistic was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.73) overall and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.77), 0.63 (95% CI = 0.59 to 0.66), 0.59 (95% CI = 0.53 to 0.64), and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.63 to 0.68), respectively, for the subgroups above. Applying the newer IBIS version 8.0b in the iPrevent switching algorithm improved calibration overall (E/O = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.15) and in all subgroups, without changing discriminatory accuracy. Conclusions: For 10-year BC risk, iPrevent had good discriminatory accuracy overall and was well calibrated for women aged younger than 50 years. Calibration may be improved in the future by incorporating IBIS version 8.0b.

6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 128, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC), but it is unclear whether these associations vary by a woman's familial BC risk. METHODS: Using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, we evaluated associations between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and BC risk. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We examined whether associations were modified by familial risk profile (FRP), defined as the 1-year incidence of BC predicted by Breast Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA), a pedigree-based algorithm. RESULTS: We observed 1009 incident BC cases in 17,435 women during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. We found no overall association of smoking or alcohol consumption with BC risk (current smokers compared with never smokers HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85-1.23; consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week compared with non-regular drinkers HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92-1.32), but we did observe differences in associations based on FRP and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Women with lower FRP had an increased risk of ER-positive BC associated with consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week (compared to non-regular drinkers), whereas there was no association for women with higher FRP. For example, women at the 10th percentile of FRP (5-year BOADICEA = 0.15%) had an estimated HR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.07-1.99), whereas there was no association for women at the 90th percentile (5-year BOADICEA = 4.2%) (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.80-1.44). While the associations with smoking were not modified by FRP, we observed a positive multiplicative interaction by FRP (pinteraction = 0.01) for smoking status in women who also consumed alcohol, but not in women who were non-regular drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased BC risk, particularly for women with ER-positive BC, but only for those at lower predicted familial BC risk (5-year BOADICEA < 1.25). For women with a high FRP (5-year BOADICEA ≥ 6.5%) who also consumed alcohol, being a current smoker was associated with increased BC risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Vigilância da População
8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 52, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk, but it is not known if this association extends to women at familial or genetic risk. We examined the association between regular NSAID use and breast cancer risk using a large cohort of women selected for breast cancer family history, including 1054 BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We analyzed a prospective cohort (N = 5606) and a larger combined, retrospective and prospective, cohort (N = 8233) of women who were aged 18 to 79 years, enrolled before June 30, 2011, with follow-up questionnaire data on medication history. The prospective cohort was further restricted to women without breast cancer when medication history was asked by questionnaire. Women were recruited from seven study centers in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Associations were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, family history, and other medication use. Women were classified as regular or non-regular users of aspirin, COX-2 inhibitors, ibuprofen and other NSAIDs, and acetaminophen (control) based on self-report at follow-up of ever using the medication for at least twice a week for ≥1 month prior to breast cancer diagnosis. The main outcome was incident invasive breast cancer, based on self- or relative-report (81% confirmed pathologically). RESULTS: From fully adjusted analyses, regular aspirin use was associated with a 39% and 37% reduced risk of breast cancer in the prospective (HR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.33-1.14) and combined cohorts (HR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.57-0.71), respectively. Regular use of COX-2 inhibitors was associated with a 61% and 71% reduced risk of breast cancer (prospective HR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.15-0.97; combined HR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.23-0.38). Other NSAIDs and acetaminophen were not associated with breast cancer risk in either cohort. Associations were not modified by familial risk, and consistent patterns were found by BRCA1 and BRCA2 carrier status, estrogen receptor status, and attained age. CONCLUSION: Regular use of aspirin and COX-2 inhibitors might reduce breast cancer risk for women at familial or genetic risk.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(4): 504-517, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Independent validation is essential to justify use of models of breast cancer risk prediction and inform decisions about prevention options and screening. Few independent validations had been done using cohorts for common breast cancer risk prediction models, and those that have been done had small sample sizes and short follow-up periods, and used earlier versions of the prediction tools. We aimed to validate the relative performance of four commonly used models of breast cancer risk and assess the effect of limited data input on each one's performance. METHODS: In this validation study, we used the Breast Cancer Prospective Family Study Cohort (ProF-SC), which includes 18 856 women from Australia, Canada, and the USA who did not have breast cancer at recruitment, between March 17, 1992, and June 29, 2011. We selected women from the cohort who were 20-70 years old and had no previous history of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy or ovarian cancer, at least 2 months of follow-up data, and information available about family history of breast cancer. We used this selected cohort to calculate 10-year risk scores and compare four models of breast cancer risk prediction: the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm model (BOADICEA), BRCAPRO, the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT), and the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study model (IBIS). We compared model calibration based on the ratio of the expected number of breast cancer cases to the observed number of breast cancer cases in the cohort, and on the basis of their discriminatory ability to separate those who will and will not have breast cancer diagnosed within 10 years as measured with the concordance statistic (C-statistic). We did subgroup analyses to compare the performance of the models at 10 years in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (ie, BRCA-positive women), tested non-carriers and untested participants (ie, BRCA-negative women), and participants younger than 50 years at recruitment. We also assessed the effect that limited data input (eg, restriction of the amount of family history and non-genetic information included) had on the models' performance. FINDINGS: After median follow-up of 11·1 years (IQR 6·0-14·4), 619 (4%) of 15 732 women selected from the ProF-SC cohort study were prospectively diagnosed with breast cancer after recruitment, of whom 519 (84%) had histologically confirmed disease. BOADICEA and IBIS were well calibrated in the overall validation cohort, whereas BRCAPRO and BCRAT underpredicted risk (ratio of expected cases to observed cases 1·05 [95% CI 0·97-1·14] for BOADICEA, 1·03 [0·96-1·12] for IBIS, 0·59 [0·55-0·64] for BRCAPRO, and 0·79 [0·73-0·85] for BRCAT). The estimated C-statistics for the complete validation cohort were 0·70 (95% CI 0·68-0·72) for BOADICEA, 0·71 (0·69-0·73) for IBIS, 0·68 (0·65-0·70) for BRCAPRO, and 0·60 (0·58-0·62) for BCRAT. In subgroup analyses by BRCA mutation status, the ratio of expected to observed cases for BRCA-negative women was 1·02 (95% CI 0·93-1·12) for BOADICEA, 1·00 (0·92-1·10) for IBIS, 0·53 (0·49-0·58) for BRCAPRO, and 0·97 (0·89-1·06) for BCRAT. For BRCA-positive participants, BOADICEA and IBIS were well calibrated, but BRCAPRO underpredicted risk (ratio of expected to observed cases 1·17 [95% CI 0·99-1·38] for BOADICEA, 1·14 [0·96-1·35] for IBIS, and 0·80 [0·68-0·95] for BRCAPRO). We noted similar patterns of calibration for women younger than 50 years at recruitment. Finally, BOADICEA and IBIS predictive scores were not appreciably affected by limiting input data to family history for first-degree and second-degree relatives. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that models that include multigenerational family history, such as BOADICEA and IBIS, have better ability to predict breast cancer risk, even for women at average or below-average risk of breast cancer. Although BOADICEA and IBIS performed similarly, further improvements in the accuracy of predictions could be possible with hybrid models that incorporate the polygenic risk component of BOADICEA and the non-family-history risk factors included in IBIS. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium, Cancer Australia, National Breast Cancer Foundation, Queensland Cancer Fund, Cancer Councils of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia, and Cancer Foundation of Western Australia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Calibragem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 370-379, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725480

RESUMO

Benign breast disease (BBD) is an established breast cancer (BC) risk factor, but it is unclear whether the magnitude of the association applies to women at familial or genetic risk. This information is needed to improve BC risk assessment in clinical settings. Using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, we used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of BBD with BC risk. We also examined whether the association with BBD differed by underlying familial risk profile (FRP), calculated using absolute risk estimates from the Breast Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) model. During 176,756 person-years of follow-up (median: 10.9 years, maximum: 23.7) of 17,154 women unaffected with BC at baseline, we observed 968 incident cases of BC. A total of 4,704 (27%) women reported a history of BBD diagnosis at baseline. A history of BBD was associated with a greater risk of BC: HR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.14-1.50), and did not differ by underlying FRP, with HRs of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.11-1.65), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.00-1.60), and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.01-1.93), for categories of full-lifetime BOADICEA score <20%, 20 to <35%, ≥35%, respectively. There was no difference in the association for women with BRCA1 mutations (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58), women with BRCA2 mutations (HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.78-2.3) or for women without a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13-1.53) (pinteraction = 0.95). Women with a history of BBD have an increased risk of BC that is independent of, and multiplies, their underlying familial and genetic risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Doenças Mamárias/complicações , Doenças Mamárias/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Community Genet ; 10(1): 109-120, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804257

RESUMO

The Human Genome Project and the continuing advances in DNA sequencing technology have ushered in a new era in genomic medicine. Successful translation of genomic medicine into clinical care will require that providers of this information are aware of the level of understanding, attitudes, perceived risks, benefits, and concerns of their patients. We used a mixed methods approach to conduct in-depth interviews with participants in the NCI-funded Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR). Our goal was to gain a better understanding of attitudes towards different types and amounts of genomic information, current interest in pursuing genomic testing, and perceived risks and benefits. We interviewed 32 women from the six BCFR sites in the USA, Canada, and Australia. In this sample of women with a personal or family history of breast cancer, we found high acknowledgement of the potential of genetics/genomics to improve their own health and that of their family members through lifestyle changes or alterations in their medical management. Respondents were more familiar with cancer genetics than the genetics of other diseases. Concerns about the testing itself included a potential sense of loss of control over health, feelings of guilt on passing on a mutation to a child, loss of privacy and confidentiality, questions about the test accuracy, and the potential uncertainty of the significance of test results. These data provide important insights into attitudes about the introduction of increasingly complex genetic testing, to inform interventions to prepare individuals for the introduction of this new technology into their clinical care.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(3): 331-334, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496449

RESUMO

There remains debate about whether risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), which reduces ovarian cancer risk, also reduces breast cancer risk. We examined the association between RRSO and breast cancer risk using a prospective cohort of 17 917 women unaffected with breast cancer at baseline (7.2% known carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations). During a median follow-up of 10.7 years, 1046 women were diagnosed with incident breast cancer. Modeling RRSO as a time-varying exposure, there was no association with breast cancer risk overall (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87 to 1.24) or by tertiles of predicted absolute risk based on family history (HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.47, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.70 to 1.26, and HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.39, for lowest, middle, and highest tertile of risk, respectively) or for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers when examined separately. There was also no association after accounting for hormone therapy use after RRSO. These findings suggest that RRSO should not be considered efficacious for reducing breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ovariectomia/métodos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 132, 2018 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of breast cancer depends on time of life, but it is unknown whether this association depends on a woman's familial risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of a cohort enriched for familial risk consisting of 16,035 women from 6701 families in the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cunningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer followed for up to 20 years (mean 10.5 years). There were 896 incident breast cancers (mean age at diagnosis 55.7 years). We used Cox regression to model BMI risk associations as a function of menopausal status, age, and underlying familial risk based on pedigree data using the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA), all measured at baseline. RESULTS: The strength and direction of the BMI risk association depended on baseline menopausal status (P < 0.001); after adjusting for menopausal status, the association did not depend on age at baseline (P = 0.6). In terms of absolute risk, the negative association with BMI for premenopausal women has a much smaller influence than the positive association with BMI for postmenopausal women. Women at higher familial risk have a much larger difference in absolute risk depending on their BMI than women at lower familial risk. CONCLUSIONS: The greater a woman's familial risk, the greater the influence of BMI on her absolute postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Given that age-adjusted BMI is correlated across adulthood, maintaining a healthy weight throughout adult life is particularly important for women with a family history of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychooncology ; 27(11): 2645-2653, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women with a family history of breast cancer (BC) often overestimate their BC risk. Heightened psychological distress may interfere with risk comprehension and screening adherence. The primary purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a 12-week manual-based supportive-expressive (SE) group intervention for this population. METHODS: Using a randomized control trial design, this study compared two interventions: a standard risk-counseling arm (RC) compared with that plus SE group intervention. The primary study outcome was BC anxiety. Secondary outcomes included psychosocial functioning, risk comprehension, BC knowledge, and screening behaviors. RESULTS: A total of 161 women with a family history of BC were randomized into SE (N = 108) or RC (N = 53). Participants in both study arms significantly improved on measures of BC anxiety, psychosocial functioning, risk comprehension, and BC knowledge, with no statistical difference between study arms. Benefits were sustained at 1 year. BC screening rates were high in both arms at baseline and follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: SE group therapy as an added intervention to the risk counseling was well-received, however, did not demonstrate superiority to RC alone. Future studies on treatment matching are needed to further our understanding of interventions that can support women with a family history of BC to work through residual issues, including loss and grief.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Aconselhamento/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Risco , Grupos de Autoajuda , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(6): 1814-1822, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232439

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.22, P = 0.03). We observed no association for ER-negative cases (HR = 1.00, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% CI 0.89-1.13, P = 0.95). Conclusions: Our findings suggest a causal effect of increased BMI on reduced breast cancer survival for ER-positive breast cancer. There is no evidence of a causal effect of higher BMI on survival for ER-negative breast cancer cases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Causalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Cancer Res ; 77(11): 2789-2799, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283652

RESUMO

Breast cancer risks conferred by many germline missense variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, often referred to as variants of uncertain significance (VUS), have not been established. In this study, associations between 19 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 missense substitution variants and breast cancer risk were investigated through a breast cancer case-control study using genotyping data from 38 studies of predominantly European ancestry (41,890 cases and 41,607 controls) and nine studies of Asian ancestry (6,269 cases and 6,624 controls). The BRCA2 c.9104A>C, p.Tyr3035Ser (OR = 2.52; P = 0.04), and BRCA1 c.5096G>A, p.Arg1699Gln (OR = 4.29; P = 0.009) variant were associated with moderately increased risks of breast cancer among Europeans, whereas BRCA2 c.7522G>A, p.Gly2508Ser (OR = 2.68; P = 0.004), and c.8187G>T, p.Lys2729Asn (OR = 1.4; P = 0.004) were associated with moderate and low risks of breast cancer among Asians. Functional characterization of the BRCA2 variants using four quantitative assays showed reduced BRCA2 activity for p.Tyr3035Ser compared with wild-type. Overall, our results show how BRCA2 missense variants that influence protein function can confer clinically relevant, moderately increased risks of breast cancer, with potential implications for risk management guidelines in women with these specific variants. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2789-99. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Idoso , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Risco
17.
Oncotarget ; 8(11): 18381-18398, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179588

RESUMO

TP53 overexpression is indicative of somatic TP53 mutations and associates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis in breast cancer. We utilized a two-stage SNP association study to detect variants associated with breast cancer survival in a TP53-dependent manner. Initially, a genome-wide study (n = 575 cases) was conducted to discover candidate SNPs for genotyping and validation in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The SNPs were then tested for interaction with tumor TP53 status (n = 4,610) and anthracycline treatment (n = 17,828). For SNPs interacting with anthracycline treatment, siRNA knockdown experiments were carried out to validate candidate genes.In the test for interaction between SNP genotype and TP53 status, we identified one locus, represented by rs10916264 (p(interaction) = 3.44 × 10-5; FDR-adjusted p = 0.0011) in estrogen receptor (ER) positive cases. The rs10916264 AA genotype associated with worse survival among cases with ER-positive, TP53-positive tumors (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36, 95% confidence interval [C.I] 1.45 - 3.82). This is a cis-eQTL locus for FBXO28 and TP53BP2; expression levels of these genes were associated with patient survival specifically in ER-positive, TP53-mutated tumors. Additionally, the SNP rs798755 was associated with survival in interaction with anthracycline treatment (p(interaction) = 9.57 × 10-5, FDR-adjusted p = 0.0130). RNAi-based depletion of a predicted regulatory target gene, FAM53A, indicated that this gene can modulate doxorubicin sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines.If confirmed in independent data sets, these results may be of clinical relevance in the development of prognostic and predictive marker panels for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 19(1): 12, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tanner staging (TS), a five-stage classification indicating no breast tissue (TS1) to full breast development (TS5), is used both in health research and clinical care to assess the onset of breast development (TS2) and duration in each stage. Currently, TS is measured both visually and through palpation but non-invasive methods will improve comparisons across settings. METHODS: We used optical spectroscopy (OS) measures from 102 girls at the Ontario site of the LEGACY girls study (average age 12 years, range 10.0-15.4 years) to determine whether breast tissue optical properties map to each TS. We further examined whether these properties differed by age, body mass index (BMI), and breast cancer risk score (BCRS) by examining the major principal components (PC). RESULTS: Age and BMI increased linearly with increasing TS. Eight PCs explained 99.9% of the variation in OS data. Unlike the linear increase with age and BMI, OS components had distinct patterns by TS: the onset of breast development (TS1 to TS2) was marked by elevation of PC3 scores indicating an increase in adipose tissue and decrease in signal from the pectoral muscle; transition to TS3 was marked by elevation of PC6 and PC7 and decline of PC2 scores indicating an increase in glandular or dense tissue; and transition to TS4+ by decline of PC2 scores representing a further increase in glandular tissue relative to adipose tissue. Of the eight PCs, three component scores (PC4, PC5, and PC8) remained in the best-fitting model of BCRS, suggesting different levels of collagen in the breast tissue by BCRS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that serial measures of OS, a non-invasive assessment of breast tissue characteristics, can be used as an objective outcome that does not rely on visual inspection or palpation, for studying drivers of breast development.


Assuntos
Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imagem Óptica , Puberdade , Maturidade Sexual , Análise Espectral , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Vigilância da População , Curva ROC , Análise Espectral/métodos
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36874, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27845421

RESUMO

NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the relation between rs2735383 and susceptibility to breast cancer is not yet clear. Therefore, we genotyped rs2735383 in 1,170 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 1,077 controls using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis, but found no association between rs2735383CC and breast cancer risk (OR = 1.214, 95% CI = 0.936-1.574, P = 0.144). Because we could not exclude a small effect size due to a limited sample size, we further analyzed imputed rs2735383 genotypes (r2 > 0.999) of 47,640 breast cancer cases and 46,656 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). However, rs2735383CC was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in European (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 0.969-1.060, P = 0.556) nor in Asian women (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.905-1.100, P = 0.961). Subgroup analyses by age, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, number of pregnancies, breast feeding, family history and receptor status also did not reveal a significant association. This study therefore does not support the involvement of the genotype at NBS1 rs2735383 in breast cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Alelos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 112, 2016 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27836010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers have inherited a single (heterozygous) mutation. Transheterozygotes (TH) who have inherited deleterious mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are rare, and the consequences of transheterozygosity are poorly understood. METHODS: From 32,295 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we identified 93 TH (0.3 %). "Cases" were defined as TH, and "controls" were single mutations at BRCA1 (SH1) or BRCA2 (SH2). Matched SH1 "controls" carried a BRCA1 mutation found in the TH "case". Matched SH2 "controls" carried a BRCA2 mutation found in the TH "case". After matching the TH carriers with SH1 or SH2, 91 TH were matched to 9316 SH1, and 89 TH were matched to 3370 SH2. RESULTS: The majority of TH (45.2 %) involved the three common Jewish mutations. TH were more likely than SH1 and SH2 women to have been ever diagnosed with breast cancer (BC; p = 0.002). TH were more likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC) than SH2 (p = 0.017), but not SH1. Age at BC diagnosis was the same in TH vs. SH1 (p = 0.231), but was on average 4.5 years younger in TH than in SH2 (p < 0.001). BC in TH was more likely to be estrogen receptor (ER) positive (p = 0.010) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive (p = 0.013) than in SH1, but less likely to be ER positive (p < 0.001) or PR positive (p = 0.012) than SH2. Among 15 tumors from TH patients, there was no clear pattern of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for BRCA1 or BRCA2 in either BC or OC. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that clinical TH phenotypes resemble SH1. However, TH breast tumor marker characteristics are phenotypically intermediate to SH1 and SH2.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Vigilância da População , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
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